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来源:百家知识    发布时间:2019年10月23日 15:22:16    编辑:admin         

科学家揭秘为何冬季多发流感It is a mystery that has baffled doctors for decades.But experts believe they have now finally solved the tricky question of why winter is notoriously known as the flu season.According to new research, the influenza virus coats itself in a protective fatty shield that is tough enough to withstand cold temperatures.The butter-like material only melts when it hits the respiratory tract, leaving the virus free to infect cells - a process scientists say is like an Mamp;M melting in the mouth.However, in warmer outdoor temperatures, the protective coating melts before it reaches a person or an animal, killing the germs before they can infect someone.Joshua Zimmerberg, from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), in the US, which led the study, said: 'Like an Mamp;M in your mouth, the protective covering melts when it enters the respiratory tract.'It's only in this liquid phase that the virus is capable of entering a cell to infect it.'In the past scientists have worked on theories that flu is more common in winter because people spend more time inside or the radiation from the sun in summer kills off germs.But no research has successfully explained the sp of the disease.Researchers have aly claimed that the report, which is published in the journal Nature Chemical Biology, could lead to new ways to prevent and treat flu.Duane Alexander, the director of NICHD, said: 'The study results open new avenues of research for thwarting winter flu outbreaks.'Now that we understand how the flu virus protects itself so that it can sp from person to person, we can work on ways to interfere with that protective mechanism.'Influenza and other respiratory viruses are sp in small droplets broadcast by coughing, sneezing and talking and which can also settle onto surfaces, to be picked up on fingertips. 为何冬季为多发流感?这可是困扰了医生们几十年的一个谜。不过,专家们现在终于解开了这个难题。一项最新研究发现,流感病毒表面包有一层脂肪保护外壳,这种外壳十分坚硬,能抵御严寒。这种油状物质在进入呼吸道后才会融化,病毒被释放后即会感染细胞。科学家称这一过程如同Mamp;M巧克力豆在嘴里融化。然而,在温度较高的环境下,这层保护壳在进入人体或动物体内之前就会融化,因此病毒在感染细胞之前即被杀死。研究负责人、美国儿童健康与人类发展研究所的约瑟华#8226;兹姆格说:“这层保护壳在进入呼吸道时即会融化,就像放入口中的Mamp;M巧克力豆一样。”“而就在这一液态阶段,病毒才得以入侵并感染细胞。”科学家们过去一直在研究冬季易发流感的原因,一些理论称这是因为冬季人们多在室内活动,或是因为夏季的阳光辐射会杀死细菌。但没有一项研究能真正解释流感传播的原因。研究人员们称,这项研究成果能为防治流感提供新办法。研究报告将在《自然化学生物学》期刊上发表。美国儿童健康与人类发展研究所主任杜安尼#8226;亚历山大说:“研究结果为控制冬季流感爆发开辟了新途径。”“现在我们明白了流感病毒是如何保护自己并在人际间传播的,因此我们可以研究如何‘干扰’这种保护机制。”流感及其他呼吸道病毒主要通过咳嗽、打喷嚏或说话时散播的飞沫传播,它也会附着在物体表面,通过被污染的手指接触传染。 /200803/30494。

The teen years are often fraught with door-slamming, eye-rolling and seeming insensitivity, even by kids who behaved kindly before. Some parents worry that they#39;re doing something wrong, or that their children will never think of anyone but themselves.十几岁的孩子常常会摔门、翻白眼,还会显出一副冷冰冰的样子,甚至连之前表现友善的孩子也是这样。一些家长会担心自己做错了什么,或者担心孩子会永远不考虑别人而只考虑自己。New research shows that biology, not parenting, is to blame.新的研究显示,这种现象归咎于生理,而不是家庭教育。In adolescence, critical social skills that are needed to feel concern for other people and understand how they think are undergoing major changes. Adolescence has long been known as prime time for developing cognitive skills for self-control, or executive function.在青春期,关心别人以及理解他人想法所需的关键社交能力发生着重大变化。长久以来,青春期一直被视为赖以自制或执行的认知能力形成的黄金时期。#39;Cognitive empathy,#39; or the mental ability to take others#39; perspective, begins rising steadily in girls at age 13, according to a six-year study published recently in Developmental Psychology. But boys don#39;t begin until age 15 to show gains in perspective-taking, which helps in problem-solving and avoiding conflict.近期刊登在《发展心理学》(Developmental Psychology)上一项为期六年的研究显示,女孩的“认知同理心”(即站在他人立场思考的心理能力)从13岁开始稳步增强。但这种有助于解决问题和避免冲突的换位思考能力,在男孩身上要到15岁才会开始增强。Adolescent males actually show a temporary decline, between ages 13 and 16, in a related skill-affective empathy, or the ability to recognize and respond to others#39; feelings, according to the study, co-authored by Jolien van der Graaff, a doctoral candidate in the Research Centre Adolescent Development at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Fortunately, the boys#39; sensitivity recovers in the late teens. Girls#39; affective empathy remains relatively high and stable through adolescence.荷兰乌特勒大学(Utrecht University)青少年发展研究中心(Research Centre Adolescent Development)士生、此项研究作者之一若利恩?范德赫拉夫(Jolien van der Graaff)称,青春期男性在13到16岁之间一种相关的能力──“情感同理心”(即识别他人的感受并对此做出反应的能力)实际上会暂时减弱。幸运的是,男孩体恤他人感情的能力会在青春期后期恢复。女孩的情感同理心在整个青春期都会稳定在较高的水平。The riptides are often noticeable to parents. Susan Burkinshaw has tried to cultivate empathy in her two teenage sons, 16 and 18, since they were toddlers, encouraging them to think about others#39; feelings. Yet one #39;went through a period in eighth grade where he was just a bear to deal with. He always had an attitude,#39; says Ms. Burkinshaw, of Germantown, Md. #39;Then as quickly as it came on, it turned back off again.#39;家长们通常能注意到这种剧变。马里兰州日耳曼敦(Germantown)的苏珊?布尔金肖(Susan Burkinshaw)的两个儿子一个16岁,一个18岁,她从儿子蹒跚学步时就开始努力培养他们的同理心,鼓励他们考虑他人的感受。但布尔金肖说,“一个儿子上八年级时有段时间很难相处。他总是个性特别强。不过这种状况来得快去得也快,之后他又恢复常态了。”The findings reflect a major expansion in researchers#39; understanding of cognitive growth during adolescence, according to a 2012 research review co-authored by Ronald Dahl, a professor of public health at the University of California at Berkeley. Researchers used to believe that both forms of empathy were fully formed during childhood.加州大学伯克利分校(University of California at Berkeley)的公共健康教授罗纳德?达尔(Ronald Dahl) 2012年与他人共同撰写的一篇研究综述显示,相关发现反映出研究者对青春期认知发展的理解有了重大拓展。研究人员曾认为,这两种形式的同理心都完全形成于儿童时期。Now, it#39;s clear that #39;the brain regions that support social cognition, which helps us understand and interact with others successfully, continue to change dramatically#39; in the teens, says Jennifer Pfeifer, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Oregon in Eugene. Preliminary research in her lab also suggests cognitive empathy rises in teens. The discoveries serve as a new lens for exploring such teen behaviors as bullying and drug abuse.俄勒冈大学尤金分校(University of Oregon in Eugene)的助理心理学教授珍妮弗?普法伊费尔(Jennifer Pfeifer)表示,如今我们已经清楚地认识到,“持社交认知的大脑区域(帮助我们成功地理解他人并与他人交往)在青春期持续发生戏剧性变化”。她所在实验室的初步研究还暗示,认知同理心在青春期有所增强。这些发现为我们探索青少年恃强凌弱和滥用毒品等行为提供了新的视角。Kids who develop affective and cognitive empathy form healthy relationships and argue less with their parents, research shows. Perspective-taking continues to be central for adults on the job, helping in designing and selling products and services, building user-friendly devices, and working smoothly with others with diverse viewpoints and backgrounds.研究显示,情感同理心和认知同理心发展良好的孩子能够与父母建立健康的关系,争执也比较少。换位思考能力在成年人的工作中仍扮演着中心角色,能够帮助人们设计和销售产品和务,开发用户友好型设备并帮助他们与观点、背景各异的其他人顺利合作。Affective empathy is grounded in the limbic region of the brain, which regulates emotions. This capacity begins developing in infancy when parents respond sensitively to babies#39; emotions. Children learn to practice empathy by watching their parents and by experiencing it themselves-being treated well by adults who respond warmly to their feelings, says Anthony Wolf, a Longmeadow, Mass., psychologist, author and speaker.情感同理心植根于大脑的边缘区,这一区域的功能是调节情绪。在婴儿时期,当父母对宝宝的情绪做出体贴入微的回应时,这种能力就开始发展了。马萨诸塞州朗梅多(Longmeadow) 的心理学家、作家兼演说家安东尼?沃尔夫(Anthony Wolf)称,儿童通过观察父母行为及亲身体验(受到对他们的感受做出热情回应的成年人的关爱)来学习换位思考。Cognitive empathy arises from a different part of the brain, the medial prefrontal cortex, which continues developing later, through adolescence. But the two are linked; children#39;s affective empathy predicts their level of cognitive empathy as teens, says a forthcoming study by Caspar Van Lissa, a doctoral candidate at Utrecht#39;s adolescent-research center.认知同理心源自大脑的另一部位──脑内侧前额叶皮质,这种能力之后会继续发展,贯穿整个青春期。但这两种同理心是有联系的;乌特勒大学青少年研究中心的士生卡斯帕?范利萨(Caspar Van Lissa)即将发表的一项研究显示,儿童时期的情感同理心能够预测青少年时期的认知同理心水平。Parents can help instill affective empathy by encouraging children to walk in others#39; shoes. If Ms. Burkinshaw#39;s kids saw a child being teased or treated badly, she asked them, #39;If that had been you, what would you have wanted your friends to do to help?#39;父母可以通过鼓励儿童设身处地来培养他们的情感同理心。如果布尔金肖的孩子看到其他孩子被取笑或者受到不友善的对待,她会问他们:“如果是你的话,你希望你的朋友们怎么帮助你呢?”Her 12-year-old daughter Alexandra recently told her that several classmates had hurt another girl#39;s feelings by blocking her from following them on Instagram. #39;I said, #39;What could you do to help her?#39; #39; Ms. Burkinshaw says. Alexandra talked with her friends, and another mother also intervened. The girls apologized and invited the victim back into the group.她12岁的女儿亚历山德拉(Alexandra)最近告诉她,有几个同班同学伤害了另一个女孩的感情,因为她们阻止她在Instagram上关注她们。布尔金肖表示:“我对女儿说:‘你会做些什么来帮助她呢?’” 亚历山德拉与她的朋友谈了谈,另一位母亲也进行了干预。这些女孩最终道了歉,并邀请受伤害的女孩回到她们的圈子里。Adolescents#39; brains work particularly hard on perspective-taking; teens make heavier use than adults of the medial prefrontal cortex, says Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a professor of cognitive neuroscience at University College London. That may be because understanding others#39; viewpoints takes more conscious effort for teens, while it becomes automatic for adults, Dr. Blakemore says. Perspective-taking continues to develop through age 21.伦敦大学学院(University College London)的认知神经学教授萨拉-杰恩?布莱克莫尔(Sarah-Jayne Blakemore)说,青少年的大脑要费很大功夫来换位思考;他们对脑内侧前额叶皮质的使用得比成年人多。布莱克莫尔士称,这可能是因为青少年理解他人的观点需要更多有意识的努力,而成年人则无须刻意努力。换位思考能力的发展会持续到21岁。The decline in affective empathy among young teenage boys may spring at least partly from a spurt during puberty in testosterone, sparking a desire for dominance and power, says the study in Developmental Psychology. Boys who were more mature physically showed less empathy than others.这项刊登在《发展心理学》上的研究称,青春期前期的男孩情感同理心减弱可能至少在一定程度上是由于青春期睾丸素激增,从而激发了控制欲和权力欲。生理上更成熟的男孩比其他男孩的同理心要弱。Boys also feel pressure from peers and some adults to #39;act like a man,#39; which they often define as being detached, tough, funny and strong, says Rosalind Wiseman, Boulder, Colo., author of #39;Masterminds and Wingmen,#39; a new book about teen boys. They may suppress feelings of empathy so they can join in joking and teasing with peers, she says. #39;Humor is the social glue among boys, and empathy would be a brake on what they can and cannot joke about.#39; So some kids #39;stop listening to their gut.#39;科罗拉多州尔德(Boulder)的罗莎琳德?怀斯曼(Rosalind Wiseman)是《策划者和幕僚》(Masterminds and Wingmen)一书作者,这是一本关于青春期男孩的新书。怀斯曼表示,男孩还会从同龄人和一些成年人处感受到“要表现得像男人”的压力,他们通常理解为要表现出冷漠、强硬、风趣和强壮。她说,他们可能会压抑想要换位思考的冲动,这样才能和同龄人一起开玩笑和调侃。她说:“幽默是男孩的社交粘合剂,而同理心是区别他们能开什么玩笑,不能开什么玩笑的制动器。”这样一来,一些孩子就“不再倾听他们内心的声音了”。Also, some teens may appear insensitive because they#39;re actually struggling to avoid being overwhelmed by their own feelings of empathy, says Brad Sachs, Columbia, Md., a psychologist, author and speaker. #39;Teens who seem aloof, hard-hearted or unkind may in reality be quite the opposite.#39;此外,马里兰州哥伦比亚(Columbia)的心理学家、作家和演说家布拉德?萨克斯(Brad Sachs)表示,一些青少年显出一副冷漠的样子,其实可能是因为他们在努力避免被自己的同理心征。他说:“看起来孤索离群、铁石心肠或者不友好的青少年其实可能恰好相反。”Fathers seem to play a special role. Teens whose fathers are supportive, who say they feel better after talking over their worries with their dads, are more skilled at perspective-taking, says a 2011 study of 15- to 18-year-old boys in Developmental Psychology.父亲似乎扮演着特殊的角色。《发展心理学》 2011年一项针对15-18岁男孩的研究显示,那些能得到父亲热情相助、宣称与父亲倾诉心中烦恼后情绪好转的青少年,更善于换位思考。Yu Oen of Princeton Junction, N.J., encourages his sons Grant, 19, and Sean, 15, to take others#39; perspective by discussing current events with them-including how the people involved must have felt. After the Boston Marathon bombing, they talked about how a runner who lost her legs must have felt when entering a restaurant where everyone else was wearing shorts.新泽西州普林斯顿章克申(Princeton Junction)的友?温(Yu Oen)的儿子格兰特(Grant)和肖恩(Sean)一个19岁,一个15岁,他通过与两个儿子讨论近期发生的事件(包括讨论卷入其中的人会有什么感觉)来鼓励他们换位思考。波士顿马拉松爆炸事件发生后,他们讨论了一位失去双腿的跑步选手走进一家人人都穿短裤的餐馆时会有什么感觉。#39;You can see their reaction: #39;Wow, that is really tough,#39; #39; Mr. Oen says. #39;They feel it: #39;What if that had been me?#39; #39; Mr. Oen and his wife Shirley #39;feel it too,#39; he says. #39;And we take time to talk about these things.#39;温说:“你能看到他们的反应:‘哇,那真的很不好受。’他们感觉到:‘要是这件事发生在我身上会怎样?’”他说,他自己和妻子雪莉(Shirley)“也有同感”。他还表示:“然后我们花了些时间来谈这些问题。” /201311/264619。

This is for everyone who#39;s ever been asked ;Are you feeling OK?; after a bad night#39;s sleep.“你不舒吗?”每个人在没睡好以后都被问起过这样的问题。A small new study in the journal Sleep shows that sleep-deprived faces look more, shall we say, weary -- in the form of redder and more swollen eyes, dark under-eye circles, more wrinkles and droopier eyelids -- than well-rested faces.《睡眠杂志》上一个关于睡眠的研究显示,缺乏睡眠的人比睡眠质量好的人看起来更丑——红红的肿泡眼、黑眼圈、皱纹、无精打采的眼睑。;Since faces contain a lot of information on which humans base their interactions with each other, how fatigued a person appears may affect how others behave toward them,; study researcher Tina Sundelin, M.Sc., a doctoral student in the department of psychology at Stockholm University in Sweden, said in a statement. ;This is relevant not only for private social interactions, but also official ones such as with health care professionals and in public safety.;研究员Tina Sundelin, M.Sc.是瑞典斯德哥尔大学心理学系士。她讲到:“一个人的面部特征可以向外界传达很多信息,直接影响他/她与人的交往。他/她的看起来的疲倦程度会直接影响别人的社交行为。” 她补充道:“疲倦的面孔不经会影响到个人的社交,也会影响到专业人士的工作,比如从事健康工作的人和安保工作的人”The study is based on 10 people who had photographs taken of them at 2:30 p.m. after eight hours of sleep and after going 31 hours with no sleep. Then, 40 study participants looked at 20 photographs and rated them based on fatigue, sadness and facial cues.这个研究是让10名志愿者在分别在享受8小时充足睡眠以后,和31个小时没有睡觉的情况下,在下午两点半拍一组照片。然后让40名志愿者观察这些照片,并根据照片中人的面部的信息将它们分类为疲倦、伤心等类别。Indeed, the photos of the subjects when they were sleep-deprived depicted more dark under-eye circles, paler skin, and droopy corners of the mouth. The study participants also said that the people who were sleep-deprived looked sadder because they looked tired.的确,照片上缺乏睡眠的志愿者看起来有更多黑眼圈、更苍白、嘴角松弛下垂。观察者们还表示,缺乏睡眠的志愿者让人觉得很悲伤,因为他们看起来很累。Recently, a study commissioned by Estée Lauder showed that sleep deprivation couldmake your skin age faster, as well as lower its ability to recover from sun exposure.最近,Estée Lauder的一个研究显示,缺乏睡眠会使你的皮肤老得更快,同时,皮肤对日光损伤的自我修复能力也会更差。本译文属 /201309/255100。

美国《》杂志创刊于1953年。1953年12月《》杂志出版第一期,为月刊,主要面向广大男性读者。关于美国人的文化,我们专门向上海外教网的外教Ashley请教了以下问题:1、How widely is Playboy known is the U.S? 《》在美国有多流行?几乎所有的美国人都知道《》杂志,不论男女,它是一本月刊(Monthly)。2、Is Playboy a porn magazine? 《》杂志算色情杂志吗?Does Playboy contain lots of porn pictures and words? 《》杂志中是否充斥着许多色情的图片和文字?是的,我想《》应该算是色情杂志,其中有许多比较裸露的(naked)的图片。3、Is there any restriction for the sale of Playboy? (such as not to kids, etc.)销售《》是否有一些限制呢?(比如不允许卖给孩子等等。)是的,是有一些限制的,将《》卖给18岁以下的孩子在美国将被视为非法的。就像卖香烟一样,如果您看上去像个孩子,您会被要求出示您的身份(ID)以明您可以购买该杂志,否则您是无法买到的。当然也有一些小贩为了利益照样将《》卖给一些未成年人,这种现象在许多国家都存在。4、Is Playboy more expensive than any other magazines?《》要比其他的杂志贵一些吗?是的,《》显得要贵一些。美国大部分的月刊的内页在150-250,价格约2-3.5美元。5、 Is there another magazine in the US serving in the same way as Playboy? 在美国还有和《》类似的杂志吗?有的比如阁楼风情杂志。 /201304/234137。