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青岛人流手术价格青岛治疗附件炎那里好Fraud is a word to strike fear into the hearts of any investor, who tend to take a company’s financial figures at face value. But time after time they find themselves burnt when overly aggressive or even fraudulent accounting leads to calamity.欺诈是一个所有投资者都害怕的词——他们往往完全相信一个公司的财务数据。但一次又一次,他们发现自己在过于激进乃至欺诈性会计手法导致灾难的时候蒙受了损失。Enron is the classic case of a seemingly rock-solid corporate titan that was in reality a fragile edifice of dodgy numbers and accounting subterfuge. More recently, Valeant, the Canadian pharma group, has lost nearly bn of its value over accounting concerns.安然(Enron)就是一个典型案例:一个表面看上去坚如磐石的庞大企业,实际上是用虚假数据和假账堆砌起来的脆弱大厦。最近,加拿大制药集团Valeant因外界对其会计手法的担忧而损失了近800亿美元的市值。The company recently said that its internal accounting review had found nothing that would force it to restate its earnings, helping its shares regain their footing, but many big-name investors are still nursing huge losses.Valeant最近表示,经过内部会计审核,该公司不必重报利润数据,这帮助其股价重新站稳了脚跟,但许多知名投资者仍然蒙受巨大损失。Can mining reams of data about companies help investors detect issues early? Deutsche Bank’s financial scientists believe so, and have developed a model that scans for potential problems. 挖掘公司的海量数据可以帮助投资者及早发现问题吗?德意志(Deutsche Bank)的金融科学家们相信可以,并开发出了一个查找潜在问题的模型。It mines the Securities and Exchange Commission’s database of companies censured for accounting problems — highlighting how banks, trading firms and regulators are increasingly turning to novel technological solutions to uncover market abuses.这个模型挖掘美国交会(SEC)的数据库,该数据库包含被指责存在会计问题的公司的数据。德意志的这一举动突显出,、交易公司和监管机构都越来越多地求助于新技术解决方案来发现市场滥用行为。“Accounting numbers are like volcanoes. When they lie dormant, people forget how dangerous they can be,” Deutsche Bank said in a recent note.德意志在最近发布的一份报告中表示:“会计数据就像是火山。当它们休眠的时候,人们忘记了它们可以多么危险。”The German bank’s model used “Benford’s Law” to identify possible irregularities. In 1938, physicist Frank Benford noticed that in a random selection of numbers digit 1 tends to appear more often at the beginning of a number than 2, and 2 more often than 3. 德意志的模型使用了“本福德定律”来查找可能的不合规行为。1938年,物理学家弗兰克#8226;本福德(Frank Benford)注意到,随机选择一些数字时,首位数为1的数字往往比首位数为2的数字更常见,首位数为2的数字比首位数为3的数字更常见。This curious law is used to analyse everything from weather patterns to election fraud.这种奇特法则被用来分析一切事物——从天气模式到选举欺诈。“The natural extension of this hypothesis,” Deutsche Bank’s Javed Jussa wrote, “is that companies that do not conform to Benford’s law may exhibit some sort of accounting irregularity.”德意志的贾韦德#8226;尤萨(Javed Jussa)写道:“从这种假设可以自然地推导出,不符合本福德法则的公司可能从事了某种会计不合规行为。”Deutsche Bank’s quantitative analysts are not the only ones looking to harness modern technology and data mining to unearth potential problems. 并非只有德意志的定量分析师在寻求利用现代技术和数据挖掘来揭示潜在问题。Regulators are also looking to capitalise on recent advances in computing and “machine-learning” algorithms to autonomously scan financial markets and company reports for signs of fraud or abuse.监管机构也在寻求利用计算和“机器学习”算法上最近的进展来自动扫描金融市场和公司财报,以寻找欺诈或市场滥用行为的蛛丝马迹。This is the future of fraud detection, says Steven Blum, a managing director at Control Risks’s compliance and forensic accounting division. “It’s a tool, but an increasingly powerful tool. And the more data you get into the mix the more powerful it becomes.”化险咨询(Control Risks)合规和法务会计部门的董事总经理史蒂文#8226;布卢姆(Steven Blum)表示,这是欺诈侦查的未来。“它是一个工具,但这种工具越来越强大。你把越多数据输入进去,它就越强大。”For example, a few years ago the SEC rolled out what has been dubbed its “Robocop”, a computer program more formally called the “Accounting Quality Model”. 例如,美国交会几年前推出了一个绰号为“机械战警”(Robocop)的计算机程序,它的正式名称是“会计质量模型”。This uses the regulator’s treasure trove of financial data to detect patterns in corporate earnings reports that might hint at strange behaviour — whether just aggressive accounting practices or outright deceit.该程序使用交会的金融数据库来发现企业利润报告中的模式,从中发现可能隐含的古怪行为——无论是激进的会计手法还是裸的欺诈。The details on the SEC’s Robocop are sparse, but Mr Jussa found several important indicators that could hint at potential accounting mishaps.关于美国交会“机械战警”的具体情况,人们知之甚少,但尤萨发现了多个可能暗示着潜在会计问题的重要指标。Some are technical market factors. Sizeable bets against a company — as measured by the “short interest” — are a classic sign that some hedge fund managers smell something fishy. Unusually high trading volumes and prices far away from their one-year lows are also warning signs.一些指标是技术性的市场因素。对一家公司的大规模做空(以“卖空数量”衡量)是一些对冲基金公司发现疑点的典型迹象。异常高的交易量和远高于一年低点的价格也是值得警惕的迹象。But there are more fundamental warning signs, such as the reported cash flow that a company’s assets throw off, the expected dividend yield and the turnover of the company’s assets.但还有更为基本的预警信号,比如公司财报中资产产生的现金流、预计股息收益以及资产周转率。The most common problem is the misstatement of revenues, for example aggressively booking in orders as actual sales — something some tech companies have a tendency to do — or recording sales in one period when the goods are actually shipped in the next quarter. Another is accounting for some costs as assets.最普遍的问题是虚报收入,比如将订单记为实际销售的激进做法——某些科技公司倾向于这么做——或者将下一季度才真正发货的商品记入本期销售。另一个问题是将一些费用记为资产。Early identification of potential problems can help investors avoid some dud bets. Deutsche Bank ran its accounting fraud model against 30 years of financial data, and found that a portfolio of companies it found as “potentially vulnerable to accounting irregularities” underperformed the broader stock market by a third.及早发现潜在问题可以帮助投资者避免一些无用押注。德意志用其会计欺诈模型处理了30年的金融数据,结果发现,模型认定“可能存在会计不合规风险”的那些公司的股价表现比大盘低三分之一。Mr Blum points out that “big data” and evermore sophisticated algorithms will become increasingly common among a variety of organisations in the finance industry.布卢姆指出,“大数据”以及越来越先进的算法将在金融行业中的众多机构中变得越来越普遍。Even some repentant sinners are now using technology to detect market abuses. After being censured and fined for “spoofing” — submitting a blizzard of orders and cancellations only to move the price of a security — in 2010, trading outfit Trillium developed a system to spot and prevent spoofing internally, which it is now marketing to other firms.就连一些犯过错但痛改前非的机构,现在也在使用技术来发现市场滥用行为。在2010年因“幌骗”(spoofing,一种市场操纵手法,先提交大量订单然后取消,目的只是为了改变券价格)而遭受谴责和罚款之后,Trillium开发了一套系统,在内部发现并阻止“幌骗”。现在Trillium正向其他公司推销这套系统。“The controls we built have turned out to be a next-generation solution to spoofing,” says Michael Friedman, Trillium’s general counsel.Trillium的总法律顾问迈克尔#8226;弗里德曼(Michael Friedman)表示:“事实明,我们建立的控制措施是杜绝‘幌骗’的下一代方案。”The “Surveyor” program autonomously scans for the market order book for potential manipulation, such as spoofing, insider trading, two-sided trading — where a company pushes a stock around by trading with two separate accounts, either intentionally or by accident — and “wash trades”, the simultaneous selling and buying of a stock through different brokers.“监督员”(Surveyor)程序自动扫描市场订单簿,以寻找潜在的操纵行为,比如“幌骗”、内幕交易、两面交易(指一家公司通过两个独立账户交易来操纵股票,无论是有意还是无意)以及“虚买虚卖”(wash trades,指通过不同经纪商同时买进和卖出一股票)。In other words, technological advances and increasingly complex markets may make an investor or regulator’s job harder and more complex, but may also offer some potentially powerful solutions to keeping financial markets clean.换言之,技术进步和日益复杂的市场可能让投资者或者监管机构的工作变得更加艰难和复杂,但可能也提供了一些潜力巨大的解决方案来保持金融市场的纯净。 /201608/462867即墨妇幼保健院做全身检查要多少钱 Chinese technology group Tencent has bought a stake in a German-owned mapping company in an attempt to win market share from Baidu and Alibaba, as the three gear up to compete for driverless cars’ navigation systems.中国科技企业腾讯(Tencent)收购了德国一家地图绘制企业的部分股权,此举意在从百度(Baidu)和阿里巴巴(Alibaba)那里抢夺市场份额——这三家企业正在无人驾驶汽车导航系统方面展开角逐。Tencent, along with Chinese mapping provider NavInfo and Singapore’s sovereign wealth fund GIC, will jointly buy a 10 per cent stake in Here at a price of up to EURO241m, the companies announced on Tuesday. The purchase would reduce the shareholdings of Here’s owners, the German carmakers Audi, BMW and Daimler.相关公司周二宣布,腾讯将联合中国地图供应商四维图新(NavInfo)和新加坡主权财富基金——政府投资公司(GIC),以2.41亿欧元的价格收购Here 10%的股权。这次收购将降低Here现有股东——德国车企奥迪(Audi)、宝马(BMW)和戴姆勒(Daimler)的持股比例。Providing maps for autonomous cars requires a technological leap. Maps designed to be by people have a 10 metre accuracy level but autonomous cars will need to know where they are to the nearest centimetre.为自动驾驶汽车提供地图需要一个技术飞跃。为人们阅读而设计的地图的精度为10米级别,但自动驾车汽车需要以厘米精度了解自己的位置。“With the benefit of Here’s technology, we’re mainly planning to advance our in-car navigation systems and mapping services for driverless cars,” said a spokesperson for NavInfo, which provides map data for Tencent.“在Here技术的帮助下,我们主要计划推进面向无人驾驶汽车的车载导航系统和地图务,”为腾讯提供地图数据的四维图新(NavInfo)的发言人表示。“This collaboration#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;facilitates Tencent’s exploration of future technologies including autonomous driving and artificial intelligence,” said Julian Ma, a vice-president of Tencent.“这一合作……为腾讯探索未来技术——包括自动驾驶和人工智能——创造了条件,”腾讯副总裁马喆人(Julian Ma)表示。Tencent faces an uphill battle for smartphone map users in a sector dominated by Baidu and Alibaba’s recent entrant Amap, which it acquired two years ago from AutoNavi. Figures from iResearch, the consultancy, show that Baidu and Alibaba’s maps have around 200m monthly users each, whereas Tencent’s standalone map application has only 8m.在这个由百度和新对手高德地图(Amap,阿里巴巴两年前从高德软件(AutoNavi)手中收购)主导的领域,腾讯在争夺智能手机地图用户上面临着一场硬仗。咨询公司艾瑞咨询(iResearch)的数据显示,百度和阿里巴巴的地图各自拥有2亿左右的月活跃用户,而腾讯独立的地图应用仅有800万月活跃用户。However, this figure would rise dramatically if it included the 850m users of the company’s messaging app WeChat who might use the app’s built-in mapping services — for instance, to share their location with friends.然而,如果把腾讯旗下的即时通讯应用微信(可能使用该应用内置的地图务)的8.5亿用户包括在内——比如与朋友分享自己的位置——该数据将大幅上升。 /201612/485917WASHINGTON — For about , you can get a smartphone with a high-definition display, fast data service and.华盛顿——花大约50美元(约合340元人民币),你就可以买到一部带有高清显示和快速数据务的智能手机。According to security contractors, a secret feature: a backdoor that sends all your text messages to China every 72 hours.从事信息安全工作的承包商说,这种手机还有一种秘密功能:它有一个后门,会每隔72小时就把你所有的短信都发送到中国。Security contractors recently discovered preinstalled software in some Android phones that monitors where users go, whom they talk to and what they write in text messages. 从事安全工作的承包商最近在一些安卓(Android)手机上发现了预装软件,这种软件监视用户去过哪里,他们与什么人聊过天,他们在短信中写了什么。The American authorities say it is not clear whether this represents secretive data mining for advertising purposes or a Chinese government effort to collect intelligence.美国当局表示,尚不清楚这是一种为了广告目的而秘密进行的数据挖掘,还是一种中国政府收集情报的努力。International customers and users of disposable or prepaid phones are the people most affected by the software. 受这种软件影响最大的是国际客户、临时手机用户以及预付话费的用户。But the scope is unclear. 但还不清楚其影响范围有多大。The Chinese company that wrote the software, Shanghai Adups Technology Company, says its code runs on more than 700 million phones, cars and other smart devices. 这个软件是中国的上海广升信息技术有限公司(Adups)编写的,该公司称其代码在超过七亿部手机、汽车和其他智能设备上运行。One American phone manufacturer, BLU Products, said that 120,000 of its phones had been affected and that it had updated the software to eliminate the feature.美国手机制造商BLU产品公司表示,其12万部手机受到影响,公司已更新了软件,删除了这个功能。Kryptowire, the security firm that discovered the vulnerability, said the Adups software transmitted the full contents of text messages, contact lists, call logs, location information and other data to a Chinese server. 发现该漏洞的信息安全公司Kryptowire说,广升的软件将短信的全文、联系人名单、通话记录、位置信息,以及其他数据传输到一个中国的务器上去。The code comes preinstalled on phones and the surveillance is not disclosed to users, said Tom Karygiannis, a vice president of Kryptowire, which is based in Fairfax, Va. Kryptowire副总裁汤姆#8226;卡拉吉安尼斯(Tom Karygiannis)说,代码是预装在手机上的,但没有向用户披露这种监视功能,Kryptowire公司位于弗吉尼亚州的费尔法克斯。Even if you wanted to, you wouldn’t have known about it, he said.即使你想知道,你也不可能知道有这个东西,他说。Security experts frequently discover vulnerabilities in consumer electronics, but this case is exceptional. 虽然信息安全专家经常在消费者电子产品中发现漏洞,但这次的情况很特别。It was not a bug. 这不是一个程序错误。Rather, Adups intentionally designed the software to help a Chinese phone manufacturer monitor user behavior, according to a document that Adups provided to explain the problem to BLU executives. 相反,据广升向BLU高管提供的解释这个问题的文件,广升有意设计了这个软件,以帮助中国手机制造商监视用户行为。That version of the software was not intended for American phones, the company said.广升表示,带有上述功能的软件版本原本不是为美国手机写的。This is a private company that made a mistake, said Lily Lim, a lawyer in Palo Alto, Calif., who represents Adups.这是家犯了错误的私人公司,加利福尼亚州帕洛阿尔托的律师林丽丽(Lily Lim)说,她是广升的法律代理。The episode shows how companies throughout the technology supply chain can compromise privacy, with or without the knowledge of manufacturers or customers. 这个问题显示了处在整个技术供应链中的公司,如何能够在制造商或用户知情或不知情的情况下侵害隐私。It also offers a look at one way that Chinese companies — and by extension the government — can monitor cellphone behavior. 它也让人看到了中国公司——进而延伸到中国政府——可以监视手机的一种方式。For many years, the Chinese government has used a variety of methods to filter and track internet use and monitor online conversations. 多年来,中国政府一直在使用各种方法来过滤和跟踪互联网的使用,监视在线对话。It requires technology companies that operate in China to follow strict rules. 政府要求在中国经营的技术公司遵守严格的规则。Ms Lim said Adups was not affiliated with the Chinese government.林丽丽说,广升不隶属于中国政府部门。At the heart of the issue is a special type of software, known as firmware, that tells phones how to operate. 这个问题的核心是一种被称为固件的特殊类型软件,固件告诉手机如何进行操作。Adups provides the code that lets companies remotely update their firmware, an important function that is largely unseen by users. 广升提供的代码让公司能远程更新其固件,这是一个用户基本上看不到的重要功能。Normally, when a phone manufacturer updates its firmware, it tells customers what it is doing and whether it will use any personal information. 通常,当手机制造商更新其固件时,它会告诉用户做了什么,也会告诉用户它是否将使用个人信息。Even if that is disclosed in long legal disclosures that customers routinely ignore, it is at least disclosed. 尽管用户通常对这种很长的法律声明文本毫不关心,但毕竟告知了用户。That did not happen with the Adups software, Kryptowire said.广升的软件则未作有关声明,Kryptowire说。According to its website, Adups provides software to two of the largest cellphone manufacturers in the world, ZTE and Huawei. 据广升的网站,该公司向世界上两家最大的手机制造商中兴和华为提供软件。Both are based in China.这两家公司都在中国。Samuel Ohev-Zion, the chief executive of the Florida-based BLU Products, said: It was obviously something that we were not aware of. 位于佛罗里达州的BLU产品公司的首席执行官塞缪尔#8226;奥赫夫-锡安(Samuel Ohev-Zion)说:这显然是我们不知道的事情。We moved very quickly to correct it.我们非常迅速地进行了纠正。He added that Adups had assured him that all of the information taken from BLU customers had been destroyed.他补充说,广升已向他保,从BLU客户那里获得的所有信息都已被销毁。The software was written at the request of an unidentified Chinese manufacturer that wanted the ability to store call logs, text messages and other data, according to the Adups document. 据广升提供的文件,这款软件是根据一个未指明的中国制造商的要求编写的,该制造商希望软件有存储通话记录、短信消息和其他数据的功能。Adups said the Chinese company used the data for customer support.广升说,中国公司使用这些数据提供客户持。Ms Lim said the software was intended to help the Chinese client identify junk text messages and calls. 林丽丽说,该软件的目的是帮助中国客户识别垃圾短信和电话。She did not identify the company that requested it and said she did not know how many phones were affected. 她没有给出提这个要求的公司的名字,并表示不知道有多少手机受了影响。She said phone companies, not Adups, were responsible for disclosing privacy policies to users. 林丽丽称,向用户声明隐私政策的责任在电话公司,不在广升。Adups was just there to provide functionality that the phone distributor asked for, she said.她说,广升只不过是按照电话分销商的要求提供功能而已。Android phones run software that is developed by Google and distributed free for phone manufacturers to customize. 安卓手机用的软件是谷歌(Google)开发的,并免费提供给手机制造商按照自己的需要改制。A Google official said the company had told Adups to remove the surveillance ability from phones that run services like the Google Play store. 一名谷歌负责人表示,公司曾告诉广升,让其把监视功能从运行Google Play商店等务的手机上删除。That would not include devices in China, where hundreds of millions of people use Android phones but where Google does not operate because of censorship concerns.但这不会包括中国的设备,虽然中国有数亿人使用安卓手机,但由于审查的原因,谷歌不在中国运营。Because Adups has not published a list of affected phones, it is not clear how users can determine whether their phones are vulnerable. 由于广升尚未发布受影响手机的名单,目前不清楚用户如何能确定他们的手机是否有问题。People who have some technical skills could, Mr Karygiannis, the Kryptowire vice president, said. 有点技术能力的人也许能自己解决,Kryptowire副总裁卡拉吉安尼斯说。But the average consumer? No.但一般的消费者怎么办?他们没有办法。Ms Lim said she did not know how customers could determine whether they were affected.林丽丽说,她不知道用户怎样能确定他们是否受到影响。Adups also provides what it calls big data services to help companies study their customers, to know better about them, about what they like and what they use and there they come from and what they prefer to provide better service, according to its website.广升还提供被称为大数据的务,帮助公司研究其客户,更好地了解他们,了解他们喜欢什么、他们使用什么、他们从哪里来,还有他们的喜好,以为他们提供更好的务,公司的网站说。Kryptowire discovered the problem through a combination of happenstance and curiosity. Kryptowire发现这个问题的过程既带有偶然性,也受到好奇心的驱使。A researcher there bought an inexpensive phone, the BLU R1 HD, for a trip overseas. 卡拉吉安尼斯说,公司的一名研究员为一次海外旅行买了一部便宜的BLU R1 HD手机。While setting up the phone, he noticed unusual network activity, Mr Karygiannis said. 在设置手机时,这名研究人员注意到不寻常的网络活动。Over the next week, analysts noticed that the phone was transmitting text messages to a server in Shanghai and was registered to Adups, according to a Kryptowire report.据Kryptowire的报告,在接下来的一周里,分析师注意到该手机在向位于上海的一个务器发送短信内容,该务器注册在广升名下。Kryptowire took its findings to the ed States government. Kryptowire已把这一发现上报了美国政府。It plans to make its report public as early as Tuesday.公司计划最早在周二公布其报告。Marsha Catron, a spokeswoman for the Department of Homeland Security, said the agency was recently made aware of the concerns discovered by Kryptowire and is working with our public and private sector partners to identify appropriate mitigation strategies.美国国土安全部发言人玛莎#8226;卡特伦(Marsha Catron)说,国土安全部最近获悉了Kryptowire发现的问题,正在与我们的公共和私营部门合作伙伴一起确定适当的缓解策略。Kryptowire is a Homeland Security contractor but analyzed the BLU phone independent of that contract.虽然Kryptowire是一家国土安全部的承包商,但公司对BLU手机的分析是独立于政府合同进行的。Mr Ohev-Zion, the BLU chief executive, said he was confident that the problem had been resolved for his customers. BLU首席执行官奥赫夫-锡安说,他确信公司已经为客户解决了这个问题。Today there is no BLU device that is collecting that information, he said.如今已经不存在收集这些信息的BLU设备了,他说。 /201611/478596潍坊处女膜修复手术多少钱

青岛哪里可以做无痛人流青岛市第三医院院长是谁 Kids With High IQs Grow Up to Be Vegetarians As a child's IQ rises, his taste for meat in adulthood declines, a new study suggests.British researchers have found that children's IQ predicts their likelihood of becoming vegetarians(1) as young adults -- lowering their risk for cardiovascular(2) disease in the process. The finding could explain the link between smarts and better health, the investigators say."Brighter people tend to have healthier dietary(3) habits," concluded lead author Catharine Gale, a senior research fellow at the MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre.Recent studies suggest that vegetarianism may be associated with lower cholesterol(4), reduced risk of obesity and heart disease. This might explain why children with high IQs tend to have a lower risk of heart disease in later life."We know from other studies that brighter children tend to behave in a healthier fashion as adults -- they're less likely to smoke, less likely to be overweight, less likely to have high blood pressure and more likely to take strenuous(5) exercise," Gale said. "This study provides further evidence that people with a higher IQ tend to have a healthier lifestyle."In the study, Gale's team collected data on nearly 8,200 men and women aged 30, whose IQ had been tested when they were 10 years of age."Children who scored higher on IQ tests at age 10 were more likely than those who got lower scores to report that they were vegetarian at the age of 30," Gale said.The researchers found that 4.5 percent of participants were vegetarians. Of these, 2.5 percent were vegan(6), and 33.6 percent said they were vegetarian but also ate fish or chicken.There was no difference in IQ score between strict vegetarians and those who said they were vegetarian but who said they ate fish or chicken, the researchers add.Vegetarians were more likely to be female, of higher social class and better educated, but IQ was still a significant predictor of being vegetarian after adjustment for these factors, Gale said. 英国研究人员发现小孩智商可以预示成年后变成素食者的可能性,也就是降低心血管疾病的几率。研究人员说此项研究能够解释为什么聪明的人会更健康。流行病信息中心高级研究员、本研究主要作者Catharine Gale说:“聪明的人一般选择较健康的饮食习惯。”最近的研究显示素食有利于降低胆固醇吸收、减少肥胖和心脏病几率。这也是为什么高智商的孩子在晚年不容易患心脏病的原因。Gale说:“我们从其它研究中发现,聪明的孩子会和成年人一样跟随健康的流行趋势,他们更不容易吸烟、更不容易肥胖、更不容易血压高、却参与更多的锻炼。本研究将提供更多的据明智商高的人拥有更健康的生活方式。”Gale和同事们搜集了近8200个30岁男女的资料,其中包括他们10岁时的智商记录。Gale说:“十岁时候智商较高的小孩在三十的时候更容易成为素食主义者。”研究人员发现4.5%的受测者为素食者。其中2.5%为严格素食主义者,33.6%称自己是素食者,但是吃鱼和鸡。研究人员说这二者的智商并没有差距。Gale说,社会高层次受过良好教育的女性更容易成为素食者,但是智商也是重要因素之一。 /200805/38135平度人流价格

青岛看妇科医院哪个好Hallowe'en is a popular festival in many countries all over the world, and every year it seems to get bigger. It's getting dark earlier and it's starting to get cold. Christmas is still a long way away. We need something to cheer us up and take our minds of the fact that winter is nearly here. See how much you know about the traditional festival of Hallowe'en. The origins of the nameThe festival of Hallowe'en has its roots in Celtic and Roman traditions. Over 2,000 years ago the Celts in Britain, Ireland and parts of France celebrated Samhain to mark the beginning of winter. When the Romans invaded, they merged this with Feralia, their celebration of the passing of the dead. As Christianity sp, the Church tried to replace these pagan feasts with official Church holy days. One of these was November 1. It was called "All Hallows", and October 31 was known as "All Hallows' Eve", and then Hallowe'en. Hallowe'en traditionsIn the past there was a tradition called "souling". Poor people went around houses asking for food. In exchange, they promised to say prayers for the dead. People no longer go souling, but the habit has been transformed into a modern Hallowe'en game for children in America, who dress up as ghosts, witches and monsters and go around people's houses. WitchesHallowe'en wouldn't be fun without witches. Witches have always been part of popular folklore. Shakespeare's play "Macbeth" opens with three witches. A witch was someone - usually a woman - who had special powers and had dealings with the devil. The American town, Salem, is famous for the "witchcraft trials", which took place there in 1692. PumpkinsThe pumpkin has become a symbol of Hallowe'en. People empty a pumpkin, cut a face into the side, and put a candle inside to make a lamp. It's known as a Jack O' Lantern, from a story about a man called Jack, who made a deal with the devil. AnimalsBlack cats, frogs, mice and spiders are just some of the animals associated with Hallowe'en. Generally, the more unpleasant the animal, the stronger the Hallowe'en connection. Nocturnal animals like bats are particular favourites, and if, as is the case with vampire bats, they like drinking blood, they are high on the Hallowe'en list. - /200804/36480 城阳区治疗早孕多少钱黄岛开发区中医医院门诊在哪里




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