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黄浦韩式三点双眼皮的价格普陀区中心医院韩式隆鼻价格费用上海医学院附属医院祛痘多少钱 Education and religion教育与宗教信仰Falling away此消彼长How education makes people less religious—and less superstitious, too接受教育越多,宗教倾向越少—迷信倾向也越少。这是为什么?JUST one extra year of schooling makes someone 10% less likely to attend a church, mosque or temple, pray alone or describe himself as religious, concludes a paper* published on October 6th that looks at the relationship between religiosity and the length of time spent in school. Its uses changes in the compulsory school-leaving age in 11 European countries between 1960 and 1985 to tease out the impact of time spent in school on belief and practice among respondents to the European Social Survey, a long-running research project.多上一年学,成为教徒(在教堂,清真寺或佛寺等宗教场所独自祈祷)的概率就少10%;10月6日发表的一篇论文得出了上述结论。这篇论文是一项长期项目的成果,它通过社会调查的方法,调查了1960-1985年间,11个欧洲国家中义务教育年限的变化,以求揭示受教育程度对宗教倾向(包括思想上的皈依和行为上的尊奉)的影响。By comparing people of similar backgrounds who were among the first to stay on longer, the authors could be reasonably certain that the extra schooling actually caused religiosity to fall, rather than merely being correlated with the decline. During those extra years mathematics and science classes typically become more rigorous, points out Naci Mocan, one of the authors—and increased exposure to analytical thinking may weaken the tendency to believe.比较了背景相似但受教育程度不同的人群之后,作者可以负责任的说:上学越多的人,越是不容易信教。两个现象之间确实存在因果关系,而非仅仅具有相关性。作者之一的南茜·莫肯声称,研究所面向的那个时期,数学和自然科学课程变得愈发严格,这就强化了学生分析问题的能力。而一个人愈是习惯于用分析的眼光看问题,就愈是具有怀疑精神;相反,宗教则要求人们不经思考就加以接受:二者有着内在冲突。Another paper, published earlier this year, showed that after Turkey increased compulsory schooling from five years to eight in 1997, womens propensity to identify themselves as religious, cover their heads or vote for an Islamic party fell by 30-50%. (No effect was found, however, among Turkish men.) And a study published in 2011 that looked at the rise in the school-leaving age in Canadian provinces in the 1950s and 1960s found that each extra year of schooling led to a decline of four percentage points in the likelihood of identifying with a religious tradition. Longer schooling, it reckoned, explains most of the increase in non-affiliation to any religion in Canada between 1971 and 2001, from 4% of the population to 16%.今天早些时候发表的另一篇论文表明,土耳其于1997年将义务教育年限从五年增加到八年之后,女性的宗教倾向下降了约三到五成(不过没有调查土耳其男性的情况);宗教倾向通过被调查者的自我评价,是否裹头巾,是否持伊斯兰政党等变量加以度量。2011年发布的一项研究成果,着眼于20世纪50至60年代之间,加拿大各省义务教育年限的延长。研究发现,接受学校教育的时间每增加一年,固守宗教传统的概率就减少4%。这项研究认为,1971年至2001年的30年间,加拿大人口中不信教的比例从4%上升到16%,其中主要原因是受教育程度的提高。The most recent paper also showed that each extra year in the classroom led to a drop of 11 percentage points in superstitious practices, though these remain common. Two-fifths of respondents said they consulted horoscopes, and a quarter thought that lucky charms could protect them. Other research has shown that religious beliefs and practices seem to make people happier, and in some circumstances healthier and wealthier, too. But to argue that such benefits more than offset the gains from extra education would require a leap of faith.最近发表的这篇论文还表明,每多上一年学,迷信行为就减少11%(虽然后者依旧盛行)。四成的被调查者相信占星术;另有四分之一认为护身符能保佑他们。其他研究早已表明,宗教信仰可使人们内心更充实,并在某些条件下,使人更健康、更富足。不过为了这些好处,就希冀人们少受些教育的话,恐怕只能说是“诸君北面,我自西向”了。 译者:韦永睿 校对:沈晓旭 译文属译生译世 /201410/336877Apple苹果公司iThrone霸业已成Apple reigns supreme when it comes to making money, but now faces even greater expectations说到企业的赚钱能力方面,苹果公司无疑是全球的霸主,但现在他们却面临着更高的期望NEVER before has so much money been made by a single firm in such a short period of time. On January 27th Tim Cook, the boss of Apple, announced that it had made billion in its latest fiscal quarter, which ran almost to the end of December 2014. That beats the previous record of .9 billion reported by ExxonMobil, an oil company, in 2012, according to Samp;P Dow Jones Indices.单单一家公司,在这么短的时间内赚了这么多钱,历史上从未有过。1月27日当天,苹果公司CEO蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)宣布,在最新的财务季度当中(接近于2014年12月底结束)公司获得了180亿美元的净利润。而根据标普道琼斯指数公司(Samp;P Dow Jones Indices)的资料显示,这一数据打破了先前由石油公司埃克森美孚(ExxonMobil)于2012年所创下单季度159亿美元的记录。Apples telephone-number-sized profit stemmed largely from sales of its hugely popular iPhone, which accounted for over two-thirds of its .6 billion revenue. Chief executives rarely admit to being dumbfounded by their companies performance, but Mr Cook said it was “hard to comprehend” the extent of the interest in Apples products. He noted that, on average, 34,000 iPhones were bought every hour of every day during the latest quarter. That added up to 74.5m phones, way more than market-watchers had expected.苹果的巨额利润中很大部分来源于它旗下十分受欢迎的产品iPhone,在公司746亿美元的季度营业收入,iPhone占了三分之二。一般而言,首席执行官很少承认自己会被公司的表现吓呆,但库克先生却表示“难以理解”市场对苹果产品的着迷程度。他还提到,在最新的财务季度期间内,平均每天的每小时都要售出34000台iPhone手机,而最终的季度总销量则为7450万台,远超市场分析师预期。Apple is the worlds largest company by market capitalisation as well as its most profitable. Strikingly, it has risen to greatness using a rather old-fashioned business model: selling highly desirable objects at fat gross margins, which hit almost 40% in the latest quarter. The tech industry has spawned numerous software-based firms, such as Google and Facebook, that dont have to worry about shifting goods around, yet they make much less than the Colossus of Cupertino. Amazon handles lots of physical goods, but loses money.无论是从总市值还是从盈利能力方面来看,苹果都是全球最大的公司。然而,令人惊讶的地方却是苹果取得这一成绩的方法。它所用的是一个相当传统的商业模型:在高毛利率的情况下(最新一季中约为40%),大卖抢手货。科技产业育出了无数以软件为基础的公司,如谷歌(Google)和脸谱(Facebook),他们也不需要进行真实的货物流通,但他们赚的钱较“库比蒂诺的巨无霸”(Cupertino,苹果公司总部,位于美国旧金山)要少得多。亚马逊公司(Amazon)的主营业务为处理大量的实体商品,但该公司却处于亏损状态。Another thing that sets Apple apart from the tech pack is its success in conquering China. While rivals have been frustrated there, Apple has just become the largest force in Chinas smartphone market measured by units shipped, according to Canalys, a market-research firm. Apples revenue from the Greater China region, which includes Taiwan and Hong Kong, soared 70%, to just over billion.另一个使得苹果公司在同行中脱颖而出的因素,在于其对中国市场的成功占领。它的对手们纷纷在中国折戟沉沙之时,苹果公司却成为了中国智能手机市场的霸主。根据市场研究机构易观国际(Canalys)所提供的资料显示,苹果手机的出货量为中国第一。苹果在大中华区(包括台湾和香港)的产品销售收入增长了70%,其数额略高于160亿美元。Any setback in China could hurt Apple. The companys overall dependence on the iPhone is another risk. But these are early days for the iPhone 6, Apples latest device, whose bigger screen takes the firm into the “phablet” category of larger phones that are wildly popular with customers. Some iBulls also point out that Apples share of the smartphone market is small compared with devices using Googles Android operating system (see chart). So it has plenty of room to grow.在中国市场的任何挫折,都可能使苹果公司遭受沉重打击。而苹果对旗下产品iPhone的全面依赖性,无疑是另一个风险。但这部分担忧对于iPhone 6来说还言之尚早。作为苹果公司的最新产品,iPhone 6拥有比以往更大的屏幕,引领公司进入到了“平板手机”的竞争领域,而目前消费者们正是对大屏幕手机青睐有加。一部分“资深果粉”还指出,与谷歌的安卓操作系统相比,苹果的智能手机市场占有率还是算小的(如上图所示)。因此,苹果手机还有充足的增长空间。If it is still to reduce its dependence on iPhones, Apple will need new money-spinning gizmos. Mr Cook said this week that its much-ballyhooed smartwatch will go on sale in April. Tim Bajarin of Creative Strategies, a consulting firm, thinks Apple could sell 22m-24m in the first 12 months after the launch, producing billions of dollars of new revenue. Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm, reckons the watches will have a higher-than-average gross margin, which bodes well for profits.如果苹果公司仍旧要降低其对iPhone系列的依赖性,那么就需要有新的盈利产品。本周,库克先生表示万众期待的智能手表将会在4月正式发售。创意策略咨询公司(Creative Strategies)顾问蒂姆·巴加林(Tim Bajarin)认为,苹果能够在该产品首发的12个月内卖出2200万至2400万个,获得数十亿的新营收。斯坦福·伯恩斯坦公司(Sanford C. Bernstein)则估计,苹果手表能够拥有高于平均水平的销售毛利率,而这便预示着可观的利润。Apple should be able to make more money from software and services, too. The firms online store of software apps had its busiest-ever day on January 1st and the introduction of a smart watch will lead to another app feeding frenzy. Apple profits by taking a chunk of the money developers make from app sales and in-app purchases. By binding customers into its “ecosystem” of hardware and software plus services such as Apple Pay, a contactless-payment system, the firm also makes it more likely they will stay with it when they upgrade their gadgets.与此同时,苹果公司也应该能在软件和务方面赚取更多的钱。本年的1月1日,苹果的线上应用商城迎来了有史以来业务最繁忙的一天,而智能手表的推广也会引发另一场应用抢购狂潮。苹果公司的盈利点在于,从软件开发者的应用软件销售额和应用内的产品务销售额两部分当中,抽取大量的提成。通过将消费者与苹果的硬件、软件和务(如非接触式付系统 Apple Pay)三者紧密结合的方式,苹果公司构建出了自己的“生态系统”,这也令消费者们在对自己的设备更新换代之时,更有可能继续购买苹果的产品。This still leaves the company with a headache other firms would die to have: its Croesus-like mountain of cash, which now stands at 8 billion—a figure that is greater than the market capitalisations of information-technology giants such as Intel and IBM. Apple, which has aly spent billions of dollars on share buy-backs, will revisit its plans to return money to shareholders and discuss them in April. Mr Cook can expect plenty of calls from activist investors before then, no doubt from their shiny new iPhones.苹果公司所头疼的问题,正是其他公司拼了命都想得到东西:堆积如山的现金。目前,苹果所拥有的现金为1780亿美元,这个数字比信息技术巨头英特尔(Intel)和IBM公司的市值还要高。苹果公司早已花费了数十亿美金用以股份回购,而它将会重新制定其对股东们现金返还计划,并将在今年4月对此进行商讨。在那之前,库克先生就可以预想到大量活跃市场人士的来电。毫无疑问,这些人当然是用他们纤薄的新版iPhone打过来的。译者:颜士竣 校对:周鼎烨 译文属译生译世 /201502/358606上海市第九医院做双眼皮开眼角多少钱

上海仁济医院光子嫩肤多少钱British politics英国政治Farage against the machine法拉奇反抗主流政坛Mainstream politicians seeking to rival the populism of Nigel Farages party are on a hiding to nothing主流政客寻找机会对抗奈吉尔·法拉奇的民粹主义政党,但这是毫无胜算的INSURGENT populist parties are now a familiar feature of the European political landscape, yet their rise is so recent and so sharp that it still has the power to shock the mainstream. In by-elections on October 9th the right-wing UK Independence Party (UKIP), which wants to stop immigration and pull Britain out of the European Union, not only won its first parliamentary seat, which it took from the Conservative Party, but also nearly grabbed one from the Labour Party, which hitherto regarded UKIP as the Tories problem. Polls since the by-election have put the party anywhere from 13% to 25% of the vote nationally. Next month another by-election offers UKIP the chance to grab another Tory seat.离经叛道的民粹政党现在已经是欧洲政坛的常客了,他们的崛起是如此的迅速而突然,震惊了主流政党。在10月9日的递补选举中,右翼的英国独立党(UKIP)主张反对移民和脱离欧盟,他们不仅从保守党手里第一次赢得了国会议席,还差一点赢了一直将其视为托利派的“眼中钉”的劳工党。自从递补选举之后的民意调查显示,英国独立党的全国得票率已经从13%上升到25%了。下个月的另一场递补选举让该党有机会进一步从保守党派手中夺得更多议席。Neither David Cameron, the Tory prime minister, nor Ed Miliband, Labours leader, has much sympathy for UKIPs positions. But both are trimming their policies in an effort to emulate the insurgents success. To placate his partys perennially disaffected right—from which two MPs have so far defected to UKIP—Mr Cameron has promised to renegotiate freedom of movement within the European Union ahead of a referendum on Britains membership. He is now being urged to say that if he fails in that renegotiation, he would advocate leaving the EU. Mr Miliband, under pressure to produce a rival populist offer as Labours vote crumbles to UKIP in the partys northern redoubts, has come up with an incoherent promise to crack down on immigrant welfare-claimants.不管是保守派的首相大卫·卡梅伦还是劳工党的党魁艾德·米利班德,都不完全认同英国独立党的定位,但这两个政党也正在参照独立党的主张调整各自的政策,以求获得和独立党类似的成功。为了安抚党内一直存在的右翼成员的不满情绪——很多国会已经倒戈到了独立党——卡梅伦已经承诺会在举行英国加入会员公投之前,重新协商欧盟之间人员出入自由的问题。他现在已经不得不表示如果在重新协商中失败,他可能会持英国脱离欧盟。米利班德迫于压力提出了和竞争对手民粹党派类似的提案,许诺会向移民福利索赔人施压,以此来防止更多在北部阵地的劳工党投票人倒向英国独立党。There are three problems with this approach. First, Britains EU membership and high level of immigration bring it huge benefits in terms of economic growth, cultural vibrancy and clout. Abandoning either would, in this papers view, weaken the country in a multitude of ways. Indeed, the two other parties should spend far more time pointing out the contradictions in UKIPs back-of-a-beer-mat economics.有三个问题。首先,英国的欧盟成员国资格和大量的移民非常有利于英国的经济增长以及文化的活力和影响力。本刊认为,缺少任何一个条件都会在各个方面削弱国家实力。确实,这两个政党应该花更多时间指出英国独立党经济政策的矛盾之处。Second, pandering to UKIP will not work, because it miss the nature of the partys appeal to a core of disgruntled, down-at-heel, poorly skilled voters, in bad jobs or no jobs. Having been most damaged by the downturn, then by austerity, they will be the last to feel the benefits of the recovery. Their main complaint, echoed across the Western world, is against powerful and irreversible economic trends—globalisation and automation—from which they are the losers. Their antipathy towards the EU and immigration is part of a wider deep-seated insecurity that is hard for any politician to assuage. UKIPs solutions would make the disaffected worse, not better, off, as business and jobs migrated elsewhere. Besides, many such voters trust establishment politicians like Mr Cameron and Mr Miliband so little that they would not believe them even if they did promise the same sort of things as Nigel Farage, UKIPs engagingly blokeish leader.第二,取悦英国独立党是没用的,因为这是在误解该政党核心诉求的本质,认为它的投票者是一群心怀不满、穷困潦倒、缺乏技能、干着一份不满意的工作或者根本就没有工作的人。在经历过经济衰退之后节衣缩食,他们是社会中最晚感受到经济复苏的好处的人。他们的抱怨声在西方世界中回响,他们不满的是强大而不可避免的经济趋势——全球化和机械化,只因为他们在其中是失败者。他们对于欧盟华为移民的厌恶是处于一种更为广泛且根深蒂固不安全感,这是任何一个政客都很难缓和的。英国独立党的解决方案会令这种不满加剧而不是缓解,因为商业和工作岗位会搬到其他地方。另外,即使像卡梅伦和米利班德这样的当权者做出和独立党党魁奈吉尔·法拉奇一样吸引人的承诺,很多投票者也不会信任他们。The third problem is that, in trying to placate these irreconcilables, the mainstream parties risk alienating a larger, milder group of voters, who fear the consequences of leaving Europe and dislike their leaders bashing immigrants. The lesson of every election for three decades is that the path to power lies on the centre ground.第三个问题是,为了安抚这些不合群的人,主流政党所冒的风险是疏远了更多、更温和的投票群体,他们担忧英国脱离欧盟的后果,也不喜欢他们的领袖打击移民。过去三十年所有的选举经验表明,中庸之道者得天下。That lesson is especially relevant to Mr Cameron, who came to power as a result of his efforts to detoxify the Conservative brand. Pandering further to UKIP might well restore the Tories old reputation for nastiness. Mr Farage is not going to go away; but the election is still going to be fought mainly over the question of who will manage the economy best.卡梅伦尤其应该从中吸取教训,他自己就是以清除败类、为保守党形象正名而掌权的。继续讨好英国独立党可能会重新玷污托利派人的形象。法拉奇不会离开,但选举最后还是要看谁能把经济管理的更好。译者: 邓小雪 译文属译生译世 /201501/356457交通大学医学院附属同仁医院祛痣价格费用 普陀区治疗胎记多少钱

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