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2018年06月24日 09:17:40|来源:国际在线|编辑:百姓活动

Rodrigo Duterte, the Philippine president, has backed the idea of a new world order led by China and Russia, highlighting global uncertainty about US security and trade goals under Donald Trump.菲律宾总统罗德里戈.杜特尔特(Rodrigo Duterte)持由中国和俄罗斯领导世界新秩序的构想,突显唐纳特朗Donald Trump)当选后围绕美国安全和贸易目标的全球不确定性。The outspoken leader of Southeast Asia’s second most populous country said he might follow Moscow’s lead and withdraw from the International Criminal Court after western criticism of his bloody war on drugs.东南亚人口第二多的国家的这位直言不讳的领导人表示,他可能效仿莫斯科方面的做法,退出国际刑事法ICC)。此前西方批评他发起血腥的禁毒战争。Mr Duterte’s typically forthright remarks, made before he flew to an Asia-Pacific summit in Peru, chime with a sense around the world that Mr Trump’s election win last week has thrown US foreign policy into flux.杜特尔特在飞往秘鲁出席一个亚太峰会之前发表的典型的坦率言论,呼应了世界各地的一种感觉,即特朗普上周当选使美国的外交政策陷入不确定状态。In the run-up to the US poll, the Philippine president attacked the US and praised Beijing and Moscow, casting doubt on Manila’s longstanding alliance with Washington and the security balance in the Asia-Pacific region.在美国大选投票之前,菲律宾总统就在攻击美国,同时赞扬北京和莫斯科,令人们对菲美长期同盟关系以及亚太地区的安全平衡产生疑问。If China and Russia would decide to create a new order, I will be the first to join, Mr Duterte said, in comments aimed at the US and the UN.如果中国和俄罗斯决定创建一种新秩序,我将第一个加入,杜特尔特表示,此言针对美国和联合国。He said he deplored the endless killings in conflicts worldwide under the current global power structure, and declared: Just because it’s America, it doesn’t mean it’s good.他说,他对当前全球权力体系下世界各地冲突中的无止境杀戮感到遗憾,并宣称:就因为是美国,并不意味着它就是好的。Mr Duterte has intensified attacks on the US in his first four months in office, insulting President Barack Oba#172;ma after Washington criticised Manila’s drugs war, in which 2,000 lives have been lost.杜特尔特在其任职头四个月期间大力攻击美国,在美方批评了迄今已导致2000人丧生的菲律宾禁毒战争后,他还对美国总统巴拉奥巴Barack Obama)出言不逊。He used a trip to China last month to announce the Philippinesseparation from Washington, with which has had a security treaty since 1951, although US officials said they had received no formal notifications of any change.他利用上月访问中国的机会,宣布菲律宾与美国分离,尽管美国官员称,他们没有收到关于任何变化的正式通知。自1951年以来,美菲之间一直有一项安全条约。Mr Duterte’s anger appears driven in part by alleged US atrocities during its colonial occupation of the Philippines. 杜特尔特的怒气似乎在一定程度上是由于美国在殖民占领菲律宾期间据称的暴行。He has also spoken of personal bad experiences, including abuse by a US priest and a mysterious explosion years ago involving a US citizen in Davao, where he was mayor for more than two decades.他还谈到个人的不快经历,包括遭到一名美国牧师的虐待,以及多年前发生的涉及在菲律宾达沃市的一名美国公民的一宗神秘爆炸案件,他曾担任达沃市长20多年。He condemned the ICC as useless, echoing criticism from some African states and elsewhere that it battered small countries while leaving powerful ones alone. 他谴责国际刑事法院无用,呼应一些非洲国家和其他国家关于该法院猛打小囀?却不敢触碰强国的批评。An ICC prosecutor suggested last month that the court might have jurisdiction to pursue killers in the Philippine drugs war.国际刑事法院的一名检察官上月提出,该法院可能拥有追究菲律宾禁毒战争中杀人者责任的管辖权。Vladimir Putin withdrew Russia’s signature from the court’s founding statute this week, saying the ICC had not justified the hopes placed on it [or] become an independent, authoritative organ of international justice. 弗拉基米普京(Vladimir Putin)本周从国际刑事法院的成立规约中撤回俄罗斯的签署,称该法院辜负了国际社会对它的期望,未能成为一个独立、有威信的国际司法机构。The decision came a day after the court in The Hague published a report that branded Russia’s annexation of Crimea from Ukraine in 2014 an occupation equivalent to international armed conflict between the two countries.普京作出这一决定的前一天,位于海牙的国际刑事法院发表一份报告,称俄2014年从乌克兰版图吞并克里米亚构成占领,相当于俄乌之间发生了国际武装冲突。The US withdrew from the court’s founding statute in 2002. 美国002年退出国际刑事法院的成立规约。China and India are among countries that have not signed up.中国和印度在尚未签署的国家之列。来 /201611/479236

The first self-styled Islamic state of the postwar era was established not in the Arab world but in south Asia, in Pakistan. It was followed by Mauritania in west Africa, Iran and then Pakistan’s neighbour, Afghanistan.二战后首个自封的伊斯兰国家并非建立于阿拉伯世界,而是在南亚的巴基斯坦。其后是西非的毛里塔尼亚、伊朗,以及巴基斯坦的邻国阿富汗。While the world frets over the sp of violent Islamist extremism through the Middle East, most recently under the banner of Isis, there is a tendency to forget the menace of violence and creeping religious bigotry among the vast Muslim populations of Asia. It is in Asia, after all, that most Muslims live.当全世界为暴力伊斯兰极端主义在整个中东地区扩散——近年来在“伊斯兰国Isis)的旗帜下——而担忧时,却出现了这样一种趋势,即在亚洲广大穆斯林人口中暴力行径和日渐加深的宗教偏执的危害被忽视了。毕竟,亚洲有着世界最多的穆斯林人口。In Asia, as in Europe and the Middle East, Isis is a popular brand among young Islamist militants. But the puritanical and bloodthirsty Sunni ideology it represents has been extending its influence there for decades under the guidance of other groups and governments, including al-Qaeda, Saudi Arabia and a plethora of local organisations.同在欧洲和中东一样,Isis在亚洲也受到了年轻伊斯兰激进分子的欢迎。但Isis所代表的清教徒式、崇尚暴力的逊尼派宗教思想,几十年来就已在其他组织和政府(包括基地组织、沙特阿拉伯以及大量地方组织)的引导下,不断在亚洲地区扩大影响力。Many westerners because their own troops have been fighting and dying there in the recent past are aware of the savagery of the civil war in Afghanistan between the ultra-conservative Taliban and the government in Kabul.许多西方人——因为本国军队过去几年在阿富汗参战并遭受伤亡——都见识到了极端保守的塔利班与喀布尔政府之间内战的残酷。But how many recall that Sunni extremists in Bangladesh have in the past few months hacked to death liberal writers and attacked foreigners, police officers, Shia Muslims, Hindus and Christians? That scores of recruits from the Maldives have gone to fight for Isis in Syria? Or that Pakistani terror groups routinely slaughter the perceived enemies of Sunni puritanism at home as well as launching occasional murderous raids into neighbouring India?但有多少人记得,过去几个月在孟加拉国,逊尼派极端分子砍死自由派作家、攻击外国人、警察、什叶派穆斯林、印度教徒和基督徒的事情?有多少人记得来自马尔代夫的大量新成员已经赶赴叙利亚为Isis战斗?有多少人记得巴基斯坦恐怖组织经常在国内屠杀他们认为与逊尼派清教主义为敌的人士、并不时向邻国印度发动凶残的突然袭击?East Asia is not immune either. Just as south Asians once revelled in their religious diversity and syncretic Hindu-Muslim culture, so it was long argued that the brand of Islam practised in Indonesia and its neighbours was “milderthan the harsh versions of the Gulf. Yet in recent decades we have seen terrorist bombings in Bali, Islamist separatism in the Philippines and Sumatra, the burning of churches in Java and increasing Wahabbi religiosity that runs counter to the tolerant and heterodox traditions of Islam in the east.东亚也未能幸免。正如南亚人曾经陶醉于他们的宗教多样性以及印度教和穆斯林文化的融合,很长时间都有一种声音认为,印尼及其邻国所信奉的伊斯兰教比波斯湾国家的“更加温和”。但最近几十年,我们见了巴厘岛恐怖爆炸事件、菲律宾和苏门答腊的伊斯兰分裂主义、爪哇岛上教堂遭焚毁,以及与伊斯兰教在东方的宽容传统相违背的瓦哈比教Wahhbi)的壮大。Analysing the role of postwar nation states and their constitutions is crucial for understanding the crisis of Islamist violence in Asia: the very name of the country is one reason why the problem is so severe in the pioneering Islamic Republic of Pakistan.分析战后民族国家及其宪法的作用,对于理解亚洲的伊斯兰暴力危机至关重要:巴基斯坦伊斯兰共和Islamic Republic of Pakistan)的名称本身就是这一问题在这个开创性国家为何如此严重的原因之一。When Muhammad Ali Jinnah separated Pakistan from the rest of India in 1947, it was to protect the Muslim minority of the Raj. He envisaged a secular, tolerant state where Christians, Hindus and others could worship freely.1947年穆罕默德阿里真Muhammad Ali Jinnah)带领巴基斯坦脱离印度,是为了保护在英国统治下属于少数族群的穆斯林。他设想建立一个世俗、宽容的国家,基督徒、印度教徒以及其他信教者可以自由礼拜。That was not the way it turned out. Pakistan has become a place where the supposed will of the religious majority is imposed by violence. By becoming an “Islamicrepublic, it by definition discriminated against non-Muslims. Non-Muslims are vilified not only in madrassas but also in government school textbooks.结果事与愿违。在巴基斯坦,被认为是宗教多数派的意志被通过暴力加以贯彻。作为一个“伊斯兰”共和国,巴基斯坦的国名就包含了对非穆斯林的歧视。非穆斯林不仅在伊斯兰学校,而且在政府官方教科书中受到污蔑。Farahnaz Ispahani, a former member of the Pakistani national assembly, describes in her book, Purifying the Land of the Pure, how the non-Muslim share of the population dropped from 23 per cent at independence to 3 per cent today.前巴基斯坦国民议会议员法拉赫娜兹伊斯帕哈Farahnaz Ispahani)在《净化圣洁之地Purifying the Land of the Pure)一书中讲述了巴基斯坦非穆斯林人口比例如何从独立时的23%下降到如今的3%。But the “drip, drip genocide60,000 Pakistanis, she says, have been killed by jihadis did not stop there. Members of the Ahmadi movement were persecuted and declared non-Muslims. Extremists then started massacring Shia. Now the targets are Sufis and other “softSunnis considered insufficiently orthodox by clerics.但“这场慢性种族屠杀”——据她称,有6万巴基斯坦人被圣战分子杀害——并未就此止步。艾哈迈迪教Ahmadi)运动的成员受到迫害,并被宣布为非穆斯林。随后,极端分子开始屠杀什叶派。如今,苏菲Sufis)与其他被宗教领袖视为不够正统的“温和”逊尼派又成了极端分子的目标。There is, nevertheless, a glimmer of hope that Pakistan might, one day, become a moderately open Muslim society. The army seems to have realised that violent Islamists who slaughter Pakistanis pose an existential threat to the state itself.然而,巴基斯坦兴许有一天会成为一个适度开放的穆斯林社会。军方似乎已经意识到,崇尚暴力的伊斯兰主义者对巴基斯坦人民的屠杀将威胁国家的存亡。Unfortunately, the generals make a specious distinction between “goodand “badjihadis, supporting the “goodwho stage terror attacks on Pakistan’s neighbours. The four men who crossed the border and attacked the Indian air base of Pathankot this month were believed to be from a group supported by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agency.遗憾的是,该国将军们对“好”与“坏”圣战分子做了一个似是而非的区分,持那些向其邻国发动恐怖袭击的“好”圣战分子。本月,4名武装分子越过边界,袭击了印度帕坦科Pathankot)空军基地。据信他们来自一个得到巴基斯坦三军情报局(Inter-Services Intelligence)持的组织。Yet, as Ispahani points out, the same people who kill Indians or Afghans in the summer will return home when the fighting season is over and murder Pakistani Shia or persecute the few remaining Hindus and Christians.然而,正如伊斯帕哈尼指出的,战斗季节结束后,在夏季里杀害印度人或阿富汗人的武装分子将回到国内,继续残杀巴基斯坦什叶派,或者迫害人数已经不多的印度教徒和基督徒。If Pakistan and other Asian nations want to survive as modern, constitutional states rather than descend into the communal violence now common in the Middle East, they will have to enforce a minimum level of religious and cultural tolerance and suppress all their extremists.如果巴基斯坦与其他亚洲国家要成为现代宪政国家,而非陷入如今中东常见的集体暴力冲突之中,他们将不得不实行最低限度的宗教和文化宽容政策,并打击各路极端分子。来 /201601/424013

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