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Those spots are a natural part of the ripening process.其实那些斑点是香蕉成熟过程中的自然组成部分。You see, just like all fresh produce, your bananas are alive.你知道,和所有的新鲜果蔬一样,香蕉是活的。Theyre taking in oxygen to help them convert sugars into energy, and releasing carbon dioxide.它们不断地吸收氧气来并把糖类转换成能量,释放出二氧化碳。This process is called respiration.这一过程称为呼吸作用。The quicker a fruit or vegetable respires, the quicker it ripens.果蔬的呼吸作用越快,则成熟得越快。For most fruits, the respiration rate slows down after the initial growth stage and the fruit ripens slowly.呼吸作用会在生长初期过后减弱,水果的成熟过程也会变慢。The growth and ripening process of bananas, however, is different.然而,香蕉的生长和成熟过程却并不是这样。Although at first the bananas respiration slows down too, when its y to ripen, the bananas pulp releases a chemical that increases respiration.尽管一开始香蕉的呼吸作用也会减弱,但当它快要成熟时,香蕉的果肉会释放出一种化学物质促使呼吸作用增强。This converts the starches in the banana to sugars and gives it its fabulous taste.在这一过程中香蕉会把体内的淀粉转化成糖,从而变得美味无比。With all this respiration, the banana eventually processes all the starches available.正是这种呼吸作用使香蕉最终把所有的淀粉转化成糖。And thats when it begins to die.而这也是它开始变质的时候。 201401/272966

Business商业报道E-commerce and data security电子商务与数据安全The phishers big catch数据大失窃A large theft of company e-mail lists causes controversy众公司电子邮件名单遭遇严重失窃引发争论AN OUTRED consumer-advocacy group is calling it the Fukushima of the e-mail industry.一个出离愤怒的消费者保护团体把这次失窃比作是电子邮件产业的福岛核泄露事件。Comparing mere data theft to Japans nuclear nightmare is perhaps a bit over the top.把仅仅是数据的失窃和成为日本梦魇的核辐射相提并论,可能有些小题大做了;But the theft of data from Epsilon, a marketing-services company, has nonetheless caused widesp concern.但是对于许可电子邮件营销商Epsilon来说,这次它们数据泄露已经引发了广泛的关注。On April 1st Epsilon revealed that an outsider had managed to get hold of the e-mail addresses and names of some individuals that it held on its system.在4月1日的时候Epsilon就透露说,入侵者已经成功窃取了系统上保存的电子邮箱地址和一些个人姓名。Many millions of records are reportedly involved, although Epsilon, which is still investigating the cause of the leak, refuses to confirm the exact number.据传,数以百万计的记录信息遭到窃取,而Epsilon仍在继续调查泄漏原因,并拒绝给出具体的失窃数字。This is hardly the first time that a big security breach has led to the mass theft of digital data.这已经不是第一次由于安全系统遭到破坏而导致大规模用户数据信息的失窃了,But the fallout from the Epsilon debacle will sp far and wide.但这次Epsilon的失窃影响长远。The company sends out more than 40 billion e-mails a year on behalf of many of Americas biggest companies,该公司每年代表众多美国名企发出400多亿封电子邮件,including Target, one of the countrys largest retailers, JPMorgan Chase, a bank, and the McKinsey Quarterly, a management journal.受影响的包括全美最大的零售商塔吉特,根大通, Marks amp; Spencer, a big British retailer, was also among those whose e-mail list was stolen.管理期刊麦肯锡季刊,连英国零售业巨鳄马克斯思班塞也未能辛免于难。Epsilon says that only 2% of its 2,500 clients have been affected by the leak,Epsilon声称这次泄漏事件里,在2500个客户中只有2%受到影响。but given the size of some of those outfits, this is not much consolation.但是如果考虑到客户公司的编制较为庞大,这就算不上是个多么安慰人的消息了。Many of the firms involved have been scrambling this week to let their customers know—by e-mail, inevitably—that their personal data may have been compromised.受波及的公司在这个星期都忙不迭地通过不得不用的电邮去告诉他们的客户,其个人数据可能已遭泄露。Some security experts argue that the fuss over the leak is overblown.有些安全专家认为这次对数据泄露大惊小怪得有点过了。They say that e-mail addresses are far less sensitive pieces of information than, say, medical or financial records.他们认为电子邮件地址信息远比不上某些其他信息来得敏感,比如医疗或者财政记录。People often post their addresses on their Facebook pages, or print them on their business cards.人们经常都会在个人的Facebook或者名片上公开他们的邮件地址。Bruce Schneier, an internet-security expert, thinks it is a bit like worrying about spammers stealing a copy of the telephone directory.网络安全专家Bruce Schneier认为这有点像担心垃圾邮件发送者拿了他们的电话簿一样。All it would do is make their task a bit easier.这只不过是让发垃圾邮件稍微轻松一点罢了。Other observers are taking the leak more seriously because the thief stole,但是其他的观察者就把这次泄露看的严重得多了,in effect, companiescustomer lists and this would allow anyone who buys the lists to aim carefully crafted e-mails at those customers that appear to come from trusted businesses,主要是由于失窃的是众公司客户的邮件地址,这让任何非法购得该名单的人,可以精心选择攻击的邮件对象,像是与受信任业务打交道的客户,asking them to update your account details or otherwise reveal further sensitive information, a scam known as spear-phishing.仅是让他们更新一下账户详细信息或者其他方式都可以暴露其更多的个人敏感信息。这种诈骗手法称为鱼叉式网络钓鱼。Conde Nast, publisher of Vogue, recently lost almost m after falling for a fake e-mail purportedly from one of its printers, asking it to divert payments to a different bank account.时尚杂志Vogue的发行商Condé Nast近期据传中了一个印刷者的假电子邮件的招,要求他把付款转到另外一个账户,接着便损失了将近800万美元。If a flood of dodgy e-mails does now appear, it will certainly damage the reputations of the firms that gave Epsilon their customersdata.如果这些钓鱼邮件现在就层出不穷地冒出来,那当然会极大地损害那些把自己客户信息委托给Epsilon的公司的名誉。Many of them, including Marriott International, a hotel chain, have been quick to blame the marketing firm for the leak and to alert their customers to the risks.包括连锁酒店巨头万豪国际在内的众多公司很快都纷纷把矛头对准信息失窃的Epsilon营销商,并尽快通知了他们的客户可能的风险。But this may not be enough to spare them from criticism.但是这可能不足以平息客户对于他们的指责。Given the size of Marriott, why would you trust a third party to have this information in the first place? wrote a disgruntled commenter on the hoteliers website.一个者用非常不满的语气在酒店官网上写道,如果你考虑到万豪的规模,你怎么会相信一个第三方,直截了当地就把客户信息交给他们?Customers may ask themselves whether companies that cannot keep a simple e-mail list safe can be trusted with more sensitive things, like their credit-card details.许多客户甚至质疑,一个连简单的电子邮件都保管不了的公司,还怎么让人相信他可以保管更为敏感的信息,像是他们的信用卡资料等。They also have reason to worry that other, more serious, leaks are being hushed up.他们同样也有理由去担心其他更为严重的泄露都被掩盖住了。The Epsilon case is just the public tip of an iceberg, says Jeff Hudson of Venafi, a data-security firm.来自数据安全公司的Jeff Hudson说,Epsilon的事情仅仅是冰山一角。Many instances of data loss, he says, are simply not reported.许多数据失窃,他说,都只是没有公开报道罢了。Epsilons leak comes at a time when the authorities in America are taking a hard look at the way peoples electronic data are dealt with.Epsilon的泄漏事件恰好撞在了美国职能部门对个人电子信息处理检查的口时期。On April 4th it emerged that federal prosecutors in New Jersey are examining how software applications for smartphones collect and share data, amid suspicions that privacy laws have been broken in some cases.4月4日,新泽西的联邦检察官对某些检查的智能手机上收集并共享数据的应用程序提出质疑,怀疑其有违反隐私法的嫌疑。Government officials are also formulating new online-privacy rules that will give people greater control over the way information is collected about them on the web.政府也在制定新的互联网隐私规定,使得人们能对网上关于他们个人信息收集的方式有更大自主权。The Epsilon episode will surely encourage them to take a strict line on all sorts of data-handling.Epsilon的这一事件,必然会促其对各种网上信息处理采取更为严厉的举措。 /201304/236897

Business商业报道Eataly意大利美食天堂Let them eat truffles请他们吃松露巧克力糖Italian food for the discerning—and loaded意大利美食专为识货的行家打造FOR cognoscenti, the height of Italian taste these days is not Prada or Maserati, but a food market called Eataly.对《鉴赏家》这本杂志而言,近日来意大利品味的高度不再是普拉达或玛莎拉蒂,而是一个名为Eataly的美食超市。Fruit and vegetables are piled artfully in barrows and crates.水果和蔬菜有序又极具艺术气息地摆放在手推车和板条箱上,Cornucopias of pastas and pestos and peperoncini lie on shelves.架子上是满满的通心粉、香蒜沙司和辣椒酱。Groups of little tables tempt shoppers to stop and sample the salamis, or some of the eye-wateringly expensive truffles for which its founders home town ofAlba, inPiedmont, is famous.一张张的小桌子吸引着消费者驻足品尝意大利腊肠以及让人垂涎三尺的松露巧克力糖,后者不仅仅昂贵,也是该公司缔造者的故乡—位于皮埃蒙特的阿尔巴—著名的特产。Oscar Farinetti set up the first Eataly in 2007, in an old vermouth warehouse in the Lingotto district of Turin.2007年奥斯卡·法立内迪在都灵的林格托一家破旧的苦艾酒仓库建立首家Eataly。His 21st is due to open on December 2nd inChicago.他的第21家分店将于12月2日在芝加哥正式运营。When Eataly came toManhattanin 2010, the media were still reporting queues around the block two weeks later.2010年,当Eataly进入曼哈顿两周后,媒体依然在竞相报道依然包围着该美食城的消费者队伍。Perhaps one of Mr Farinettis American partners—Mario Batali, a well-knownNew Yorkchef—had something to do with that.或许这与法立内迪的美国合伙人之一的马利欧·巴塔利这位著名的纽约大厨有关。But inTokyotoo, after a slow start, people have taken Eataly to their hearts and wallets.然而在东京,渐渐地,Eataly走进了人们的心里,人们甘愿掏钱品尝意大利美食。Mr Farinetti is a serial entrepreneur who had the good sense to sell his previous electrical-retailing business before the bottom fell out of it, and switch to a more promising sector.法立内迪曾多次创业,他有敏锐的商业嗅觉,之前他经营电器零售业务。在这项业务坠入谷底前,他将所有业务转向更有潜力的行业。But he is also a fully paid-up member of the Slow Food movement founded by Carlo Petrini, his friend and fellow Piedmontese.然而他也是慢食运动的正式会员,这一运动是他皮埃蒙特的朋友卡勒·佩特里尼倡导的。Under Mr Petrinis guidance Eataly stocks the produce of several small firms, such as Gragnano durum-wheat pasta, wines from Piedmont and theVenetoand oil from westernLiguria.在佩特里尼的指导下,Eataly采购许多小公司的产品,比如格拉南诺的硬质小麦通心粉,皮埃蒙特和威尼托的酒以及西部利古利亚的食用油。Information cards tell shoppers who produced what and how.产品的信息卡上写着产品品名、生产者及生产过程,消费者一看就知道。The idea, says Mr Farinetti, is not just selling food but “increasing the percentage of people who eat with awareness, choosing high-quality products and paying special attention to the source and processing of raw materials.”法立内迪说,“这个主意不仅仅只是出售商品,而是让更多的消费者有意识地购买食物,挑选高质量的产品,更加关注食品原材料的产地和加工过程。”It works.这确实有效。Turnover this year is likely to be 300m, up by 30% from 2012, thanks to the opening of new shops.由于新店开张,今年的营业额有望达到3亿欧元,较2012年上涨30%。More are planned by 2017, acrossAmericaand inLondonandParis.截止2017年,更多的分店将会在美国各地、伦敦及巴黎开张。Sales have risen in existing stores, too, by 4%-plus inItaly, 5% inNew Yorkand 10% inJapan.已开张的份店的销售额也都在上涨,意大利涨幅超过4个百分点,纽约5个百分点,日本10个百分点。Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation are almost 20% of revenue inNew Yorkand 15% inTurin.除去息税摊销折旧前的收益,纽约的几乎占总收益的20%,都灵的占15%。Eataly provides its customers with gorgeous surroundings—less combative than at Harrods in London, less oppressively wholesome than at Whole Foods Markets, an American chain—in which they might imagine Gianmaria and Francesca weeding the tomato plants or ting the grapes.Eataly为其消费者营造极好的消费环境—不像伦敦的哈罗兹百货公司那般斗志昂扬,也不如美国连锁全食市场那样琳琅满目目不暇接,在那儿人们都可能想象Gianmaria 和Francesca正在为番茄苗除草或者正在踩葡萄出汁。Mr Farinetti is selling them a seductive image ofItalyitself.法立内迪向其消费者营销的实际上是意大利这个意象所代表的国家的魅力。 /201312/267748

Books and arts文艺A memoir of winemaking酿酒回忆录In the drink沉醉美酒The Road to Burgundy: The Unlikely Story of an American Making Wine and a New Life in France. By Ray Walker.《通往勃艮第之路:美国人法国学酿酒,绝处逢生》雷沃克RAY WALKER, a trainee securities representative at Merrill Lynch in California, cashed in his chips before his career had barely begun and decided instead to learn how to make wine.雷沃克是加利福尼亚州美林券公司的有价券实习生代表,就在要开始他的职业生涯之际,他决定去学酿酒。He then moved to France to make red Burgundy, the most rarefied and tricky wine of them all.于是他来到了法国,学习最纯正最优良的勃艮第红酒制作。Now a successful vintner, he has an intoxicating tale to tell.如今他作为一个成功的葡萄酒商人,接下来要告诉我们一个动人的故事。Mr Walker knew nothing about wine before his wife began serving it at mealtimes. But soon it became a passion, then a pursuit.沃克先生对葡萄酒一无所知,直到他的妻子在餐桌上摆上了酒,猛地激发了他对酒的爱好,于是变成了他一生所追随的事业。Though his wife was six months pregnant at the time, he dropped his banking career to follow his dream.他不顾妻子已有六个月的身,辞去了的工作,开始追随他的梦想。The er may well be mystified as to how the author could be so capricious, particularly as he had little beyond his own savings to draw from.读者可能会困惑,为什么作者会这么任性出走特别是在他还有妻小储蓄也不多的情况下。But had events gone another way, this would be a rather different memoir.但他还是走了,换另外一个说法,这将会是一个特别的回忆录。Once he gleaned what he could from books, Mr Walker sought lowly work at wineries in California to learn more about the business.沃克先生来到加利福尼亚的一家酿酒厂索诺玛公司做低等工,他已经不能从书本提供的知识里得到满足了,他期望在公司学到更多关于这个行业的东西。After a season of back-breaking work in Sonoma, this Panglossian figure heads to Burgundy to buy modest grapes from a wine broker.筋疲力尽地工作了一个季度后,这个过分的乐观主义者从法国勃艮第区的一个葡萄酒代理人那里买来了价格适中的葡萄。Instead he ends up securing enough to make three different Burgundies, including two barrels of Chambertin, one of Frances greatest wines.结果,他买到的葡萄足以让他做成三种不同的勃艮第葡萄酒,包括两桶香贝坦红葡萄酒,这是法国最好的葡萄酒之一。None of this could have happened without the support of a laid-back Californian financier, a friend of someone Mr Walker met through an online wine forum.如果没有那个生活优越的加利福尼亚金融家持,所有这些都不会发生。那个金融家是沃克先生在葡萄酒论坛上认识的网友的朋友。After a single telephone call, this man cheerily upped his stake in this modest business to around 150,000.沃克和他通了一次电话之后,这个男人就欣然把投资增加到了15万美元左右,虽然这个行当业绩平平。Mr Walkers good fortune continued in Burgundy, where nearly everyone he dealt with was honourable and helpful, save for two winemakers who tried to sabotage his plans.沃克先生在勃艮第也遇到了好运气,除了两个试图破坏他酿酒计划的勃艮第酒商,那里的人几乎个个都为人正直而又乐于助人。Fortuitously, his first vintage was an exceptional one in Burgundy.意外的是,沃克先生第一次酿的酒在勃艮第特别出众。But there is more to Mr Walkers success than that.沃克先生不仅成功了,他还成了一个受欢迎的又能干的人。He comes across as a likeable, can-do guy who earnestly believes that hard work, confidence and some luck is all it takes to make things happen.他相信努力、自信和好运气是成功的垫脚石。Now ensconced in Burgundy with his wife and young family, he is the only non-Frenchman ever to have made Chambertin.沃克成了第一个做出香贝坦红葡萄酒的非法国籍人士,如今他和妻儿在勃艮第的生活别提有多安逸。A common fantasy of overworked executives is to throw it all in and retire to a vineyard.那些过度劳累的公司高管们通常是幻想着退休后要变卖掉一切然后到一个葡萄园里去享福。Rarely do such endeavours end well.没有人像沃克先生那样如此竭尽全力做到最好收尾的。Mr Walkers story is sure to inspire a few more leaps of faith.沃克先生的故事值得激励那些人来一个一百八十度的转变。 /201404/284607


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