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福州做结扎手术去哪比较好龙岩去那家医院检查输卵管南平哪里有做试管男孩 Income inequality is a hot topic in Washington. President Barack Obama is expected to highlight inequality and economic mobility in his State of the Union address Tuesday.在华盛顿,收入失衡是个热点话题。总统奥巴马(Barack Obama)预计将在周二的国情咨文(State of the Union)演讲中强调失衡现象以及经济流动性。One factor he likely won#39;t discuss: Income inequality has gotten worse in past decades in part because college-educated, high-earning men and women are more likely to marry each other, rather than get hitched to partners with divergent education or wage levels.他可能不会提及的一大要点是,过去数十年来收入越发失衡的原因之一在于,受过高等教育、薪资不菲的男女结为夫妇的可能性更高,教育背景、薪资水平差距很大的两人则不太可能走到一起。A research paper -- by University of Pennsylvania economist Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner, a research professor at Markets, Organizations and Votes in Economics (MOVE), a research institute based in Barcelona; University of Konstanz economist Georgi Kocharkov; and University of Mannheim economist Cezar Santos -- tracks trends from 1960 to 2005.宾夕法尼亚州立大学(University of Pennsylvania)经济学家Jeremy Greenwood、巴塞罗那研究机构Markets, Organizations and Votes in Economics (MOVE)研究教授Nezih Guner、德国康斯坦茨大学(University of Konstanz)经济学家Georgi Kocharkov以及曼海姆大学(University of Mannheim)经济学家Cezar Santos联合进行了一项研究,追踪1960年至2005年间人们的择偶趋势。The paper, #39;Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality, #39; finds that the rise of women in the workforce and a growing tendency to find a partner from a similar educational and professional background is exacerbating income trends.这篇名为;Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality;(《人以群分:选择性择偶与收入失衡》)的研究报告指出,随着越来越多的女性加入劳动力大军,人们更倾向于选择一个教育、专业背景与己接近的配偶,这加剧了收入差距的悬殊。The upshot: The rich are getting richer. In 1960, a household in the top 10% earned about three-and-a-half times the mean U.S. income. In 2005, that had jumped to more than four times the mean.关键在于,有钱的人越来越有钱。1960年,最富有的10%家庭的收入大约是平均值的3.5倍;2005年,这一比例扩大至4倍多。For the bottom 10%, the situation has deteriorated. In 1960, such a household earned 16% of mean income. By 2005, that was down to 8%.而对于最贫困的那10%而言,情况变得更加糟糕。1960年,这类家庭的收入等于平均值的0.16倍;到了2005年,其收入与平均值之比降到了8%。#39;Incomes are more polarized in 2005, #39; the paper says. #39;The change in wages across individuals is the primary driver of this increase in income inequality.#39;研究报告指出,2005年收入更趋两极化,个人工资的变动是收入差距扩大的主要推手。The authors don#39;t offer a solution. They do note that if marriages followed the same patterns as in 1960 there would be a significant reduction in income inequality.研究者没有给出一种解决方案。但他们指出,如果人们的择偶模式回到1960年,那么收入差距将被极大缩窄。#39;So, if people matched in 2005 according to the standardized mating pattern observed in 1960, which showed less positive assortative matching, then income inequality would drop because income is more diversified across husband and wife, #39; the paper says.报告称,假若2005年的人们也像1960年那样根据某一标准化的择偶模式来结合、而不是今天这种“门当户对”的精挑细选型婚配,那么收入失衡现象将减轻,因为夫妻俩的收入将更加多元。 /201402/275686There#39;s no time like the present to make sure all your estate-planning ducks are in a row.没有什么时候比当下更适宜准备,确保你的遗产规划不出任何乱子。For many people, the words #39;estate planning#39; may conjure up thoughts of large inheritances and tax shelters. But planning #39;isn#39;t just about death and taxes; it#39;s also about what happens if you get very sick and live,#39; says G. Mark Shalloway, a West Palm Beach, Fla., attorney who specializes in elder law.一说到“遗产规划”这个词,很多人可能就会想起大额的遗产和各种避税手段。但佛罗里达州西棕榈滩专攻老年法的律师马克#12539;夏洛威(G. Mark Shalloway)说,遗产规划“不只关系到死亡和税赋,也关系到你活着的时候生大病的问题”。Here#39;s are the four estate-planning documents everyone needs:以下是人人都需要的四份遗产规划文书:1 A will.1. 遗嘱Many people think they don#39;t need a will. But sitting down with a lawyer and completing a will is the best way to ensure your wishes will be fulfilled--and to avoid leaving anything up to the courts.很多人都觉得自己不需要遗嘱。但咨询律师并填写一份遗嘱是确保所有愿望都得到实现的最好办法,也是避免把某些事情交由法庭裁决的最好办法。#39;It#39;s often best to do a very simple will directing where things go,#39; says Philip Bouklas, an attorney in New York. That#39;s especially the case if there are multiple children where it#39;s critical to name guardians for minors, he says.纽约律师菲利浦#12539;克拉斯(Philip Bouklas)说:“很多情况下,最好都是订立一份非常简单的指导性遗嘱。”他说,如果有多位子女、给未成年子女指定监护人至关重要,那么就更应该订立一份遗嘱。An important part of the will is naming the executor who is in charge of managing an estate, including paying bills. While you don#39;t need to tell anyone what is in your will, it#39;s important to let your designated executor know he or she has been chosen to do that job, and it might be a good idea to inform other family members, too.遗嘱中的一个重要部分,是指定负责管理遗产、包括付各种费用的执行人。虽然你不需要把遗嘱内容告诉任何人,但让你所指定的执行人知道你挑选了他或她来做这件事却是很重要的,告知其他家族成员可能也是一个不错的主意。Mr. Bouklas also suggests having discussions with family members about how personal effects or family heirlooms are handled.克拉斯还建议跟家族成员商量怎么处理私人物品和传家之物的问题。#39;You can#39;t just stick your head in the sand and say #39;they#39;ll figure it out,#39; #39; he says.他说:“你不能只管把脑袋埋进沙子里说,‘他们会想出办法的’。”There may be a temptation to do a will on the cheap, using online resources. T warily. Small details can end up invalidating wills or leaving your wishes unfulfilled.订立遗嘱的时候,你可能会忍不住想利用网上资源,从而少花钱。可要小心了。到头来,一些小小的细节就有可能造成遗嘱失效,或使你的遗愿无法实现。2 Durable power of attorney.2. 持久委托书A power of attorney can give someone else the authority to act as your #39;agent#39; and make legal and financial decisions should you become incapacitated.万一你丧失能力,委托书可以授权别人以你“代理人”的身份制定法务和财务方面的决策。Don#39;t take this decision lightly. Unlike an executor, this could be a continuing role. #39;People don#39;t give enough thought to whom they are giving power of attorney,#39; says Michael Kirtland, a Colorado Springs, Colo., estate-planning and elder-law attorney.不要小看这个决定。和执行人不一样的是,这个代理人可能是一个持续性的角色。科罗拉多州科罗拉多斯普林斯遗产规划与老年法律师迈克尔#12539;科特兰(Michael Kirtland)说:“在授权给谁的问题上,人们想得不够周到。”Mr. Shalloway says it#39;s important to consider that this person will be managing your finances. #39;You may have someone who is devoted to you, but doesn#39;t have the skill sets for managing money,#39; he says.夏洛威说,一定要想到,这个人将会管理你的财务。他说:“他可能会是一个忠诚于您,却没有管钱技能的人。”Finally, always name a backup. Many people will name their spouse, says Mr. Kirtland. #39;But what happens if both are injured in a car wreck or both develop signs of dementia?#39;最后,一定要指定一个候补人选。科特兰说,很多人都会任命配偶,“但如果两个人都在车祸中受伤,或两个人都出现了痴呆症状,那又怎么办?”3 Medical power of attorney.3. 医疗委托书This document--also known as a health-care proxy--enables any adult you designate to make medical decisions on your behalf should you be unable to make them yourself.如果你无法自己做出医疗方面的决定,那么这份文件(又称为医疗保健代理书)就会让你所指定的成年人能够代表你做出这些决定。#39;Pick the person who you think is going to stay calm in a crisis,#39; says Mr. Kirtland. #39;Mom was in an auto accident...and that person is being asked to make medical decisions under the stress of #39;Mom is dying.#39; #39;科特兰说:“要挑选你认为会在危机中保守镇定的那个人。妈妈遇到车祸,那个人要在‘妈妈要死了’的压力之中做出医疗方面的决定。”4 A living will.4.生前遗嘱A living will--sometimes known as an advanced health-care directive--specifies in writing your wishes for end-of-life care. That includes such things as whether you want to be resuscitated if your breathing or heartbeat stops, or whether you want to be kept alive through artificial respiration or feeding.生前遗嘱(living will)有时候又叫“事先医疗指令”(advanced health-care directive),它用书面形式列出你对临终护理的愿望,比如如果呼吸或心跳停止,你是否希望做心肺复苏,以及你是否希望通过人工呼吸或人工进食维持生命。When it comes both to the medical power of attorney and living will, sit down and have a conversation with loved ones about your wishes. It may not be easy, but will help later in what will be a difficult time for your family.在涉及医疗委托书和生前遗嘱的时候,坐下来跟家人一起谈谈你的愿望。这种谈话可能不太轻松,但之后在困难处境中会帮到你的家人。Lastly, make things easier for everyone by keeping your important documents, financial records and even information about doctors and medication updated and in one place. (Just not in a safe-deposit box, which will require a power of attorney to access.)最后,把你的重要文件、财务记录甚至是有关医生和药物的信息都更新到最新状态并归置到一处,从而让大家都更加方便一些。(别放进保险箱,因为要凭委托书才能进入。)Mr. Bouklas says he has clients who once a year or so provide him with an updated list of their bank and investment accounts, and any other important information, which he then holds in their file.克拉斯说,他的一些客户大约每年一次为他提供最新的账户、投资账户名单,以及可能还有的其他重要信息,然后他把这些信息放到他们的档案中。#39;It helps keep things a lot more orderly,#39; he says.他说:“这有助于让事情变得有序很多。” /201408/319043南平二院做试管生男孩

永泰县看不孕费用三明市哪里有输精管复通 福建做宫腔镜价格

三明市那里输精管复通The renminbi has come a long way in the past two decades. As recently as 1994, foreign visitors to China were still consigned to using special “foreign exchange certificates” rather than local currency. Only select stores and restaurants were permitted to accept them.过去二十年,人民币取得了长足进展。就在1994年,外国游客来华还不得不使用特殊的“外汇券”,而非本地货币。只有指定的商店和餐厅才被允许接收外汇券。Progress has been even swifter since July 2005, when the Chinese government announced it was removing the currency’s tight peg to the US dollar.自2005年7月以来,人民币的发展进程进一步加快。当时中国政府宣布,解除人民币与美元的挂钩机制。Since then the renminbi has appreciated more than 30 per cent against the dollar and the central bank has scaled back its intervention in the foreign exchange market. Rmb trade settlement is rising, with 20 per cent of China’s merchandise trade settled in its own currency in 2014.从那之后,人民币对美元升值超过30%,中国央行也减少了对外汇市场的干预。人民币贸易结算逐渐增加,2014年中国20%的商品贸易以人民币结算。Yet the recent boom-bust cycle in the Chinese stock market has renewed doubts among foreign investors about the wisdom of allocating large sections of their portfolios to renminbi assets.不过,中国股市最近的牛熊转换循环使外国投资者再次怀疑,将投资组合中的一大部分配置为人民币资产是否明智。While most investors can accept market volatility, the government’s heavy-handed response, which has included a ban on sales of equities by big stockholders and trading suspensions affecting thousands of listed companies, has reminded investors that investing in China comes with political as well as financial risks. The prospect of being trapped in an unwanted investment due to ad hoc administrative intervention is not an enticing one.尽管多数投资者可以接受市场波动,但中国政府的粗暴反应——包括禁止大股东抛售股票,以及让上千家上市公司停牌——提醒了投资者,在中国投资既有金融风险,又有政治风险。由于临时的行政干预而让自己陷入不如意的投资之中,这种前景并不令人向往。Yet the long-term trend is still towards increased foreign acceptance of the renminbi for both trade and investment.不过,长期趋势仍然是,外国对人民币用于贸易和投资的接受度逐步提升。Trade settlement has also facilitated the accumulation of renminbi outside China. Offshore renminbi centres, led by Hong Kong, have sprung up in financial areas such as Singapore, London and Frankfurt, allowing governments and a broad range of companies to issue renminbi bonds.贸易结算还促进了人民币在中国境外的积累。以香港为首的离岸人民币中心在新加坡、伦敦及法兰克福等金融区逐渐兴起,使得多国政府及许多公司可以发行人民币债券。Capital controls restricting portfolio investment into and out of China have also been on a loosening trend, notably through the launch of the Shanghai-Hong Kong stock connect last November. Even as the International Monetary Fund considers whether to endorse the renminbi as an official reserve currency, more than 60 central banks have aly invested in renminbi assets, according to Standard Chartered.限制组合投资进出中国的资本管制也已经进入逐渐放松的趋势,特别是借助去年11月“沪港通”的开通。渣打(Standard Chartered)表示,虽然国际货币基金组织(IMF)还在考虑是否将人民币纳入官方储备货币,但目前已经有超过60家央行投资了人民币资产。In July, the central bank widened access to its vast domestic bond market for foreign central banks, sovereign wealth funds and multilateral financial institutions such as the World Bank. These institutions no longer require licences to invest in Chinese interbank bonds, as well as money market instruments such as repurchase agreements. Total foreign participation will still, however, be subject to a a.7月,中国央行向外国央行、主权财富基金和世界(World Bank)等多边金融机构,扩大了进入中国国内庞大债券市场的通道。这些机构投资中国间债券、以及回购协议等货币市场工具时,不再需要特许。然而,外国机构的整体参与仍然受制于配额。Outbound foreign direct investment is now subject to greatly reduced regulation, as China encourages domestic companies to “go out”. Foreign mergers, acquisitions and greenfield investments by Chinese companies below a certain threshold, typically 0m, no longer require approval from the foreign exchange regulator.随着中国鼓励国内企业“走出去”,如今中国国内企业对外直接投资面临的监管大大减少。中国企业在进行低于某一门槛——通常为1亿美元——的对外并购、收购以及绿地投资时,不再需要获得外汇监管机构的批准。For inbound FDI, many sectors of the Chinese economy remain restricted to foreigners, or off limits entirely, but the approval process is easier than before for sectors where investment is allowed.至于流入中国的外国直接投资,中国经济中很多领域对外资仍然存在限制、或者完全禁入,但是在允许外国投资的领域,审批流程已经比之前简化许多。In addition, China is using the Shanghai free-trade zone to experiment with a “negative list” approach to foreign investment. Rather than stipulating specific areas as “encouraged”, “restricted”, or “forbidden” for foreigners, the negative list will specify those that are closed. Any sectors not on the list are assumed to be unrestricted.此外,中国正利用上海自贸区来试验对外资列出“负面清单”的做法。负面清单将明确列出对外资封闭的领域,而不是规定“鼓励”、“限制”或“禁止”外资进入的特定领域。任何未出现在负面清单中的领域都被认为是不受限制的。Despite such progress, by many measures the Rmb remains a middling player in the global currency markets. In terms of global foreign-exchange turnover, it still trails the Mexican peso and Canadian dollar.尽管取得了这些进展,但是人民币在很多方面仍然是全球货币市场上的一个中流选手。从全球外汇交易额看,人民币仍然落后于墨西哥比索和加拿大元。Interest and exchange rates, though freer than before, remain subject to government control. China has pledged to complete both interest-rate liberalisation and “basic” capital account convertibility by the end of 2015. But it is clear that Beijing’s definition of these terms still leaves plenty of room for government interference in the market.人民币利率和汇率虽然比以往更加自由化,但仍然受到政府控制。中国承诺在2015年底前实现利率自由化以及资本项目“基本”可兑换。但是,很明显北京方面对这些术语的定义,仍然给政府干预市场留有大量空间。The market also lacks derivatives that would allow investors to hedge risk or make bearish bets. The interest-rate swaps market is relatively liquid, but more sophisticated tools such as cross-currency swaps remain thinly traded. Equity derivatives are still in their infancy, with futures and options only available on broad indexes, not individual shares.中国市场还缺乏让投资者可以对冲风险或做空的衍生品。利率掉期市场相对有流动性,但是诸如货币掉期等更加复杂的衍生品的交易量仍然很低。股票衍生品仍然处于萌芽阶段,期货和期权仅针对整体指数,而非个股。Capital controls still severely restrict investor access to China’s onshore bond market. The increased access that central banks now enjoy does not extend to private-sector asset managers, who can only obtain access to the onshore market through the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor Programme (QFII) or its renminbi-denominated cousin, RQFII. Even once a QFII license is obtained, each asset manager is subject to a separate a from the foreign exchange regulator. And for individuals, the domestic bond market remains completely off limits.资本管制仍然严格限制着投资者进入中国境内债券市场的通道。外国央行如今享受的日益开放的投资通道,并未延伸至私人部门资产管理公司,后者只能通过合格境外机构投资者(QFII)或者与之类似的人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)计划,获得进入中国境内市场的通道。即便一朝获得QFII资格,每家资产管理公司仍受制于外汇监管机构设置的单独的配额。至于个人投资者,中国境内债券市场仍然完全属于禁区。For the bond market, access is easier. Foreign investors buying into the Chinese stock market using the stock connect do not need a licence, but many stocks remain off limits and as limit daily flows and overall investments. Moreover, the Chinese stock market’s recent bull run, followed by its sudden downward correction, has made many foreign investors wary of participating, even where regulations allow it.对于股票市场来说,进入相对容易。利用沪港通投资于中国股市的外国投资者不需要许可,但是很多股票仍然禁止他们买卖,而且配额限制着每日资金流以及整体投资。另外,中国股市最近的暴涨以及随后的骤跌,令很多外国投资者对入市十分谨慎,即便监管允许进入。Global index provider MSCI recently declined to add Chinese onshore stocks, known as A shares, to its benchmark emerging market indexes. Though they cited technical concerns about the ownership status of shares bought through the stock connect programme, many observers privately believe that MSCI’s decision was also motivated by investor concerns about the stock market’s reputation as a casino.全球主要指数提供商MSCI明晟,最近决定暂不将中国内地股市(即A股)纳入其新兴市场基准指数。尽管他们声称是因为技术上的担忧,即通过沪港通购买的股票的所有权状态,但很多观察人士私下认为,投资者对A股如的担忧也促成了MSCI的决定。The addition of A shares to the indices would have triggered billions in fund inflows via funds that passively track them. Even before the share crash that began in late June, such a prospect made many of MSCI’s fund manager clients nervous.将A股纳入MSCI指数,将通过被动追踪这些指数的基金引发数十亿美元的资金流入。即使是在始于6月中旬的A股暴跌前,这种前景也让很多MSCI的基金管理公司客户感到紧张。As China proceeds cautiously but inexorably with financial reform, the importance of the renminbi is bound to increase. But whether the currency will ever take on an importance commensurate with China’s status as the world’s largest economy (at purchasing power parity) is still an open question.随着中国谨慎而又坚定地推进金融改革,人民币的重要性势必会增加。但是,人民币是否会取得与中国作为世界最大经济体(按购买力平价计算)的地位相称的重要性,仍然是一个尚无定论的问题。 /201508/392148 南平哪家医院做复通手术罗源县看妇科去那好



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