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河南中医药大学第一附属医院做祛疤手术多少钱城市咨询

楼主:健康互动 时间:2019年08月20日 07:32:50 点击:0 回复:0
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A couple of months ago, right after my first son was born, I thought about the lessons I wanted to pass along to him that I had learned a little late in life. Among the morals I scribbled down in my mind one that stood out began with a story involving Steve Jobs and ended with the serving of my mother’s last meal.几个月前,我的第一个儿子出生时,我想着自己人生中各种迟迟才学到的经验教训,能够传授给他。在我铭记于心的种种道德准则中,最突出的一条始于一个同史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)有关的故事,终结于我母亲的最后一餐。The Jobs portion of the story occurred on a late-October morning in 2010, when he was sitting with a mutual friend in the restaurant of the Four Seasons hotel in San Francisco. The waitress, a shy woman who looked to be in her mid-30s, according to the friend, approached them and asked what they wanted for breakfast. Mr. Jobs said he wanted freshly squeezed orange juice.乔布斯的故事发生在2010年10月底的一个清晨,当时他和我们共同的一位朋友坐在旧金山四季酒店的餐厅里。侍者是个羞涩的女人,大约35岁左右,朋友说,她走过来问他们早餐要吃什么。乔布斯说想要鲜榨橙汁。After a few minutes, the waitress returned with a large glass of juice. Mr. Jobs took a tiny sip and told her tersely that the drink was not freshly squeezed. He sent the beverage back, demanding another.几分钟后,侍者拿来一大杯橙汁。乔布斯尝了一小口,就简短生硬地告诉她,这果汁不是鲜榨的。他退还了这杯饮料,要她换一杯。A few minutes later, the waitress returned with another large glass of juice, this time freshly squeezed. When he took a sip he told her in an aggressive tone that the drink had pulp along the top. He sent that one back, too.几分钟后,女侍者又拿来一大杯果汁,这一次是鲜榨的了。他又尝了一小口,用严厉的口吻告诉她,果汁里有果肉浮在最上面。他把这杯也退回去了。My friend said he looked at Mr. Jobs and asked, “Steve, why are you being such a jerk?”我的朋友说他看着乔布斯,问:“史蒂夫,你干嘛要这么混蛋。”Mr. Jobs replied that if the woman had chosen waitressing as her vocation, “then she should be the best.”乔布斯回答说,如果那个女人选择当侍者作为自己的职业,“那么她就应该做到最好。”Hearing this story, I was immediately put off by how Mr. Jobs had acted; he was being — to borrow from his breakfast companion — a jerk. But looking past his rudeness (Maybe he was having a bad day?), I couldn’t get the idea out of my mind: No matter what you do for a living, should you do the best work possible?听了这个故事,我一下子就对乔布斯的所作所为产生了反感; 用与之共进早餐的朋友的话来说,他确实是个混蛋。但是如果除去他的粗鲁(也许他那天正好心情不好?),我无法把这个念头赶出脑海:不管你靠什么谋生,难道不应该做到最好吗?Of course, this question breaks down a bit when a job is just a job; it’s not your vocation. It can be especially disheartening when you don’t believe that what you’re doing for a living is appreciated or that it is having very little impact on other people’s lives.当然,如果你的工作只是一份工作,而不是你的“职业”,这个问题就有点不成立了。当你不相信自己谋生的工作受人欣赏,或者对其他人的生活有那么一丁点影响,这会让人非常沮丧。I get it. I was a waiter for many years. I was a line cook. I worked in the garment district in New York City carrying spools of fabric between warehouses. I worked in a salon washing women’s hair. And I worked for a birthday-party camp, dressing up in one of those giant furry character outfits (they stink inside) and doing magic tricks for kids who were not impressed by my card skills.我明白这种感觉。我曾经当过好多年的侍者。我还当过流水线厨师。我曾经在纽约市的装区工作,在一个个仓库之间运送大匹大匹的面料。我曾经在发廊里为女士们洗头。我还曾经在一个生日派对营工作,和其他人一起扮成巨大的毛绒玩具(那些衣里面真的很臭),给孩子们变魔术,不过他们对我玩扑克的技巧不怎么欣赏。And yet it wasn’t until my mother found out that she had terminal cancer in mid-March and was given a prognosis of only two weeks to live that I learned even if a job is just a job, you can still have a profound impact on someone else’s life. You just may not know it.但是直到3月中,母亲被诊出癌症晚期,只有两个月生命的时候,我才明白,就算一份工作只是一份工作,你仍然可以对他人的生活产生深远的影响。你可能只是觉察不到而已。My mother loved shrimp. She had no qualms about where her shrimp came from, if they were fresh or frozen, large or small. She would eat them in a grimy airport cafe or a five-star restaurant. And when she was done with her crustaceans, she always beamed a big smile and, in her posh British accent, said, “Oh, that was just lovely.”母亲喜欢吃虾。不管虾来自哪里,不在乎它们是新鲜的还是冷冻的、大的还是小的。不管是在脏兮兮的机场餐厅抑或五星级饭店,她都要吃虾。饱餐之后,她总是露出灿烂的笑容,用漂亮的英音说,“不错不错。”My mother was the one who taught me how to cook shrimp — and everything else. (When I was really young, I was allowed to lick the leftover chocolate cake icing out of the bowl when I helped in the kitchen.) So I jumped at the chance to become her personal chef for the last two weeks of her life.正是母亲教会了我怎么做虾——还有各种其他菜肴(小时候,如果我在厨房打下手,她就允许我舔去碗里剩下的巧克力蛋糕糖衣)。所以在她人生的最后两星期里,我就抓住机会当上了她的私人大厨。When she asked for some vegetables to nibble on, I fastidiously julienned a cucumber into thin slices, layering them atop one another in a semicircle on a florid porcelain plate.她想要吃可以慢慢嚼的青菜,我便一丝不苟地把一根黄瓜切得薄薄的,一片片列成半圆形,用华丽的瓷盘盛着。When she asked for a pita and hummus, I cut the b into perfect little triangles, found elegant small bowls in her cupboards, and carefully quenelled three dipping options, as if Thomas Keller were watching over my shoulder.她要吃皮塔饼和鹰嘴豆泥,我就把面包切成完美的三角形,从她的柜橱找出精致的小碗,小心翼翼盛上三种蘸酱,就像托马斯·凯勒(Thomas Keller,美国名厨——译注)在身边监视。I proudly took every meal to her on her finest china, placed carefully on an ornate tray and finished off with a single English flower. I prepared every with meticulous detail, unsure if the meal I was taking to her bedside would be her last.我满心自豪地用她最好的瓷器盛放每一餐,用装饰华丽的托盘精心盛放,还要在旁边点缀一种英国花卉。每道菜我都一丝不苟地注重细节,因为不知道我为她准备的哪顿饭会成为她的最后一餐。As the days went by, her appetite started to wane, as did her mind. The meals she asked for grew smaller and smaller. There were fewer slices of cucumber and one less dipping sauce. Then she stopped eating altogether, barely able to finish a cup of white tea.随着时间过去,她的饭量愈来愈小,神志也开始变得不清醒。她要的菜愈来愈少。盘子里的黄瓜片和蘸酱只有一点。最后她完全无法进食,连一杯白茶也喝不完。We all knew the end was near.我们都明白她大限将至。Then one evening my mother became incredibly lucid and called for me. She was craving shrimp, she said. “I’m on it,” I told her as I ran down to the kitchen. “Shrimp coming right up!”一天晚上,母亲突然异常清醒,把我叫到身边,说她想吃虾。“我去弄,”我边说边跑进厨房。“虾马上就来!”The problem was, I didn’t have any. So I did what anyone in that situation would do: I called for takeout. From my mother’s house in Leeds, England, the closest place was Sukhothai, a tiny nondescript Thai restaurant a few miles away. My sister ordered, and we headed over in the car as quickly as we could.问题是,我根本就没有虾。所以我做了任何人在这种情况下都会做的事:打电话叫外卖。母亲的家在英格兰利兹,附近最近的餐馆是几英里外一家名不见经传的小小泰餐馆,名叫素可泰(Sukhothai)。我的姊打电话点了单,我们飞快地冲进车子。The restaurant was bustling. In the open kitchen in the back I could see a dozen men and women frantically slaving over the hot stoves and dishwashers, with busboys and waiters rushing in and out.那家餐馆里乱哄哄的。我看见后面的敞开式厨房里有十几个男男女女在炉灶和洗碗机边热火朝天地卖命苦干,小工和侍者们不停进进出出。While I stood waiting for my mother’s shrimp, I watched all these people toiling away and I thought about what Mr. Jobs had said about the waitress from a few years earlier. Though his rudeness may have been uncalled-for, there was something to be said for the idea that we should do our best at whatever job we take on.我站在那儿,等着给母亲的虾,看着这些人忙忙碌碌,突然想起几年前乔布斯说过的关于侍者的那番话。尽管他的粗鲁完全没有必要,但“不管做什么工作都应当做到最好”这个理念确实有一定道理。This should be the case, not because someone else expects it. Rather, as I want to teach my son, we should do it because our jobs, no matter how seemingly small, can have a profound effect on someone else’s life; we just don’t often get to see how we’re touching them.事情理应如此,并不是因为别人的期待。我想告诉儿子的是:这是因为我们的工作不管看上去多么渺小,都可能会对他人的生活产生深远的影响;我们只是无法经常亲眼目睹我们是以什么样的方式触动他们。Certainly, the men and women who worked at that little Thai restaurant in northern England didn’t know that when they went into work that evening, they would have the privilege of cooking someone’s last meal.是的,这些在英国北部的小小泰餐馆里工作的男女们不知道,他们如常工作的这个晚上,将会有幸为某人烹制一生中的最后一餐。It was a meal that I would unwrap from the takeout packaging in my mother’s kitchen, carefully plucking four shrimp from the box and meticulously laying them out on one of her ornate china plates before taking it to her room. It was a meal that would end with my mother smiling for the last time before slipping away from consciousness and, in her posh British accent, saying, “Oh, that was just lovely.”就是这一餐:我在母亲的厨房里打开外卖包装,小心翼翼地从盒子里拿出四只大虾,悉心放在一只精美的瓷盘里,拿进她的房间。就是这一餐,母亲吃完,最后一次露出笑容,用她那漂亮的英音说,“不错不错”,然后慢慢陷入了长眠。 /201508/395606Swearong at work "boosting team spririt,morale"Regularly swearing at work can help boost team spirit among staff, allowing them to express better their feelings as well as develop social relationships, according to a study by researchers.一项研究表明,员工在工作中常说说粗话有助于促进团队精神,因为这可以使他们更真实地表达情绪及建立社会关系。Yehuda Baruch, a professor of management at the University of East Anglia, and graduate Stuart Jenkins studied the use of profanity in the workplace and assessed its implications for managers.东安格利亚大学的管理学教授耶胡达#8226;巴鲁克和研究生斯图亚特#8226;詹金斯共同研究了工作场合的“爆粗”现象,并就管理者应如何处理这一问题提出了建议。They assessed that swearing would become more common as traditional taboos are broken down, but the key appeared to be knowing when such language was appropriate and when to turn to blind eye.研究人员发现,随着一些传统禁忌被打破,员工在工作中说粗话会越来越普遍。(而对于管理者来说,)关键是要分清员工何时讲这样的话是恰当的,以及在什么情况下可以“充耳不闻”。The pair said swearing in front of senior staff or customers should be seriously discouraged, but in other circumstances it helped foster solidarity among employees and express frustration, stress or other feelings.两位研究人员称,应禁止员工在高级职员及客户面前说粗话,但在其它情况下,说说粗话有利于促进员工之间的团结与合作,并有助于减轻压力、发泄不满或其它情绪。Banning swear words and reprimanding staff might represent strong leadership, but could remove key links between staff and impact on morale and motivation, Baruch said.巴鲁克说,一些上司禁止员工说粗话或谴责员工说粗话,这可能会显得他的领导能力很“强”,但这样做可能会切断员工之间的重要联系,而且会打击员工的士气及工作积极性。"We hope that this study will serve not only to acknowledge the part that swearing plays in our work and our lives, but also to indicate that leaders sometimes need to 'think differently'.“我们希望这一研究不仅能让人们认识到讲粗话是我们工作及生活中的一部分,同时也要让领导们意识到有时候需要‘换个角度看问题’。”"Managers need to understand how their staff feel about swearing. The challenge is to master the 'art' of knowing when to turn a blind eye to communication that does not meet their own standards."“管理者应该了解员工说粗话时的感受。领导们面临的挑战是知道何时对‘不符合标准’的话语充耳不闻,这也是他们需要掌握的一门‘艺术’。”The study, "Swearing at work and permissive leadership culture: when anti-social becomes social and incivility is acceptable", is published in the latest issue of the Leadership and Organisational Development Journal.该项名为“员工爆粗及领导艺术:当爆粗被接受及能带来社会效应时”的研究在《领导艺术及组织发展期刊》最新一期上公布。 /200803/30008On its annual developer conference, Apple revealed new versions of its key software for its phone, tablet, watch and Mac products alongside new AI features and opening up Siri to third party apps in abid to rival Facebook, Google and Amazon#39;s smart assistants.苹果公司在一年一度的开发者大会上展示了为其手机、平板电脑、手表和Mac产品开发的新版本关键软件以及最新的人工智能特性,并通过竞标形式向一些第三方应用开放Siri,与脸书、谷歌和亚马逊的智能辅助务竞争。Craig Federighi of Apple revealed iOS 10, which he said was the #39;biggest ever overhaul#39; of the firm#39;siPhone and iPad software. The software has been redesigned to include new smart notifications that use the iPhone 6S#39;s 3D touch. They can include live status updates for apps such as Uber. Voicemails will also be automatically transcribed into text, and a new feature will warn if an incoming call could bespam. The messages app also now includes a new emoji prediction feature, along with the ability to include handwriting and previews, as well as new bubble effects including invisible ink and the ability to change text sizes. Developers will also be able to create their own effects with Message apps.苹果公司的克雷格·费德里吉称iOS 10是对iPhone和iPad的软件系统所做的“史上最彻底改造”。经重新设计的新系统包括全新的智能通知,融合了iPhone 6S的3D触摸技术;新通知中还会包括一些应用如Uber的实时状态更新。语音信箱会自动转换为文本,还有一项新功能是如果来电可能是骚扰电话,系统会发出警告。短信应用现在多了一项全新的表情符号预测功能;除此之外,短信中可以加入手写及视频预览;还有包括隐形墨在内的全新气泡特效;还可以改变字体大小;开发人员也可以在短信应用中创造自己的特效。Siri will also be utilised in the firm#39;s new smart keyboard to try and understand what the user wants to type. It can learn what a user wants and make suggestions for replies. It can also access a user#39;s calender and fill in information in other apps.Siri会应用于苹果的全新智能键盘中,尝试理解用户想打什么字。它可以通过学习来预测用户所想,并给出回复建议。Siri还可以进入日历,帮助用户在其它的应用中填写信息。Apple#39;s AI will also be used in a new Photo app to recognise people in pictures on the handset, and even identify objects and scenes. The new app has a memories section, which brings together pictures and from trips in one place. It can even put them together to automatically create AI movies of holidays.苹果的人工智能技术也将应用于全新的照相应用中,以识别手机照片中的人脸,它甚至能辨别物体和风景。这款全新的应用中包含记忆组件,可以将旅途中摄于同一处的照片和视频归集起来,甚至可以在此基础上自动生成人工智能假期影片。Maps has also been redesign to take on Google with smart suggestions based on a user#39;s location or calender, with a new navigation app.地图应用也经过重新设计,采用谷歌地图,甚于用户的定位或日历来提供智能建议,并有了全新的导航应用。Eddy Cue revealed a new version of Apple#39;s music app. It has been completely redesigned #39;from the ground up#39; said Cue. #39;It has a beautiful new design - the music is the hero.#39;埃迪·库伊展示了全新的苹果音乐应用,库伊说这个应用已经“从头到脚”完全重新设计过了。“它拥有崭新、漂亮的设计界面,而音乐是其主角。”Cue also revealed a new News app, which now has 2,000 publishers on board. Users will also be able to subscribe to magazines and newspapers, and the app will show breaking news notifications.库伊还展示了新版的新闻应用,现在它已经包含2000份出版物了。用户将可以通过它订阅杂志和报纸,新闻应用还会推送突发消息到通知系统中。Federighi also unveiled a new version of HomeKit, which allows people to control home appliances from their handset. A new Home app will allow people to control their lights, blinds, locks and other smart appliances from a single app. It will use the Apple TV as a home hub, allowing people to remotelyaccess their devices.费德里吉还展示了新版智能家居平台,有了它,人们就可以通过手机控制家用电器了。全新的家居应用可以让用户通过一个单一应用操控电灯、百叶窗、门锁和其它智能家居。它将把苹果电视作为其操作枢纽,让人们远程控制他们的设备。iOS 10 will be available in the fall, with a beta version set for the summer.iOS 10将于今年秋天正式发布,而夏天就会有试用版套装。 /201606/449643There are museums devoted to pretty much everything: bad art, instant ramen, hair. Now there is a museum in southern England devoted to excrement.世界上什么样的物馆都有,有收藏烂艺术、方便面、还有毛发的。如今,英格兰南部又有了一间致力于收集粪便的物馆。The National Poo Museum, which opened in March at the Isle of Wight Zoo in Sandown, was created by a small group of artists from a collective called Eccleston George. The group, which usually makes interactive exhibits for schools and zoos, was looking for a new project that could generate a trickle of income for its artists. The idea for the museum originated when a member, Daniel Roberts, was walking on a country path in Sweden and happened upon some mysterious animal droppings.“国家便便物馆”(National Poo Museum)今年三月在英国桑当的怀特岛动物园(Isle of Wright Zoo)开幕,由名叫埃克莱斯顿#8231;乔治(Eccleston George)的艺术家团体中的几个成员所创立。该团体经常为学校与动物园制作互动式展览,而创馆初衷是为了找个能给成员带来一点收入的新项目。这是他们的成员丹尼尔#8231;罗伯茨(Daniel Roberts)的主意,起因于他曾在瑞典的乡间小路上散步时,看到的一些神秘的动物粪便。“Everyone stopped in their tracks to wonder what sort of poo it was,” Mr. Roberts said. “It ended up being from a lynx.”“大家都停下脚步来猜想这是哪种便便,”罗伯茨说。“结果是山猫的。”He was struck, he said, by how intrigued his companions were. “People are disgusted by poo, but there’s also this fascination with it,” he said. And so the National Poo Museum was born.罗伯茨说,同伴们着迷的模样触动了他。他表示:“大家都觉得大便很恶心,却又无法不对它感到好奇。”国家便便物馆于焉诞生。It is more of an exhibit than a museum, occupying a single room at the zoo, where it will be open until the end of the summer; after that, it will go on tour. It features 20 examples of feces from different animals, including pigeon, meerkat and lion. Each sample is suspended in a sphere of clear resin that can be illuminated with the touch of a button.不过这间物馆比较像是一个展览,只占了动物园里一个厅的空间,开放时间到夏季结束为止。接下它会巡回各地展出。馆内展示了20种不同动物的粪便样本,包括鸽子、猫鼬,还有狮子。每个样本都固定在透明树脂球里,可以按钮点亮灯光来观看。Before it is preserved this way, each sample must be dried. The bird droppings dried quickly, but a cowpat took about a week to dry out and the lion feces almost two weeks.各个样本在用这种方式保存之前,都要先干燥处理。鸟屎干得很快,牛粪团要一周才能彻底干燥,狮子粪则要两周时间。One of the more interesting samples, from a herring gull, has a white object tangled in it.在那些最引人入胜的样本当中,有一个来自银鸥的粪便,里面缠着一个白色物体。“The white part is the remnant of a plastic bag,” said Nigel George, one of the Eccleston George artists. “This tells a story of what human beings are doing to the ecology of a place.”“那个白色的东西是塑胶袋残余,”来自埃克莱斯顿#8231;乔治的艺术家奈吉尔#8231;乔治(Nigel George)表示。“这给我们讲了个故事,说明人类对一个地方的生态会造成什么影响。”The museum also features information on bowel cancer and the importance of keeping sewer pipes unblocked and unclogged, among other helpful tidbits about feces.除了展出其他颇有裨益的排泄物趣闻,物馆也特别介绍了肠癌的相关资讯,以及保持下水道管线畅通的重要性。“It’s had a huge resonance with kids,” said Bill Cane, another member of the collective. “The poop emoji is super popular now, and it seems to be riding quite a bit on that.”“孩子们和这个地方产生了很大的共鸣,”这个艺术团体另一名成员比尔#8231;凯恩(Bill Cane)表示。“便便表情符号现在超火,我们的物馆似乎搭上了顺风车。”In fact, Mr. Cane said, one of the children who visited the exhibit came clutching a plush-toy poop emoji.凯恩表示,有个孩子来参观的时候,手里还真抓着一个便便表情符号的玩偶。 /201608/459067

Burning cash has become alarmingly fashionable among Chinese internet companies, many of whom have taken to paying customers massive subsidies to use their services in hopes that their competitors go out of business before they run out of money. 中国的互联网公司极其流行“烧钱”,已到了令人担忧的程度。很多公司都习惯了向用户付高额补贴,以吸引用户使用它们的务,指望在它们花光钱之前,竞争对手们会先破产。 One start-up, Emao.com, which aims to be an online platform for car dealerships, has based its entire marketing strategy around losing money. “We burn cash from our investors to win the hearts of car shoppers,” a recent ad says. 初创公司一猫汽车网(Emao.com)希望打造一个汽车经销商的在线平台,其整个营销战略都是围绕着赔钱建立的。“烧投资人的钱,买车人的心”——该公司近期打出这样的广告词。 Travis Kalanick, chief executive of Uber, boasted earlier this year that the ride-sharing app’s China affiliate was losing more than bn a year, in part because of the subsidies it was paying to grab market share. A local car hailing app, Didi Kuaidi, is waging a fierce price war against Uber in several cities. 优步(Uber)首席执行官特拉维斯#8226;卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)今年早些时候吹嘘,这款共乘应用的中国分一年亏损逾10亿美元,部分原因是付补贴以抢占市场份额。本土叫车应用滴滴快的(Didi Kuaidi)正在多个城市与优步大打价格战。 Uber’s competitors have made it clear they will not be outspent. Jean Liu, Didi’s president, said in September that “we wouldn’t be here today if it wasn’t for burning cash”. The company’s chairman, Cheng Wei, said the company spent bn last year in what he called “market fostering”. 优步的竞争对手们表态说,它们在花钱上不会落于人后。滴滴快的总裁柳青(Jean Liu)去年9月表示:“不烧钱我们走不到今天这一步。”该公司董事长程维表示,去年滴滴快的花费40亿美元进行“市场培育”。 Executives from another rival carhailing app, Yidao Yongche, said last month that they are “entrapped in a cash burning vortex”. Zhou Hang, the chief executive, said recently: “We have prepared at least Rmb3bn-Rmb5bn of ammunition for the year.” 另一家叫车应用易到用车(Yidao Yongche)的高管们上月表示,他们“卷入了烧钱的漩涡”。该公司首席执行官周航近期表示:“我们为今年准备了至少30亿到50亿元人民币的‘弹药’。” “Burning cash” may not sound like a viable business model, but these young companies argue that paying customers to use their services is necessary to build their brands and achieve the scale needed to compete. This is especially true in China, where a shift from an investment-driven to a consumption-led economy, which the government insists is under way, makes the goal of buying Chinese consumers — in hopes that one day they will buy your wares — look appealing. “烧钱”听起来可能不像是一种可行的商业模式,但这些创立不久的公司主张,为了建立品牌,获得与人竞争所需要的规模,付钱让用户使用它们的务是必不可少的。在中国尤其如此,中国正在从投资驱动型经济转向消费拉动型经济——政府坚称转型正在进行中——这使“收买”中国消费者的目的——即希望有一天他们会购买你的产品——显得很有吸引力。 At least some see it this way. Others claim the Chinese internet fad for burning cash heralds the top of an internet bubble. Just as Silicon Valley companies convinced investors that profits no longer mattered during the 1990s dotcom bubble, China’s internet companies have made a fetish out of losing money. 至少有一些人是这么看的。还有一些人则认为,中国互联网行业热衷烧钱的风气预示着互联网泡沫快胀到头了。在上世纪90年代的网络泡沫时期,硅谷公司说投资者,利润不再重要,如今中国的互联网公司也一样迷上了亏钱。 “A lot of these companies will be forgotten when the money runs out,” said Ma Jihua, founder of Datareal consulting, who estimates that as much as Rmb50bn a year is being poured into subsidies aimed at connecting Chinese consumers via their smartphones to taxis, massages and car washes. “钱用光后,很多公司都会被遗忘,”达睿咨询(Datareal)创始人马继华表示。他估计,为了吸引中国消费者通过智能手机使用打车、和洗车等务,互联网公司每年用在补贴上的资金多达500亿元人民币。 But he concedes that companies have little choice. “In this market, if you don’t burn cash you won’t get market share which means you won’t get funding, consequently meaning you won’t stand a chance against competitors that do burn.” 但他也承认,企业别无选择。“在这个市场上,如果你不烧钱,你就无法获得市场份额,这就意味着你吸引不到投资,结果是你在烧钱的竞争对手面前毫无机会。” ‘A big party for consumers’ “消费者的盛宴” Funded largely by venture capital and private equity firms, along with larger — and profitable — internet companies like Tencent and Alibaba, most of the subsidies are going into apps that aim to be the Uber of massages or the Airbnb of car washes. These “online to offline” services, or O2O, are the hottest investment theme in China’s internet sector. 投资主要来自风险资本公司、私募公司,以及腾讯(Tencent)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)等规模更大并且盈利的互联网公司。大部分补贴投向各类应用,它们都希望成为务业的优步,或者洗车务业的Airbnb。这些“线上到线下”(O2O)务是中国互联网行业时下最热门的投资主题。 The potential benefits to the market leaders help explain why they are so willing to spend: according to HS, China’s O2O sector is a Rmb10tn market that is only 4 per cent penetrated, and grew 80 per cent year on year in the first half of 2015. HS estimates that in five years the “profit pie” in the industry would be worth Rmb26bn. 市场领军者的潜在利益有助于解释它们为何如此乐意花钱:根据汇丰(HS)的数据,中国O2O市场有10万亿元人民币规模,而目前渗透率只有4%,这个市场在2015年上半年同比增长了80%。汇丰估计,这个行业的“利润蛋糕”在5年内将达260亿元人民币。 “O2O right now is a big party for consumers,” said Meng Xing, CEO of Helijia, a health and beauty app, in an interview last month. “We have no plans to make profit in the near future, because the VCs are still offering money.” 健康美容应用河狸家(Helijia)首席执行官孟醒上个月在一次采访中表示:“眼下O2O对消费者而言就像一场盛宴。我们没有在近期实现盈利的计划,因为风投还在提供资金。” Over the past year, his company has “burnt several hundred million renminbi,” he said, though he has cut back on subsidies after his main competitor went out of business. “That’s just how the Chinese internet is, it’s too popular. There are so many VC and [private equity] companies that are willing to fund these wars.” 孟醒表示,过去一年他的公司“烧掉了几个亿的人民币”,不过在最大的竞争对手倒闭后,他已经降低了补贴。“这就是中国互联网的情况,太火了。有很多风投和(私募)公司愿意为这些战争提供资金。” Start-ups are busy raising funds from investors at ever more dizzying valuations, only to plough them back into subsidies. Recent funding rounds have valued Didi Kuaidi at bn, up from bn last July. Uber China was valued at bn in a January funding round, while the merger of Meituan and Dianping, the two largest food delivery and group discount sites, was valued at bn-bn in November. 各家初创公司都在忙着融资,它们的估值一次比一次惊人,筹得的资金大多用于补贴。滴滴快的去年7月估值为150亿美元,在最近几轮融资中已达到200亿美元。中国优步(Uber China)在今年1月的一轮融资中估值为70亿美元。去年11月,中国最大的两家美食外卖和团购网站——美团(Meituan)和大众点评(Dianping)合并,估值为150亿-170亿美元。 Many of these companies do not publish financial statements, so it is impossible to see what the true scale of cash burn is. Mr Zhou estimates that Rmb20bn was burnt by car-hailing apps like Yidao, Uber and Didi Kuaidi on rider subsidies in 2015, while Meituan Dianping, the biggest seller of restaurant reservations and cinema tickets in China, put out a cryptic press statement in February that said it had “saved food lovers Rmb58bn” in 2015. 这些公司大多没有公布财务报表,所以外界无法得知它们实际的烧钱规模。周航估计,2015年易到用车、优步和滴滴快的等打车应用在乘客补贴上烧掉了200亿元人民币。美团大众点评在2月份发布了一份含糊的新闻稿,称2015年“为吃货节省了580元人民币”,该公司是目前中国最大的订餐及电影票销售网站。 Last year, 84 O2O companies went bankrupt, but the sector also attracted huge headline investments. Alibaba and its payment affiliate, Ant Financial, announced they will each invest Rmb3bn to develop a food delivery service called Koubei, while search engine Baidu has said it would invest Rmb20bn in Nuomi, a group discount and food delivery app. 去年中国有84家O2O企业倒闭,但该行业也吸引了大量引人瞩目的投资。阿里巴巴及旗下付公司蚂蚁金(Ant Financial)宣布将各自投入30亿元人民币,发展送餐务“口碑”(Koubei)。搜索引擎百度(Baidu)则表示将向旗下团购和送餐应用“糯米”(Nuomi)投入200亿元人民币。 JP Gan of Qiming, a venture firm that is funding the Helijia app, says there is method to the subsidy madness. “Most sophisticated venture capitalists are looking at the same model — you buy users, you buy service providers, you scale up the platform to 100 cities or 200 cities, and you build up a concentrated workforce to provide services to the parts of the cities where there are customers,” he says. 启明创投(Qiming)是投资河狸家应用的风投公司之一,该公司的甘剑平(JP Gan)表示,这种狂热的补贴行为是有章法的。他说:“多数资深的风险资本家都在盯着同样的模式——你买用户,买务提供商,把平台扩展到一二百个城市,召集大量人手,向城市中消费者集中的区域提供务。” But the pitfalls are obvious in a sector where the providers are fragmented and the services closely resemble each other. Ken Xu of Gobi Capital, a VC firm in Shanghai, says the problem is that “the user has no loyalty to anybody in these sectors; they only go for the apps that have the subsidies. In car-hailing apps, everybody is starting to realise they are subsiding the same group of people who either use Uber or Didi Kuaidi, depending on who is paying them more.” 但是O2O行业的缺点也是显而易见的,比如供应商分散,务同质性很高。上海风险投资公司戈壁创投(Gobi Capital)的徐晨(Ken Xu)表示,问题在于“用户对这些行业的任何企业都没有忠诚度,他们只使用有补贴的应用。在打车应用领域,所有人都开始认识到,他们补贴的是同一群人,这群人既用优步也用滴滴快的,谁补贴多就用谁”。 ‘Last man standing wins’ “最后还站着的人就赢了” The O2O model has been subjected to scrutiny elsewhere, especially in the US, where many apps that form the basis of the “gig economy” have failed after venture funding dried up. That experience has spawned worries in China about whether the same will happen once the era of “VC welfare” ends. 在其他地方,O2O模式已经遭受过审视,尤其是在美国,许多组成“零工经济”(gig economy)基础的应用都在风险资金枯竭后失败。这些经验在中国引发担忧:一旦“风投福利”时代终结,是否也会发生同样的情况? One difference between the US and China, however, is that the offline shopping and services are so much farther developed in the US that “business is not desperate for the internet to make it more efficient or attractive”, says Duncan Clark, head of Beijing technology consultancy BDA and author of a forthcoming book on Alibaba. In China, bricks-and-mortar commerce is often overpriced or simply dismal, he says, so investors are betting that the internet will be the primary way that Chinese connect to services in the future. 不过中美之间有一个区别,就是美国的线下购物和务要成熟得多。北京达克咨询公司(BDA China)的董事长邓肯#8226;克拉克(Duncan Clark)表示:“美国企业并不渴望用互联网来提高效率或增加吸引力。”邓肯写的一本关于阿里巴巴的著作即将出版。邓肯表示,在中国,实体商业往往产品定价过高,或者不能提供愉快体验,因此投资者相信未来互联网将成为中国消费者与务“连接”的首要方式。 “In the west, we’ve had efficient retail for a long time,” Clark adds. “In a sense China is leapfrogging the west.” “在西方,我们的零售长期以来是高效的,”克拉克补充称,“在某种意义上,中国正在超越西方。” Another advantage for China’s high tech economy is a distinctly low-tech factor: labour costs. Couriers are 10 to 20 per cent the cost of what they are in the US. 中国高科技经济的另一个优势是一个低技术含量的因素:劳动力成本。中国快递成本是美国的10%至20%。 Hans Tung, a managing partner at GGV Capital, said that cheap labour and urban population density in China are among the main reasons why the O2O services are economic, compared with the US, where the sector has struggled. “In the US there has been uneven uptake of this so-called gig economy because consumers are more sp out, delivery cost is higher, usage frequency is lower,” he says. “It is harder, besides Uber and Airbnb, for start-ups in this category.” 纪源资本(GGV Capital)的管理合伙人童士豪(Hans Tung)称,廉价劳动力和城市人口密集是O2O务在中国具有经济效益的两个主要原因,而在美国,这个行业发展困难。“在美国,由于消费者更加分散、配送成本更高、使用频率更低,这种所谓的零工经济发展不均衡,”他称,“除了优步和Airbnb外,这一类的初创企业是比较艰难的。” In China these factors are all flipped in favour of the industry. “The costs of delivering O2O services are lower, urban population is denser, and therefore, the fundamentals of the sector can be better once there is consolidation around category leaders,” he says. 在中国,这些方面的因素都有利于O2O行业的发展。“O2O务的配送成本更低,城市人口密度更大,因此,一旦行业领头羊出现整合,行业的基本面可能更好,”他称。 But it is clear that subsidies still play a defining role. 但显而易见的是,补贴仍然起着决定性作用。 Companies are giving massive discounts to tempt consumers. At Rmb99 on the app goodchef.com, it is cheaper to invite a chef over to your house to cook a five-course Sichuan meal than to go to a restaurant, where the same meal might set you back Rmb200. Taking an Uber ride a short distance for Rmb8 is two-thirds the price of a ride in a licensed taxi, whose fares are aly held low by government fiat. 企业以极低的折扣来吸引消费者。在“好厨师”应用上,只要99元人民币就可以请一名大厨上门做5道川菜,而去餐厅吃同样一桌菜可能要破费200元。用优步短途出行只需要8元人民币,是乘坐有牌照出租车的价格(已经被政府法令压低了)的三分之二。 A driver for both Uber and Didi, who gave his name only as Mr Guo, says both companies pay subsidies that often amount to two to three times the cost of the ride. 一名只透露自己姓郭的优步兼滴滴司机称,两家公司付的补贴通常相当于行程成本的两到三倍。 “Subsidies are an essential part of the income. Because of the competition, the fare is very low,” says Mr Gou. “Without subsidies, the fare is not enough to cover the gas — it wouldn’t pay off.” “补贴是收入中必不可少的部分。由于竞争,车费已经非常低了,”郭先生称,“如果没有补贴,车费还不够油钱——划不来。” The ultimate viability of this business model depends on what happens when the money stops, as it inevitably will, say analysts. 分析师称,这种商业模式最终的可行性将取决于停止烧钱——这是不可避免的——后会发生什么。 Last year, there were aly signs that investors have had enough of “cash burn”. Pressure from investors was thought to be behind the merger last year of Didi Dache and Kuaidi Dache, two reigning taxi apps, who no sooner had solved their cash burn problem than Uber appeared on the scene. Later in the year, Meituan and Dianping merged, only to be confronted with search engine Baidu’s competing platform Nuomi. 去年已经出现了投资者受够了“烧钱”的迹象。来自投资者的压力,被认为是去年滴滴和快的合并背后的原因。这两家领先的打车应用刚解决了烧钱的问题,优步就登场了。去年末,美团和大众点评合并,只是为了对抗搜索引擎百度旗下的平台糯米。 “That’s the story of the Chinese internet — the last man standing always wins. And sometimes when there are two last men standing they will merge,” says Mr Gan of Qiming. “这就是中国互联网的故事——最后一个站着的人总会赢的。有时,如果最后还站着的是两个人,他们会合并,”启明的甘剑平称。 Brian Viard, an economist who teaches at the Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business in Beijing, says platforms like Uber and Airbnb depend on large numbers of customers and sellers to achieve a critical mass, which drives down costs. But he said the fundamental model of “burning cash” is more about optimism than economics. 在北京长江商学院(Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business)授课的经济学家布赖恩#8226;维亚尔(Brian Viard)称,优步和Airbnb这类平台依赖于大量的消费者和商家来形成足够大的规模,从而拉低成本。但是他称,“烧钱”的基本模式更多与乐观有关,而不是成本效益。 “A lot of these companies have one thing in common — their perceptions of the odds of success are higher than they actually are,” he says. “这些企业大多都有一个共同点——他们心目中的成功几率高于实际情况,”他称。 /201604/437709

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