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大理白族自治州妇幼保健人民中心中医院官网云南省大理市第一人民医院做人流好吗使用私人邮箱,希拉里被联邦调查局审问 -- ::5 来源: 美国总统候选人Hillary Clinton被联邦调查局审问,是有关她在担任国务卿期间使用邮件的问题 US presidential candidate Hillary Clinton has been questioned by the FBI over her use of emails while she was secretary of state, her campaign says.美国总统候选人Hillary Clinton被联邦调查局审问,她的竞选团队说是有关她在担任国务卿期间使用邮件的问题A spokesperson said it was a voluntary interview.一位发言人说这是一次自愿性质的会谈The FBI is investigating Mrs Clinton and her aides over whether they mishandled classified inmation on a private email server she used while serving as secretary of state.联邦调查局在调查Clinton女士和她的助手是否在她担任国务卿期间存在不当行为——通过私人邮件发送国家机密信息Mrs Clinton denies handling classified inmation in her private emails.Clinton女士否认自己使用私人邮箱处理机密信息She said she set up the email address reasons of convenience, because it was easier to do everything from her Blackberry than to have several phones or tablets.她说她是为了方便才注册的这个邮箱,这样她可以通过黑莓手机处理所有事情,而不是用好几个手机和平板电脑However, a state department inquiry accused her and other mer US secretaries of state of poorly managing email security.但是,一项国务院调查指控她和前几任国务卿在邮件安全问题上处理不当The justice department is now seeking to establish whether this constitutes a criminal offence.司法部目前正在确认这是否构成刑事罪名Let’s face it - this is not really how you want to start a presidential campaign.让我们面对现实吧——你可不想这样开始你的总统竞选Hillary Clinton is trying to pitch herself as a sensible, qualified, experienced candidate who’s facing an outlandish controversial opponent in Donald Trump.Hillary Clinton竞选的卖点可是明智、合格、有经验,是她古怪的竞争对手Donald Trump的翻版Being questioned by the FBI three and a half hours is not going to help her case.被联邦调查局审问三个半小时,可对她毫无利处It gives her Republican opponents ammion to describe her as untrustworthy. Mr Trump has aly nicknamed her "crooked Hillary" and uses it with glee at every campaign stump speech.这可是把子弹送到对手共和党手中,让他们把她形容为不可靠Trump先生已经给她取了绰号“骗子希拉里”欢快地把它用于每次竞选演讲The timing of this long-awaited interview is also interesting. This is a holiday weekend filled with Independence Day barbeques and parades. The Clinton campaign will hope that voters are more interested in where to watch the fireworks than the rolling network news coverage.这个一直在拖的审问,掐了一个好时机——在满是独立日烧烤和游行的周末假期克林顿竞选团队是希望选民能对观看烟火更有兴趣,而不是滚动的网络新闻报道In just a few weeks Hillary Clinton will stand on the Democratic convention stage and be mally announced as the party nominee. During that same time, the FBI will decide whether or not to bring mal charges. Legal experts say it is unlikely. In that case she may have time to put this controversy behind her personally.短短几周后,Hillary Clinton就要站在民主大会上,被正式地宣布为该党提名人在那个时候,联邦调查局将决定是否正式控告她法律专家说不太可能如果是那样,她就有时间把这项争议抛在身后But there’s no doubt that, politically, her opponents are never going to let her get it.但毋庸置疑的是,政治角度上,她的对手可永远不会让她忘了这事儿On Friday, the US Attorney General Loretta Lynch said she would accept the findings of the FBI and prosecutors, when deciding whether to charge Mrs Clinton.周五,美国司法部长Loretta Lynch说她会接受联邦调查局和检举人的结果,并决定是否起诉Clinton女士The day bee, it was revealed that Ms Lynch had met the mer president, Mrs Clinton’s husband Bill, in what she described as a "social" meeting but which she admitted would "cast a shadow" over the way her role in the case would be perceived.据透露,Lynch女士前天与前总统,也就是Clinton女士的丈夫Bill见面,她说那是一次“社交的”会面,但她也承认这会为大家看待她在这件案子中的角色时“笼上阴影”Mrs Clinton is the presumptive nominee the Democratic Party and party members are expected to confirm the nomination at a convention at the end of July.Clinton女士是民主党的提名候选人,该党将于七月底在大会确认提名Shortly bee being sworn in as secretary of state in , Hillary Clinton set up an email server at her home. She relied on it all her electronic correspondence during her four years in office.年,Hillary Clinton女士在宣任国务卿不久后,便在家注册了该邮箱她在位四年都使用该邮箱处理来往电子邮件Why is this controversial?这为什么有争议?It was probably not against the law.这可能不违法But sceptics say she did it to have total control over her correspondence, becoming the sole arbiter of what should and shouldn’t be provided to the government, made public via freedom of inmation requests or turned over to interested parties, such as the congressional committee investigating an attack on the US consulate in Benghazi.怀疑论者说她是为了控制自己通信往来,自己决定该提供什么给政府,什么信息可以示众,什么可以交给有兴趣的人士,例如国会委员会调查美国驻Benghazi领事馆袭击Critics have also expressed concern that the system made her emails more vulnerable to being hacked.批评者也对她邮件被黑客攻击的容易性表示关注Have other politicians done this?其他政客干过这事么?Yes. Mrs Clinton is far from alone. Others have sometimes relied on personal email official business.是的,Clinton女士远不是一个人其他人也有时通过私人邮箱处理公事But unlike them, Mrs Clinton used her personal email address exclusively.但与他们不同的是,Clinton女士只用她的个人电子邮箱大理州产前检查医院 奇妙的朋友!剖腹产的猩猩宝宝(图) -- :5: 来源:   On January 7, this shaggy little bundle of joy was delivered by Caesarean section at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center. Her mom is a 7-year-old Sumatranorangutan named Mariska, from the Como Park Zoo Conservatory in Saint Paul, Minn.  1月7日,在明尼苏达大学的兽医中心,这只毛绒绒的小猩猩通过剖腹产来到了世上她的妈妈是一只苏门答腊猩猩,名叫玛丽丝卡,7岁,来自明尼苏达州圣保罗的科莫公园动物园温室暖房  We thought you'd enjoy having the baby girl brought to your attention.  我们觉得你会喜欢这个小女孩儿的  It was mother Mariska's second required C-section, both of which were permed at the university's medical center. "C-sections are very rare in that there are only about a dozen recorded within the International Orangutan Studbook that has tracked more than 1,0 births in captivity throughout history," said Como Zoo's primate keeper Megan Elder.  这是她妈妈玛丽丝卡的第二次剖腹产了,两次剖腹产都是在大学的兽医中心里进行的“剖腹产非常罕见国际猩猩血统档案纪录有历史上超过00例人工饲养猩猩的生产,其中只有十多例是剖腹产”科莫动物园的灵长动物看管员梅根·埃尔德说到  The new arrival weighed in at a spry 3.5 pounds.  这个新生的小宝宝大约有3.5磅  She and her mom certainly drew a crowd.  不用说,她和她的妈妈肯定吸引来了很多人   The obstetrical team boasted more than a dozen professionals -- from the disciplines of human and animal neonatal intensive care, human maternal-fetal medicine, veterinarysurgery, veterinary anesthesiology, and nutrition.  接生队伍阵容比普通的专家要强大得多——他们全都来自人类及动物新生儿重症监护科、人类母胎医学科、兽医外科、兽医麻醉科和兽医营养科  The newborn should be proud. Her mother Mariska is considered one of the most genetically valuable female Sumatran orangutans in North America and was recommended breeding by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the Orangutan Species Survival Plan.  小宝宝应该感到非常骄傲她的妈妈玛丽丝卡被认为是北美基因最有价值的雌性苏门答腊猩猩之一,并且被动物园暨水族馆协会和猩猩物种生存计划推选育种  The little girl of the hour was bottle fed by Como Zoo staff while her mom was recovering from the surgery. She and Mariska would soon be reed at Como Zoo.  科莫动物园的工作人员用奶瓶给这只刚出生不久的可人儿喂奶,而她的妈妈还在术后休养中她和玛丽丝卡很快就能在科莫动物园里团聚了  About 0 orangutans are currently on exhibit in zoos throughout the U.S., Como Zoo notes. In the wild, they're found primarily in Sumatra and Borneo.  科莫动物园指出,现今全美国的动物园大约共饲养着0只猩猩而野生的猩猩主要出没在苏门答腊和婆罗洲  Orangutan populations have tumbled downward and the species is under the threat of extinction. Commercial logging, agriculture, hunting and poaching all have contributed to the animal's decline.  猩猩的数量已经在迅速减少,并面临着灭绝的威胁商业伐木、农耕、捕杀和偷猎都导致了猩猩数量的减少  So it's always happy news when a baby gives a small ray of hope to a species in trouble.  所以每当新生命的诞生给困境中的物种带来一线希望的时候,我们都会感到十分欣慰小羊傻笑为哪般 只因误食千磅大麻 -- :5: 来源:   A flock of sheep were left feeling rather woolly-headed after accidentally munching on thousands of pounds worth of cannabis plants.  一群绵羊感到头晕目眩,原来它们不小心嚼食了价值数千英镑的大麻类植物  The animals began stumbling about after getting high on seven bags of the intoxicating plant, which had been dumped in their field.  这些动物误食了被人遗弃在草地上的七袋具有毒性的植物,出现吸毒后兴奋症状,走路也开始东倒西歪  Police won’t be taking action against the sheep tucking into their illegal meal, but are determined to catch the “irresponsible” crooks who grew and discarded the class B drug.  警方不会对这些误食了毒性草料的绵羊加以惩治,但是他们决定要逮住那些种植并遗弃了这些B类毒品的“不负责任的”恶棍们  The £,000 hoard of cannabis plants, each about 3ft tall, was found by the flock at the edge of Fanny’s Farm in Merstham, Surrey.  这批价值000英镑的大麻类植物大约每株3英尺高,是在萨利郡梅尔萨姆镇的法妮农场边境上首先被一群羊发现的  Farm shop manager Nellie Budd said: "My sheep being inquisitive had an interesting feast on it. They weren't quite on their backs with legs in the air but they probably had the munchies.  农场商场部经理内莉·巴德称:“我的这群羊一向很有好奇心,它们的好奇心给它们带来了有趣的收获它们还不至于四蹄朝天或者如坠云雾,不过它们应该是饱餐了一顿”  "They haven't had any other side effects but I'll tell you about the meat next week.  “它们没有表现出任何其他的副作用,不过到下个星期我才能告诉你它们的肉质有没有变化”  Investigating officer Detective Constable David Fair said: "It is extremely irresponsible whoever dumped these illegal plants in this way."  负责调查此事的官方人员,大卫·菲尔警探称:“无论是谁,这样丢弃这些非法植物都是极不负责任的”  "We are doing all we can to find out how the drugs came to be at the location and who is responsible growing and discarding the plants."  “我们正竭尽全力调查这些毒品是怎么来到此地的,还在调查谁要对种植和丢弃这些植物负责”  However, bringing the criminals to justice will be a challenge because the sheep chomped their way through quite a lot of the evidence.  不过,要将那些罪犯绳之以法可能有些挑战,因为绵羊们已经嚼掉了大部分的据剑川县人民医院妇科检查怎么样

大理白族自治州治疗宫颈炎多少钱狮虎CP不为生育 只为爱情 -- :: 来源:sohu 雄狮卡梅伦和雌虎扎布的生活并不容易他们曾被饲养于新英格兰,目的是生育狮虎兽 Life wasn't always easy this lion named Cameron and his white tigress Zabu. They were bred at a zoo in New England one purpose only – to make ligers. 扎布是西伯利亚虎和孟加拉虎的杂交虎,由于饲养问题具有基因缺陷卡梅伦重量不足0磅 Zabu, a Siberian-Bengal hybrid, had genetic flaws due to breeding and Cameron was 0 pounds underweight. 幸运的是,他们被大型猫科动物救援中心从动物园营救出来“因为他们像夫妻一样粘在一起,我们为它们建造了大型的天然围场” Luckily, the odd couple was rescued from the zoo by Big Cat Rescue.“We constructed a large natural enclosure the two of them to share since they are truly bonded as a couple.” 几年过去了,卡梅伦队扎布的占有欲越来越强,甚至不允许管理员接近围场打扫或是喂食 Over the years Cameron became more and more possessive of Zabu and would not allow keepers near the enclosure to clean or feed. “我们只有两种选择:将它与扎布永远隔离,或是阉了它” “We had only two choices: separate him from Zabu ever or neuter him.” 卡梅伦最终被阉割,导致它失去了霸气的鬃毛但相对于和最好的朋友在一起,这个代价简直微不足道 Cameron was neutered which resulted in the loss of his glorious mane but that's a small price to pay to stay together with his best friend. “卡梅伦的情绪明显变柔和了,也更顽皮了” “Cameron’s mood has mellowed dramatically and… he has even become much more playful.” 它们享受着彼此的陪伴,一起奔跑、彼此鼻子相碰以及安静地午睡 The two enjoy each other's company to this day running around, nuzzling, and taking peaceful naps. English Source: Boredpanda大理市妇保医院生孩子价格 出国旅行必须学会的英语交际口语 --30 18:: 来源:chinadaily 到了暑期旅行季啦,打算出国玩的朋友应该不少吧我们平时学的英语口语其实在出国旅行的时候是最能派上用场的,尤其是到英语国家旅游,学会恰当的口语交际用语是必不可少的……那么,在外旅行必须要掌握的交际口语有哪些呢? 玩转国外口语交际必学-礼貌用语 主动与陌生人搭讪或被搭讪时,都应该注意用语,用恰当的语句、词汇对话可是基本呀!具体请看以下几个场景: 1.迷路别怕,会问就好! Excuse me, I think I’m kinda lost in here. Could you tell me where is the restroom? 打扰一下,我想我大概是迷路了……可以问下洗手间怎么走吗? Tips: 1)excuse me这句被玩坏的交际语其实还是非常实用的……除了在网络用语中表达难以置信,与黑人问号脸功能一样之外,在日常搭讪中,尤其是问询时,用它来引起注意也是屡试不爽,可以说是万用呀 类似语句:Sorry to bother you…Sorry to disturb… )kinda就是kind of的简写,kind of也是一个非常口语化的表达,可以理解为有点,大概,在对话中加上它可以显得更随意,轻松一些 3)restroom是卫生间,比起直接说toilet要更委婉一些…… 类似名词:lady’s room女洗手间 men’s room男洗手间 loo(英式英语) bathroom )could you tell me算是比较直接的问法了,稍微委婉一些可以说I’m wondering if you can tell me… .机智应答,不再尴尬! -Mind if I sit here? 我可以坐你旁边吗? -Not at all. It’s not taken anyway. 没问题,反正这里空着 或-I’m afraid it’s taken. Sorry. 不好意思啊,这个位子有人坐了 Tips: 1)not at all的意思是没问题,一点也不会,通常用于回答别人的请求和道歉例如: -I’m really sorry that we made so much noise last night. 昨晚我们太吵了,实在抱歉 -Not at all. It’s all good. 一点也不吵,没关系的 类似用法:it’s cool…it’s alright…it’s all good没关系 )taken是已经被占了的意思,说明这个位子已经有人 3)I’m afraid…也是委婉语的表达,一般是用来拒绝对方的请求或提问 玩转国外口语交际必学二-消费用语 现在吃吃吃、买买买应该是在出国旅行占了相当大的部分吧,那么在吃和买的这些消费过程中,口语交际也是不能避免的,用恰当的语言来交流更是可以事半功倍具体请看以下几个情景: 1.点餐莫慌 -Hi there, would you like to order now? 你好,请问现在要点餐吗? -Yes, what do you recommend? 是的,有什么推荐? -We have special salad today. 我们今天有特别沙拉哦 -Okay, I’ll go with that, oh,and a cup of coffee would be nice. I’d also like one taco to-go, please. 好哒,那我来一份沙拉,哦对了,再来杯咖啡就更好了我还需要打包一份墨西哥玉米卷,谢谢 -No problem. 没问题 …… -Check, please! Keep the change. 买单,谢谢!钱不用找了 Tips: 1)一般如果到了陌生的餐馆,先请务生推荐菜品是比较明智的选择,减少点餐的失误率…… )go with在点餐中是非常实用的说法,也相当于take,表示选择,接受 3)would be nice或would be fine是表示同意和接受的一种委婉,礼貌用法例如: -Would you like some water? -请问要来点水吗? -That would be nicefine. -好的呀,谢谢 )to-go就是打包带走的意思,可以直接说几份几份带走,就是one to-go, two to-go. 5)please这个词虽然简单,但是在跟陌生人交际的过程中几乎是必不可少的,尤其是在点餐时多讲please也会让对方感到倍受尊重呀 6)check有结账,买单的意思 7)change在这里是零钱的意思,keep the change也就是我们通常说的,不用找钱啦在国外,尤其是欧美许多国家都是有给小费的传统的,不给务生小费人家会觉得你很抠门的 .砍价不能忘! -Hi there, how much do you charge this? 你好,这个怎么卖? -Let me see…that would be bucks. 我看一下……这个块 -Well…Any discount? 呃,有没有优惠呀? -I can’t offer you any lower than this, man. Sorry. 不能再便宜了亲,不好意思啊 -Come on, just give me a break on this. How about I take one more, and you maket a little deal me? 别这样嘛,就给我便宜点吧你看这样行吗,我买两件,你给我优惠点? -Em…Okay then. 那行吧 Tips: 1)charge 就是收费的意思,在这里的话就是询问价格可以用的一种表达 )buck就是元,比起说dollar要更口语化一些 3)discount是优惠,折扣通常我们买东西砍价的话可以先问问有没有discount )这里的offer就是出价的意思,lower后面省略了它修饰的price,也就是不能给你更低的价格这也是比较实用的表达 5)美国人说man就像我们说,朋友,甚至是,亲,一样……一种比较亲近的叫法 6)give me a break和give me a deal在砍价中都是万金油句,直入主题的,也就是给我优惠点的意思……通常可以先问问价,周旋几个回合下来再讲价,也更有礼貌些大理洱源县妇幼保健人民中心中医院妇产中心

南涧县孕前检测哪家医院最好的part of China’s territory.6. 1951年,旧金山对日和约会议规定日本放弃对南沙群岛和西沙群岛的一切权利、权利名义与要求195年,日本政府正式表示放弃对台湾、澎湖列岛以及南沙群岛、西沙群岛之一切权利、权利名义与要求同年,由时任日本外务大臣冈崎胜男亲笔签字推荐的《标准世界地图集第十五图《东南亚图,把和约规定日本必须放弃的西沙、南沙群岛及东沙、中沙群岛全部标绘属于中国6. In 1951, it was decided at the San Francisco Peace Conference that Japan would renounce all right, title and claim to Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In 195, the Japanese government officially stated that it had renounced all right, title, and claim to Taiwan, Penghu, as well as Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In the same year, Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao, which Japan renounced under the San Francisco Peace Treaty, together with Dongsha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao, were all marked as belonging to China on the th map, Southeast Asia, of the Standard World Atlas recommended by the then Japanese eign Minister Katsuo Okazaki with his signature.7. 1955年月,国际民航组织在马尼拉召开会议,美国、英国、法国、日本、加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰、泰国、菲律宾、南越和中国台湾当局派代表出席,菲律宾代表为会议主席,法国代表为副主席会议通过的第号决议要求中国台湾当局在南沙群岛加强气象观测,而会上没有任何一个代表对此提出异议或保留7. In October 1955, the International Civil Aviation Organization held a conference in Manila, which was attended by representatives from the ed States, the ed Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, the authorities from South Vietnam and China’s Taiwan authorities. The Filipino and French representatives served as chair and vice chair respectively. It was requested in Resolution No. adopted at the conference that China’s Taiwan authorities should enhance meteorological observation on Nansha Qundao, and no opposition or reservation was registered.8. 1958年9月日,中国政府发布《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明,宣布中国的领海宽度为海里,明确指出:“这项规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括……东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿”9月日,越南政府总理范文同照会中国国务院总理周恩来郑重表示,“越南民主共和国政府承认和赞同中华人民共和国政府1958年9月日关于领海决定的声明”,“越南民主共和国政府尊重这项决定”8. On September 1958, the Chinese government promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on China’s Territorial Sea, proclaiming a twelve-nautical-mile territorial sea bth, and stipulating that, “This provision applies to all territories of the People’s Republic of China, including [...] Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao, and all other islands belonging to China.” On September, Prime Minister Pham Van Dong of the Vietnamese government sent a diplomatic note to Zhou Enlai, Premier of the State Council of China, solemnly stating that “the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam recognizes and supports the declaration of the government of the People’s Republic of China on its decision concerning China’s territorial sea made on September 1958” and “the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam respects this decision.”9. 1956年8月,美国驻台机构一等秘书韦士德向中国台湾当局口头申请,美军人员拟前往黄岩岛、双子群礁、景宏岛、鸿庥岛、南威岛等中沙和南沙群岛岛礁进行地形测量中国台湾当局随后同意了美方的申请9. In August 1956, First Secretary Donald E. Webster of the ed States institution in Taiwan made an oral request to China’s Taiwan authorities permission the ed States military personnel to conduct geodetic survey in Huangyan Dao, Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao, Hongxiu Dao and Nanwei Dao of Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao. China’s Taiwan authorities later approved the above request.50. 1960年月,美国政府致函中国台湾当局,“请求准许”美军事人员赴南沙群岛双子群礁、景宏岛、南威岛进行实地测量中国台湾当局批准了上述申请50. In December 1960, the ed States government sent a letter to China’s Taiwan authorities to “request permission be granted” its military personnel to carry out survey at Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao and Nanwei Dao of Nansha Qundao. China’s Taiwan authorities approved this application.51. 197年,在《中华人民共和国政府与日本国政府联合声明中,日本重申坚持遵循《波茨坦公告第8条规定51. In 197, Japan reiterated its adherence to the terms of 8 of the Potsdam Proclamation in the Joint Communiqué of the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of Japan.5. 据法新社报道,197年月日,时任印度尼西亚外长马利克表示,“如果我们看一看现在发行的地图,就可以从图上看到帕拉塞尔群岛(西沙群岛)和斯普拉特利群岛(南沙群岛)都是属于中国的”;由于我们承认只存在一个中国,“这意味着,对我们来讲,这些群岛属于中华人民共和国”5. It was reported by AFP that, on February 197, the then Indonesian eign Minister Adam Malik stated that, “si nous regardons les cartes actuelles, elles montrent que les deux archipels des Paracels [Xisha Qundao] et des Spratleys [Nansha Qundao] appartiennent à la Chine”, and that because we recognize the existence of only one China, “cela signifie que, pour nous, ces archipels appartiennent à la République populaire de Chine”.53. 1987年3月日至月1日,联合国教科文组织政府间海洋学委员会第次会议讨论了该委员会秘书处提交的《全球海平面观测系统实施计划1985-1990(IOCINF-663 REV)该文件建议将西沙群岛和南沙群岛纳入全球海平面观测系统,并将这两个群岛明文列属“中华人民共和国”为执行该计划,中国政府被委任建设5个海洋观测站,包括南沙群岛和西沙群岛上各1个53. The th Assembly of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the ed Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, held from March to 1 April 1987, deliberated on the Global Sea-Level Observing System Implementation Plan 1985-1990 (IOCINF-663 REV) submitted by the Commission’s Secretariat. The Plan integrated Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao into the Global Sea-Level Observing System, and explicitly listed these two Islands under “People’s Republic of China”. the implementation of this Plan, the Chinese government was commissioned to build five marine observation stations, including one on Nansha Qundao and one on Xisha Qundao.5. 南海诸岛属于中国早已成为国际社会的普遍认识在许多国家出版的百科全书、年鉴和地图都将南沙群岛标属中国例如,1960年美国威尔德麦克出版社出版的《威尔德麦克各国百科全书;1966年日本极东书店出版的《新中国年鉴;1957、1958和1961年在联邦德国出版的《世界大地图集;1958年在民主德国出版的《地球与地理地图集;1968年在民主德国出版的《哈克世界大地图集;195至1959年在苏联出版的《世界地图集;1957年在苏联出版的《外国行政区域划分附图;1959年在匈牙利出版的《世界地图集;197年在匈牙利出版的《插图本世界政治经济地图集;1959年在捷克斯洛伐克出版的《袖珍世界地图集;1977年在罗马尼亚出版的《世界地理图集;1965年法国拉鲁斯出版社出版的《国际政治与经济地图集;1969年法国拉鲁斯出版社出版的《拉鲁斯现代地图集;197年和1983年日本平凡社出版的《世界大百科事典中所附地图和1985年出版的《世界大地图集;以及1980年日本国土地理协会出版的《世界与各国附图等5. Nanhai Zhudao have long been widely recognized by the international commy as part of China’s territory. The encyclopedias, yearbooks and maps published in many countries mark Nansha Qundao as belonging to China. example this is done in, among others, the 1960 Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations by the Worldmark Press published in the ed States, the 1966 New China Yearbook by the Far Eastern Booksellers published in Japan; the Welt-Atlas published in 1957, 1958 and 1961 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the 1958 Atlas Zur Erd-Und L?nderkunde and the 1968 Haack Gro?er Weltatlas published in the German Democratic Republic, the Atlas Mira from 195 to 1959 and the 1957 Administrativno-territorialnoe Delenie Zarubezhnyh Stran published in the Soviet Union, the 1959 Világatlasz and the 197 Képes Politikai és Gazdasági Világatlasz published in Hungary, the 1959 Maly Atlas Sv?ta published in Czechoslovakia, the 1977 Atlas Geografic Scolar published in Romania, the 1965 Atlas international Larousse politique et économique, the 1969 Atlas moderne Larousse published by Libraire Larousse in France, the maps in the 197 and 1983 World Encyclopedia, the 1985 Grand Atlas World by Heibon Sha, and the 1980 Sekai to Sono Kunikuni published by Japan Geographic Data Center in Japan.二、中菲南海有关争议的由来II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea55. 中菲南海有关争议的核心是菲律宾非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁而产生的领土问题此外,随着国际海洋法制度的发展,中菲在南海部分海域还出现了海洋划界争议55. The core of the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea lies in the territorial issues caused by the Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain sea areas of the South China Sea.(一)菲律宾非法侵占行为制造了中菲南沙岛礁争议i. The Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao56. 菲律宾的领土范围是由包括1898年《美西和平条约(《巴黎条约)、1900年《美西关于菲律宾岛屿割让的条约(《华盛顿条约)、1930年《关于划定英属北婆罗洲与美属菲律宾之间的边界条约在内的一系列国际条约确定的56. The territory of the Philippines is defined by a series of international treaties, including the 1898 Treaty of Peace between the ed States of America and the Kingdom of Spain (the Treaty of Paris), the 1900 Treaty between the ed States of America and the Kingdom of Spain Cession of Outlying Islands of the Philippines (the Treaty of Washington), and the 1930 Convention between His Majesty in Respect of the ed Kingdom and the President of the ed States regarding the Boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Philippine Archipelago.57. 中国南海诸岛在菲律宾领土范围之外57. The Philippines’ territory so defined has nothing to do with China’s Nanhai Zhudao.58. 世纪50年代,菲律宾曾企图染指中国南沙群岛但在中国坚决反对下,菲律宾收手了1956年5月,菲律宾人克洛马组织私人探险队到南沙群岛活动,擅自将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁称为“自由地”随后,菲律宾副总统兼外长加西亚对克洛马的活动表示持对此,中国外交部发言人于5月9日发表声明,严正指出:南沙群岛“向来是中国领土的一部分中华人民共和国对这些岛屿具有无可争辩的合法主权……绝不容许任何国家以任何借口和采取任何方式加以侵犯”同时,中国台湾当局派军舰赴南沙群岛巡弋,恢复在南沙群岛太平岛上驻守此后,菲律宾外交部表示,克洛马此举菲律宾政府事前并不知情,亦未加以同意58. In the 1950s, the Philippines attempted to take moves on China’s Nansha Qundao but eventually stopped because of China’s firm opposition. In May 1956, Tomás Cloma, a Filipino, organized a private expedition to some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and unlawfully named them “Freedomland”. Afterwards, Philippine Vice President and eign Minister Carlos Garcia expressed support Cloma’s activities. In response, the spokesperson of the Chinese eign Ministry issued a stern statement on 9 May, pointing out that Nansha Qundao “has always been a part of China’s territory. The People’s Republic of China has indisputable sovereignty over these islands [...] and will never tolerate the infringement of its sovereignty by any country with any means and under any excuse.” At the same time, China’s Taiwan authorities sent troops to patrol Nansha Qundao and resumed stationing troops on Taiping Dao. Afterward, the Philippine Department of eign Affairs said that the government of the Philippines did not know about Cloma’s activities or give him the consent bee he took his moves.59. 自世纪70年代起,菲律宾先后以武力侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁,并提出非法领土要求1970年8月和9月,菲律宾非法侵占马欢岛和费信岛;1971年月,菲律宾非法侵占南钥岛和中业岛;1971年7月,菲律宾非法侵占西月岛和北子岛;1978年3月和1980年7月,菲律宾非法侵占双黄沙洲和司令礁1978年6月,菲律宾总统马科斯签署第96号总统令,将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁并连同周边大范围海域称为“卡拉延岛群”(“卡拉延”在他加禄语中意为“自由”),划设“卡拉延镇区”,非法列入菲律宾领土范围59. Starting in the 1970s, the Philippines invaded and illegally occupied by ce some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and raised illegal territorial claims. The Philippines invaded and illegally occupied Mahuan Dao and Feixin Dao in August and September 1970, Nanyao Dao and Zhongye Dao in April 1971, Xiyue Dao and Beizi Dao in July 1971, Shuanghuang Shazhou in March 1978 and Siling Jiao in July 1980. In June 1978, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 96, which designated some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and large areas of their surrounding waters as “Kalayaan Island Group” (“Kalayaan” in Tagalog means “Freedom”), set up “Municipality of Kalayaan” and illegally included them in the Philippine territory.60. 菲律宾还通过一系列国内立法,提出了自己的领海、专属经济区和大陆架等主张其中部分与中国在南海的海洋权益产生冲突60. The Philippines has also enacted a series of national laws to lay its own claims of territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, part of which conflicted with China’s maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.61. 菲律宾为掩盖其非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的事实,实现其领土扩张的野心,炮制了一系列借口,包括:“卡拉延岛群”不属于南沙群岛,是“无主地”;南沙群岛在二战后是“托管地”;菲律宾占领南沙群岛是依据“地理邻近”和出于“国家安全”需要;“南沙群岛部分岛礁位于菲律宾专属经济区和大陆架上”;菲律宾“有效控制”有关岛礁已成为不能改变的“现状”等61. The Philippines has concocted many excuses to cover up its invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao in order to pursue its territorial pretensions. instance, it claims that: “Kalayaan Island Group” is not part of Nansha Qundao but terra nullius; Nansha Qundao became “trust territory” after the end of the Second World War; the Philippines has occupied Nansha Qundao because of “contiguity or proximity” and out of “national security” considerations; “some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao are located in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Philippines”; the Philippines’ “effective control” over the relevant islands and reefs has become the “status quo” that cannot be changed.(二)菲律宾的非法主张毫无历史和法理依据ii. The Philippines’ illegal claim has no historical or legal basis6. 从历史和国际法看,菲律宾对南沙群岛部分岛礁的领土主张毫无根据6. The Philippines’ territorial claim over part of Nansha Qundao is groundless from the perspectives of either history or international law.63. 第一,南沙群岛从来不是菲律宾领土的组成部分菲律宾的领土范围已由一系列国际条约所确定对此,菲律宾当时的统治者美国是非常清楚的1933年8月日,美属菲律宾前参议员陆雷彝致信美国驻菲律宾总督墨菲,试图以地理邻近为由主张一些南沙岛屿构成菲律宾群岛一部分有关信件被转交美国陆军部和国务院处理1933年月9日,美国国务卿复信称,“这些岛屿……远在1898年从西班牙获得的菲律宾群岛的界限之外”1935年5月,美国陆军部长邓恩致函国务卿赫尔,请求国务院就菲律宾对南沙群岛部分岛屿提出领土要求的“合法性和适当性”发表意见美国国务院历史顾问办公室一份由格斯等签署的备忘录指出,“显然,美国毫无根据主张有关岛屿构成菲律宾群岛的一部分”8月日,美国国务卿赫尔复函美国陆军部长邓恩称,“美国依据1898年条约从西班牙获得的菲律宾群岛的岛屿仅限于第三条规定的界限以内”,同时关于南沙群岛有关岛屿,“需要指出的是,没有任何迹象显示西班牙曾对这些岛屿中的任何一个行使主权或提出主张”这些文件明,菲律宾领土从来不包括南海诸岛,这一事实为包括美国在内的国际社会所承认63. First, Nansha Qundao has never been part of the Philippine territory. The territorial scope of the Philippines has aly been defined by a series of international treaties. The ed States, administrator of the Philippines at the relevant time, was clearly aware of these facts. On August 1933, ex-Senator Isabelo de los Reyes of the ed States-governed Philippines wrote a letter to Governor-General Frank Murphy in an attempt to claim that some Nansha islands med part of the Philippine Archipelago on the ground of geographical proximity. That letter was referred to the Department of War and the Department of State. On 9 October, the ed States Secretary of State replied that, “These islands [...] lie at a considerable distance outside the limits of the Philippine Islands which were acquired from Spain in 1898”. In May 1935, the ed States Secretary of War George Dern wrote a letter to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, seeking the views of the State Department on the “validity and propriety” of the Philippines’ territorial claims over some islands of Nansha Qundao. A memorandum of the Office of Historical Adviser in the State Department, signed by S.W. Boggs, pointed out that, “There is, of course, no basis a claim on the part of the ed States, as islands constituting part of the Philippine Archipelago”. On August, Secretary Hull officially replied in writing to Secretary Dern, stating that, “the islands of the Philippine group which the ed States acquired from Spain by the treaty of 1898, were only those within the limits described in III”, and that, referring to the relevant Nansha islands, “It may be observed that [...] no mention has been found of Spain having exercised sovereignty over, or having laid claim to, any of these islands”. All these documents prove that the Philippines’ territory never includes any part of Nanhai Zhudao, a fact that has been recognized by the international commy, including the ed States.6. 第二,“卡拉延岛群”是菲律宾发现的“无主地”,这一说法根本不成立菲律宾以其国民于1956年所谓“发现”为基础,将中国南沙群岛部分岛礁称为“卡拉延岛群”,企图制造地理名称和概念上的混乱,并割裂南沙群岛事实上,南沙群岛的地理范围是清楚和明确的,菲律宾所谓“卡拉延岛群”就是中国南沙群岛的一部分南沙群岛早已成为中国领土不可分割的组成部分,绝非“无主地”6. Second, the claim that “Kalayaan Island Group” is “terra nullius” discovered by the Philippines is groundless. The Philippines claims that its nationals “discovered” the islands in 1956, and uses this as an excuse to single out some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and name them “Kalayaan Island Group”. This is an attempt to create confusion over geographical names and concepts, and dismember China’s Nansha Qundao. As a matter of fact, the geographical scope of Nansha Qundao is clear, and the so-called “Kalayaan Island Group” is part of China’s Nansha Qundao. Nansha Qundao has long been an integral part of China’s territory and is by no means “terra nullius”.65. 第三,南沙群岛也不是所谓的“托管地”菲律宾称,二战后南沙群岛是“托管地”,主权未定菲律宾的说法从法律和事实看,都没有根据二战后的“托管地”,均在有关国际条约或联合国托管理事会相关文件中明确开列,南沙群岛从未出现在上述名单上,根本就不是“托管地”65. Third, Nansha Qundao is not “trust territory” either. The Philippines claims that after the Second World War, Nansha Qundao became “trust territory”, the sovereignty over which was undetermined. This claim finds no support in law or reality. The post-War trust territories were all specifically listed in relevant international treaties or the documents of the ed Nations Trusteeship Council. Nansha Qundao was never included in them and was thus not trust territory at all.66. 第四,“地理邻近”和“国家安全”都不是领土取得的国际法依据世界上许多国家的部分领土远离其本土,有的甚至位于他国近岸美国殖民统治菲律宾期间,就菲律宾群岛附近一座岛屿的主权与荷兰产生争端,美国以“地理邻近”为由提出的领土主张被判定为没有国际法依据以所谓“国家安全”为由侵占他国领土更是荒谬的66. Fourth, neither “contiguity or proximity” nor national security is a basis under international law acquiring territory. Many countries have territories far away from their metropolitan areas, in some cases even very close to the shores of other countries. When exercising colonial rule over the Philippines, the ed States had a dispute with the Netherlands regarding sovereignty over an island which is close to the Philippine Archipelago, and the ed States’ claim on the basis of contiguity was ruled as having no foundation in international law. Furthermore, it is just absurd to invade and occupy the territory of other countries on the ground of national security.67. 第五,菲律宾称,中国南沙群岛部分岛礁位于其专属经济区和大陆架范围内,有关岛礁属于菲律宾或构成菲律宾大陆架组成部分这一主张企图以《公约所赋予的海洋管辖权否定中国领土主权,与“陆地统治海洋”的国际法原则背道而驰,完全不符合《公约的宗旨和目的《公约序言规定:“在妥为顾及所有国家主权的情形下,为海洋建立一种法律秩序……”,沿海国必须在尊重他国领土主权的前提下主张海洋管辖权,不能将自己的海洋管辖权扩展到他国领土上,更不能以此否定他国主权,侵犯他国领土67. Fifth, the Philippines claims that some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao are located within its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf and theree should fall under its sovereignty or m part of its continental shelf. This is an attempt to use maritime jurisdiction provided under UNCLOS to deny China’s territorial sovereignty. This runs directly counter to the “land dominates the sea” principle, and goes against the purpose of UNCLOS, as stated in its preamble, to “establish [...] with due regard the sovereignty of all States, a legal order the seas and ocean”. Theree, a coastal state can only claim maritime jurisdiction under the precondition of respecting the territorial sovereignty of another state. No state can extend its maritime jurisdiction to an area under the sovereignty of another; still less can it use such jurisdiction as an excuse to deny another state’s sovereignty or even to infringe upon its territory.68. 第六,菲律宾所谓的“有效控制”是建立在非法侵占基础上的,是非法无效的国际社会不承认武力侵占形成的所谓“有效控制”菲律宾所谓“有效控制”是对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁裸的武力侵占,违背了《联合国宪章(以下简称《宪章)和国际关系基本准则,为国际法所明确禁止菲律宾建立在非法侵占基础上的所谓“有效控制”,不能改变南沙群岛是中国领土的基本事实中国坚决反对任何人试图把南沙群岛部分岛礁被侵占的状态视为所谓“既成事实”或“现状”,中国对此绝不承认68. Sixth, the Philippines’ so-called “effective control” on the basis of its illegal seizure is null and void. The international commy does not recognize “effective control” created through occupation by ce. The Philippines’ “effective control” is mere occupation by naked use of ce of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao. Such occupation violates the Charter of the ed Nations and the basic norms governing international relations and is unequivocally prohibited by international law. This so-called “effective control” based on illegal seizure cannot change the basic fact that Nansha Qundao is China’s territory. China firmly opposes any attempt to treat the seizure of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao as a so-called “fait accompli” or “status quo”. China will never recognize such a thing.(三)国际海洋法制度的发展导致中菲出现海洋划界争议iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation69. 随着《公约的制订和生效,中国和菲律宾之间的南海有关争议逐步激化69. With the mulation and entering into effect of UNCLOS, the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea have gradually intensified.70. 基于中国人民和中国政府的长期历史实践及历届中国政府的一贯立场,根据国内法以及国际法,包括1958年《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明、199年《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法、1996年《中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于批准#60;联合国海洋法公约#6;的决定、1998年《中华人民共和国专属经济区和大陆架法和198年《联合国海洋法公约,中国南海诸岛拥有内水、领海、毗连区、专属经济区和大陆架此外,中国在南海拥有历史性权利70. Based on the practice of the Chinese people and the Chinese government in the long course of history and the position consistently upheld by successive Chinese governments, and pursuant to China’s national law and under international law, including the 1958 Declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on China’s Territorial Sea, the 199 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, the 1996 Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on the Ratification of the ed Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the 1998 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, and the 198 ed Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, China has, based on Nanhai Zhudao, internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. In addition, China has historic rights in the South China Sea.71. 根据菲律宾199年第387号共和国法案、1961年第36号共和国法案、1968年第56号共和国法案、1968年第370号总统公告、1978年第99号总统令、年第95号共和国法案等法律,菲律宾公布了内水、群岛水域、领海,专属经济区和大陆架71. The Philippines proclaimed its internal waters, archipelagic waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf according to, among others, the Philippines’ Republic Act No. 387 of 199, Republic Act No. 36 of 1961, Republic Act No. 56 and Presidential Proclamation No. 370 of 1968, Presidential Decree No. 99 of 1978, and Republic Act No. 95 of .7. 在南海,中国的陆地领土海岸和菲律宾的陆地领土海岸相向,相距不足00海里两国主张的海洋权益区域重叠,由此产生海洋划界争议7. In the South China Sea, China and the Philippines are states possessing land territory with opposite coasts, the distance between which is less than 00 nautical miles. The maritime areas claimed by the two states overlap, giving rise to a dispute over maritime delimitation.三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea73. 中国坚决捍卫对南海诸岛的主权,坚决反对菲律宾非法侵占中国岛礁,坚决反对菲律宾依据单方面主张在中国管辖海域采取侵权行为同时,从维护南海和平稳定出发,中国保持高度克制,坚持和平解决中菲南海有关争议,并为此作出不懈努力中国就管控海上分歧以及推动海上务实合作等与菲律宾进行多次磋商,双方就通过谈判解决南海有关争议,妥善管控有关分歧达成重要共识73. China firmly upholds its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao, resolutely opposes the Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation of China’s islands and reefs, and resolutely opposes the unilateral acts taken by the Philippines on the pretext of encing its own claims to infringe China’s rights and interests in waters under China’s jurisdiction. Still, in the interest of sustaining peace and stability in the South China Sea, China has exercised great restraint, stayed committed to peacefully settling the disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea, and made tireless efts to this end. China has conducted consultations with the Philippines on managing maritime differences and promoting practical maritime cooperation, and the two sides have reached important consensus on settling through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea and properly managing relevant disputes.(一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea7. 中国一贯致力于在相互尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则基础上与各国发展友好关系7. China has dedicated itself to fostering friendly relations with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, namely, mutual respect sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.75. 1975年6月,中菲关系实现正常化,两国在有关公报中明确指出,两国政府同意不诉诸武力,不以武力相威胁,和平解决所有争端75. In June 1975, China and the Philippines normalized their relations, and in the joint communiqué that purpose, the two governments agreed to settle all disputes by peaceful means without resorting to the threat or use of ce.76. 实际上,中国在解决南海问题上的“搁置争议,共同开发”倡议,首先是对菲律宾提出的1986年6月,中国领导人邓小平在会见菲律宾副总统萨尔瓦多·劳雷尔时,指出南沙群岛属于中国,同时针对有关分歧表示,“这个问题可以先搁置一下,先放一放过几年后,我们坐下来,平心静气地商讨一个可为各方接受的方式我们不会让这个问题妨碍与菲律宾和其他国家的友好关系”1988年月,邓小平在会见菲律宾总统科拉松·阿基诺时重申“对南沙群岛问题,中国最有发言权南沙历史上就是中国领土,很长时间,国际上对此无异议”;“从两国友好关系出发,这个问题可先搁置一下,采取共同开发的办法”此后,中国在处理南海有关争议及同南海周边国家发展双边关系问题上,一直贯彻了邓小平关于“主权属我,搁置争议,共同开发”的思想76. In fact, China’s initiative of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes” regarding the South China Sea issue was first addressed to the Philippines. In a June 1986 meeting with Philippine Vice President Salvador Laurel, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping pointed out that Nansha Qundao belongs to China, and when referring to the matter of differences, stated that, “This issue can be shelved now. Several years later, we can sit down and work out a solution that is acceptable to all in a calm manner. We shall not let this issue stand in the way of our friendly relations with the Philippines and with other countries.” In April 1988, when meeting with Philippine President Corazón Aquino, Deng Xiaoping reiterated that “with regard to the issue concerning Nansha Qundao, China has the biggest say. Nansha Qundao has been part of China’s territory throughout history, and no one has ever expressed objection to this quite some time”; and “ the sake of the friendship between our two countries, we can shelve the issue now and pursue joint development”. Since then, when handling the relevant South China Sea issue and developing bilateral ties with other littoral countries around the South China Sea, China has all along acted in keeping with Deng Xiaoping’s idea: “sovereignty belongs to China, disputes can be shelved, and we can pursue joint development”.77. 世纪80年代以来,中国就通过谈判管控和解决中菲南海有关争议提出一系列主张和倡议,多次重申对南沙群岛的主权、和平解决南海有关争议的立场和“搁置争议,共同开发”的倡议,明确表示反对外部势力介入,反对南海问题国际化,强调不应使争议影响两国关系的发展77. Since the 1980s, China has put ward a series of proposals and initiatives managing and settling through negotiation disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea and reiterated repeatedly its sovereignty over Nansha Qundao, its position on peacefully settling the relevant disputes and its initiative of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes”. China has expressed its clear opposition to intervention by outside ces and attempts to multilateralize the South China Sea issue and emphasized that the relevant disputes should not affect bilateral relations.78. 199年7月,在马尼拉举行的第5届东盟外长会议发表《东盟关于南海问题的宣言中国表示,赞赏这一宣言所阐述的相关原则中国一贯主张通过谈判和平解决南沙群岛部分岛礁有关领土问题,反对诉诸武力,愿在条件成熟时同有关国家谈判“搁置争议,共同开发”78. In July 199, the 5th ASEAN eign Ministers Meeting held in Manila adopted the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea. China expressed appreciation relevant principles outlined in that Declaration. China stated that it has all along stood peacefully settling through negotiation the territorial issues relating to part of Nansha Qundao and opposed the use of ce, and is y to enter into negotiation with countries concerned on implementing the principle of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes” when conditions are ripe.79. 1995年8月,中菲共同发表的《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国关于南海问题和其他领域合作的磋商联合声明表示,“争议应由直接有关国家解决”;“双方承诺循序渐进地进行合作,最终谈判解决双方争议”此后,中国和菲律宾通过一系列双边文件确认通过双边谈判协商解决南海问题的有关共识,例如:1999年3月《中菲建立信任措施工作小组会议联合公报、00年5月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府关于1世纪双边合作框架的联合声明等79. In August 1995, China and the Philippines issued the Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines concerning Consultations on the South China Sea and on Other Areas of Cooperation in which they agreed that “[d]isputes shall be settled by the countries directly concerned” and that “a gradual and progressive process of cooperation shall be adopted with a view to eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes.” Subsequently, China and the Philippines reaffirmed their consensus on settling the South China Sea issue through bilateral negotiation and consultation in a number of bilateral documents, such as the March 1999 Joint Statement of the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures and the May 00 Joint Statement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines on the Framework of Bilateral Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century.80. 年月,中国同东盟国共同签署《宣言各方在《宣言中郑重承诺:“根据公认的国际法原则,包括198年《联合国海洋法公约,由直接有关的主权国家通过友好磋商和谈判,以和平方式解决它们的领土和管辖权争议,而不诉诸武力或以武力相威胁”80. In November , China and the ten ASEAN Member States signed the DOC in which the parties solemnly “undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of ce, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 198 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea”.81. 此后,中菲通过一系列双边文件确认各自在《宣言中作出的郑重承诺,例如:年9月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府联合新闻公报、年9月《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国联合声明等81. Afterwards, China and the Philippines reaffirmed this solemn commitment they had made in the DOC in a number of bilateral documents, such as the September Joint Press Statement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the September Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines.8. 上述中菲两国各项双边文件以及《宣言的相关规定,体现了中菲就解决南海有关争议达成的以下共识和承诺:一是有关争议应在直接有关的主权国家之间解决;二是有关争议应在平等和相互尊重基础上,通过谈判协商和平解决;三是直接有关的主权国家根据公认的国际法原则,包括198年《联合国海洋法公约,“最终谈判解决双方争议”8. The relevant provisions in all the aementioned bilateral instruments and the DOC embody the following consensus and commitment between China and the Philippines on settling the relevant disputes in the South China Sea: first, the relevant disputes shall be settled between sovereign states directly concerned; second, the relevant disputes shall be peacefully settled through negotiation and consultation on the basis of equality and mutual respect; and third, sovereign states directly concerned shall “eventually negotiat[e] a settlement of the bilateral disputes” in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 198 UNCLOS.83. 中菲双方多次重申通过谈判解决有关争议,并多次强调有关谈判应由直接有关的主权国家开展,上述规定显然已产生排除任何第三方争端解决方式的效果特别是1995年的联合声明规定“最终谈判解决双方争议”,这里的“最终”一词明显是为了强调“谈判”是双方已选择的唯一争端解决方式,并排除包括第三方争端解决程序在内的任何其他方式上述共识和承诺构成两国间排除通过第三方争端解决方式解决中菲南海有关争议的协议这一协议必须遵守83. By repeatedly reaffirming negotiations as the means settling relevant disputes, and by repeatedly emphasizing that negotiations be conducted by sovereign states directly concerned, the above-mentioned provisions obviously have produced the effect of excluding any means of third party settlement. In particular, the 1995 Joint Statement provides “eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes”. The term “eventually” in this context clearly serves to emphasize that “negotiations” is the only means the parties have chosen dispute settlement, to the exclusion of any other means including third party settlement procedures. The above consensus and commitment constitutes an agreement between the two states excluding third-party dispute settlement as a way to settle relevant disputes in the South China Sea between China and the Philippines. This agreement must be observed.(二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea8. 中国一贯主张,各方应通过制定规则、完善机制、务实合作、共同开发等方式管控争议,为南海有关争议的最终解决创造良好氛围8. It is China’s consistent position that, the relevant parties should establish and improve rules and mechanisms, and pursue practical cooperation and joint development, so as to manage disputes in the South China Sea, and to foster a good atmosphere their final resolution.85. 自世纪90年代以来,中菲就管控争议达成一系列共识:一是在有关争议问题上保持克制,不采取可能导致事态扩大化的行动;二是坚持通过双边磋商机制管控争议;三是坚持推动海上务实合作和共同开发;四是不使有关争议影响双边关系的健康发展和南海地区的和平与稳定85. Since the 1990s, China and the Philippines have reached the following consensus on managing their disputes: first, they will exercise restraint in handling relevant disputes and refrain from taking actions that may lead to an escalation; second, they will stay committed to managing disputes through bilateral consultation mechanisms; third, they commit themselves to pursuing practical maritime cooperation and joint development; and fourth, the relevant disputes should not affect the healthy growth of bilateral relations and peace and stability in the South China Sea region.86. 中菲还在《宣言中达成如下共识:保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化和影响和平与稳定的行动;在和平解决领土和管辖权争议前,本着合作与谅解的精神,努力寻求各种途径建立互信;探讨或开展在海洋环保、海洋科学研究、海上航行和交通安全、搜寻与救助、打击跨国犯罪等方面的合作86. In the DOC, China and the Philippines also reached the following consensus: to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability; to intensify efts, pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence; and to explore or undertake cooperative activities including marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, safe 这些对话只发生在中国 -- :: 来源:chinadaily What kinds of conversations only happen in China? 什么样的对话只在中国发生? Here is a conversation which has happened to me fairly frequently. I get approached by a man or woman who is in her 60s or 70s, and the conversation starts like this: 这里有段经常发生在我身上的对话有个六七十岁的老人朝我走来,然后就会开始这样一段对话: ;Are you married?; “你结婚了没?” ;No.; “没” ;Why not? Do you like men instead?; “为什么还没结?难不成你喜欢男人?” ;No, I like women. I guess I have just not met the right one.; “不,我喜欢女人我觉得我只是还没遇到对的人” ;How much money do you make?; “你赚了多少钱?” ;I make xxx.; “我赚了xxx元” ;Do you own a house?; “你有房吗?” ;No, I don't.; “没有” ;You seem like a decent person. Why aren't you married?; “你看起来很是正派体面你为什么还没结婚?” ;I have had some bad luck.; “我运气不太好” ;Would you be interested in meeting my daughter? She is 0 years old and not married yet. I was wondering if you could meet and become friends?; “你有没有兴趣和我女儿处处?她0岁了,也还未婚我想你们可以见个面然后处个朋友?” By this time, my mind is whirling madly. If agree to meet, their hopes are very high, and if things don't work out, I will end up hurting them. Time some honesty. 这时我心里是一团乱麻如果我答应去见面,他们会对此事抱有很大期望,如果我们处不来,我最终会伤害到他们我应该开诚布公 ;If you give me a way to contact her, I will contact her directly and we can have dinner. But I don't want you to be involved in the process if that's OK with you.; “如果你给我她的联系方式,我会直接去联系她,然后我们可以一起吃顿饭但是我不希望你掺和进来,这样行吗?” ;OK. Do you have a recent photo? I will give it to her and ask her. And give me your phone number so that she can contact you directly.; “没问题你有近照吗?我会给她看看,问问她的意思然后你把你的电话给我吧,这样她就可以直接联系你了” ;Here you go. Thank you.; “就这样吧,谢谢你” In fairness, this kind of conversation has happened to me in the US too, but only among Chinese. 说实在的,在美国,这种对话也有发生在我身上,但仅限中国人之间 There are a lot of desperate Chinese parents out there. 那里有太多对儿女婚事极度焦虑的中国父母 I had this conversation last year, 30 minutes into a first date. We were both 5: 这段对话发生在去年,就在第一次见面的30分钟内我们俩都是5岁: Girl: ;So Peter, how much do you make each month;. 女方:“那么,Peter,你每个月赚多少钱?” Me: ;Um... [an amount];. 我:“嗯,;;;元(一个总额)” Girl: ;That's not bad. Have you bought a house or a car yet?; 女方:“还不错你买房了吗?买车了吗?” Me: ;Neither. I want to invest my income into education.; 我:“都没有我想把我的收入投资在学习方面” Girl: ;Don't you think as a man it is your responsibility to own a house or car?; 女方:“你不觉得你作为一个男人,你有责任买房买车吗?” Me: ;...; 我:“” I don't know just how prevalent this is but all of my male friends in Shanghai and Beijing report having experienced various versions of this conversation, whereas in the UK I'd have found this baffling. 我不知道这种对话有多流行,不过我在上海和北京的男性朋友都说经历过这种对话的多种版本,但是在英国,我发现很多人对此表示不解 Two parents in a complimentresponse interaction: 两个家长互相之间的恭维回应: A: Your child is very intelligent. 你家孩子可真聪明 B: He's not, he's not. 不不,他不聪明 It only makes sense in China. 只有在中国才讲得通大理最好的人流医院是哪家大理能做无痛人流的医院



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