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2019年07月21日 14:27:40|来源:国际在线|编辑:度频道
Imagine working long hours day in day out, falling into bed exhausted each night and getting up with the sun each morning — but never getting paid and never, according to the people who measure such things, actually “creating value”. It sounds grossly unfair, but this is the condition of most women around the world. When governments measure national economies in the gross domestic product, “women’s work” — caregiving, housekeeping, home-making — does not count as “work”.想象一下,日复一日地长时间工作,每天早上太阳升起就起来,夜晚精疲力尽才入睡,但从来没有报酬,而且,据那些测算经济活动的人所说,也从来没有真正“创造价值”。这听起来极其不公平,但这就是世界各地大多数女性的境况。当政府以国内生产总值(GDP)计量国民经济时,“女性的工作”——照顾家人、操持家务——不算“工作”。Thanks to a new report out from McKinsey on the gender gap in the workplace, though, we now know the actual value of all this unpaid work: a staggering tn. That is roughly the size of China’s GDP. If all the women taking care of their families constituted one nation, it would have the fourth-largest economy in the world.然而,麦肯锡(McKinsey)一份有关工作场所性别鸿沟的新报告告诉我们,这些没有报酬的工作的实际价值达到令人震惊的10万亿美元。这大致相当于中国的GDP。如果所有照顾家庭的女性组成一个国家,那将是世界上第四大经济体。All this work, moreover, is just the physical dimension of care. As Anne-Marie Slaughter argues in her new book, Unfinished Business , caregiving includes the additional emotional component of love and nurture, the transformation of an income stream into the teaching, discipline, moral guidance, problem-solving, emotional support and role-modelling that raising children and simply investing in others requires. That is work worth measuring.此外,这些劳动只是女性对家庭照顾的物理方面。正如安妮-玛丽斯劳特(Anne-Marie Slaughter)在新书《未竟之业》(Unfinished Business)中提出的,照顾还包括爱和培育中附加的情感组成部分,把收入流转化为教导、训诫、道德引导、问题解决、情感持和树立榜样,这些都是养育孩子和将精力投入到其他人身上所必需的因素。这是一份值得衡量的工作。These inequities exist in rich and poor countries alike. In rich countries, women turn money into the goods and services necessary for survival and flourishing: shopping, cooking, cleaning, washing, organising. In poor countries, women bear the burden of providing the basic necessities of life: hauling water and firewood, and farming subsistence crops.这种不平等在富国和穷国都存在。在富国,女性将金钱转换成生存和发展所必需的产品和务:购物、烹饪、打扫、洗刷、整理。在穷国,女性则背负着提供基本生活必需品的重担:收集水和柴火,以及耕种用作口粮的农作物。We must act. The economist Diane Elson has created a strategy that has been adopted by many advocates: “Recognise, reduce and redistribute.”我们必须行动。经济学家黛安娜埃尔森(Diane Elson)提出了一套得到许多持者采用的策略:“认识、减少和再分配。”Recognising the unfair burden being placed on women is the first step to addressing it. As long as economic statistics of record erase the work they do, it will be easier for everyone to ignore the disparity at the heart of our societies.认识到女性背负的不公正的重担是解决这个问题的第一步。只要计量经济学的记录还在抹消女性的工作,大家就更容易忽视处于我们社会核心的不平等。Reducing the amount of time and effort women spend doing tedious chores is possible with labour-saving technologies. In developing nations, where women spend hours gathering water and wood to run their households, this may mean efficient cookstoves, community cisterns and rural electrification. In richer countries, we have been using washing machines, electric irons, and vacuum cleaners for years. By reducing the 61 per cent of unpaid work that consists of routine household tasks, we can free up time for the valuable work of caring for children and elders.通过节省劳力的技术来减少女性花在乏味家务上的时间和精力是可能的。在发展中国家,女性耗费很多时间来收集水和柴火以维持家用,这或许意味着我们需要高效率的炉灶、社区蓄水池和农村通电。在更发达的国家,多年来我们一直在使用洗衣机、电熨斗、真空吸尘器。通过减少占日常家务61%的无偿劳动,我们可以把这些时间释放出来去做有意义的事——照顾孩子和老人。Redistributing unpaid labour, the last step, means including men equally in the work and the joys of care. Men who bond with their children early on and become fully competent at childcare report that they experience a different and deeply fulfilling relationship. Moreover, when men and women are equal co-parents, they are both likely to push for the flexible work arrangements that would help everyone.最后一点是重新分配家务活,这意味着男人也要平等地参与到照顾家庭的劳作和乐趣中来。那些很早就和子女建立亲密关系,并且逐渐变得完全胜任照顾孩子的工作的男性表示,他们体验到了一种与众不同、深沉充实的亲子关系。此外,当男女平等地分担家长的工作时,他们很可能会争取弹性的工作安排,这样对所有人都有利。We do not know with certainty what women will do with the extra time they gain from reducing and redistributing unpaid work. But it is hard to imagine they would not use some of it for economically productive activities or to further their education. That is where a second number in the McKinsey report comes in: if the world’s women were not assigned the majority of household tasks, forced to take part-time jobs to accommodate childcare and other important responsibilities, or shunted into low-paying professions, global GDP would grow by a breathtaking tn, a number larger than the US and Chinese economies combined.减少和重新分配这些无偿工作以后,女性会用这些多出来的时间做什么,我们无法确定。但是,很难想象她们会不用一部分时间来从事经济活动或者进修。这是麦肯锡报告提出的第二个数字:如果全世界的女性没有承担大部分的家务劳动,没有为了照顾孩子和担负其他重大责任而被迫兼职工作,也没有被打发到一些低工资职业,那么全球GDP将增长28万亿美元,这个数字令人震惊,它比美国和中国经济总量之和还大。Estimates are tricky and real equality would mean men stepping back as women step up. Still, the business case is clear. Politicians, employers, investors, and voters have no excuse not to act.估算是困难的,真正的平等意味着当女性向前迈一步的同时,男性要向后退一步。即便如此,经济上的理由还是显而易见的。政界人士,雇主,投资者和选民没有借口不采取行动。 /201511/409607

GPS sport watches, compression leggings and hydration packs are the new must-haves for wealthy Chinese.配备全球定位系统功能的运动手表、压缩紧身裤和水袋背包是富有的中国人的最新必备品。Extreme sports apparel and expensive activewear is in vogue thanks in part to government promotion of sport ahead of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, and the purchase of the Ironman brand by China#39;s richest tycoon last year.极限运动装以及昂贵的运动目前正在引领潮流,这要部分归功于中国政府在2022年北京冬奥会之前对体育运动的推广,以及去年中国首富王健林收购世界铁人公司。The market is also forecast to grow with the government#39;s decision to relax its one-child policy after 36 years, and companies like US-listed Under Armour is lining up to cash in.中国实施了36年的独生子女政策之后,终于于今年全面放开二胎,这预计也将推动运动装市场的增长。在美国上市的安德玛也在准备挖掘其中的商机。For Under Armour and Lululemon Athletica, two of the Western brands aly active in China, the country offers an opportunity to grow outside the mature markets of the US and Europe.对安德玛公司和露露柠檬运动用品公司这两个已经活跃在中国的西方品牌而言,中国提供了一个在欧美成熟市场之外另一个实现增长的机会。US sportswear maker Under Armour expects China sales to leap 25 percent a year until 2018, while Vancouver-based yogawear giant Lulu-lemon says its first Hong Kong store is on track to make million in sales this year.美国第二大体育用品制造商安德玛预计,到2018年其在华销售将每年增加25%;而总部位于温哥华的瑜伽装巨头露露柠檬称,其首家香港门店今年将有望获得800万美元的销售额。But they face a strong field of Chinese rivals such as Anta, Xtep and 361 Degrees whose share prices soared between 34 percent and 56 percent last year.但这些外国公司面临着中国众多体育品牌如安踏、特步和361°等的强有力竞争。这些中国公司的股价去年飙升幅度介于34-56%。China#39;s sportswear market will surpass the luxury goods market by 2020, according to Euromonitor. China#39;s market is only just starting to flex its muscles. The sports sector contributes 0.67 percent of China#39;s total gross domestic product, compared with 2.2 percent in the European Union and 3.5 percent in the ed States, according to Oriental Patron Research.据市场研究公司Euromonitor数据显示,到2020年,中国的运动装市场将超过奢侈品市场。中国的运动装市场不过刚开始展露头角。据Oriental Patron调查结果显示,运动产业对中国整体GDP的贡献为0.67%,而欧盟与美国的该比例分别为2.2%和3.5%。 /201602/427824

;Keep your elbows off the table.; ;Don#39;t talk with your mouth full.; These are popular reprimands we#39;ve all heard while sitting around the dinner table. If you#39;re planning on traveling abroad, minding your manners may be a bit harder than you thought. Check out this list of quirky dining taboos in other countries.每次吃饭的时候,妈妈总会教导我们说:;把胳膊拿下去;;;嘴里吃东西的时候不要讲话;。如果你正打算来一次海外旅行,或许适应那个国家的餐桌礼仪对你来说会是一个不小的挑战。以下,小编找来一些各地令人匪夷所思的餐桌礼仪,给大家涨涨姿势~10.Asian Noodles Taboo10.亚洲:吃面别夹断!In Asian countries, it is known that rice and noodles are the staple of their diets. Eating a bowl of pasta seems pretty cut and dry. Pick it up and put it in your mouth. But if you#39;re in China, chopping your noodles in half will definitely draw a few dirty looks your way. To the Chinese, long noodles represent longevity. It is customary for people to slurp up a heaping bowl of lengthy noodles on their birthday. Your mom would have a fit if she saw you with noodles wagging from your lips. Tell her not to blame you, it#39;s Chinese tradition. In addition to watching your noodles, you better be careful of where you point your chopsticks. It#39;s rude to aim them at another person. That we can understand, but the don#39;t flip your fish on your plate is a little unusual. But who are we to argue with tradition? This one is mainly practiced in areas that rely on fishing. Apparently, flipping your fish over is symbolic of capsizing the boat.很多亚洲国家都以大米和白面作为主食。对我们而言,吃一盘意大利面很随意,只消用叉子挑起面条放到嘴里就好了,没什么讲究可言。但若身在中国,你要是用筷子把面条夹断吃,那就不免遭到别人嫌弃的目光。因为对中国人而言,长长的面条寓意着长寿。中国民间历来有生日吃长寿面的习俗,呼噜呼噜,一次一根,一根一碗。要是妈妈看到你嘴里晃荡着半根面条而大发雷霆,你就告诉她这是中国的风俗,怪不得你。除了吃面条有讲究,还得注意自己筷子的朝向,因为把筷子冲着别人放是很不礼貌的。筷子的问题我们能接受,但是吃鱼不能翻鱼身就令人有点摸不着头脑了。不过既然是风俗习惯,我们怎敢不从?原来,这个讲究源自一些以为生的沿海地区,很显然,这是因为翻鱼含有翻船的寓意。Neighboring Japan also has its fair share of intriguing dinner table taboos. They too are particular about their chopstick placement. In both countries, it#39;s frowned upon when you poke your sticks straight up in a bowl of rice. It#39;s a practice that is reserved for funeral services and a sign of disrespect for the dead when done any other time. If you#39;re out in a restaurant, the owner will take offense. This is a sign of you cursing his business. Better watch out for the steaming hibachi.作为中国的邻国,日本也有很多有趣的餐桌禁忌。他们同样也很注重筷子的摆放,在这两个国家,如果你把筷子插在碗里,小心别人给你白眼。因为只有在葬礼的宴席上,人们才会把筷子插到碗里,而其他时候,这种行为会被视作是对逝者的不尊重。要是去餐馆吃饭的时候这样做,餐厅老板会很生气,觉得这是在红果果地诅咒他的生意。所以你最好留点神,小心老板削你~9.New Guinea Menstrual9.新几内亚:经期要忌口!As if ;that time of the month; isn#39;t aly filled with an overflow of emotions, women in New Guinea must take care not to violate traditional taboo. According to their customs, women on their cycle are viewed as being ill. To heal themselves, they aren#39;t allowed to eat fresh meat, red fruit, or juicy bananas. On top of everything else, they have to watch their step as well. Anyone who eats food prepared by a menstruating women, or a meal she#39;s stepped over is believed to be destined for a horrible cough. The usual victim is the woman#39;s husband, some even believe this illness could lead to his death. In Papua, New Guinea, the Wogeo only believe blood is dirty when it comes from a woman#39;s menstrual cycle. In fact, they even say that those who come in contact with this blood are likely to die. As with the majority of ancient customs and taboos, no one really knows when or why they started. They#39;ve been taught what they#39;ve been taught and dare not question tradition.对于新几内亚的女人而言,大姨妈到访的日子本来就够烦躁了,可是还得留心不要违反传统禁忌,真是身心双重煎熬啊。当地风俗认为女人来例假是一种病,要想治好病,鱼、肉、红色的水果和美味的香蕉等在经期都得忌口。最离谱的是,她们走路还得时刻当心,不能涉足任何食材范围。当地人认为但凡是吃了处于经期的女人做的饭,或者吃了她们接触过的食材,就会害上一种病,不停咳嗽。当然,这段时间里最苦的还要数她们的丈夫,因为有些人认为女人来事期间可能会诱发其夫患病身亡。在巴布亚新几内亚,人们认为经期女人身上的血是肮脏的。更有甚者认为,只要接触到经血,便会立马见阎王。像大多数风俗和禁忌一样,没人知道这些忌讳是何时何地因何而起,一代又一代的人只是复述着老一辈人传授给他们的这些习俗,没人敢问为什么。8.Don#39;t Go Dutch8.法俄:千万别AA!In America, some men would jump for joy if a woman offered to pay for her half of the date. Well in France and Russia, the ;independent woman; mentality is not welcome. When picking up the tab, it#39;s all or nothing over there. Only an uncivilized person would only pay for half the bill. In fact, most women won#39;t even bring their wallets on a date. Just a not-so-subtle reminder that she#39;s not paying for a thing.在美国,如果约会的时候女生愿意跟男生AA制,男生估计会高兴得一蹦三尺高。但若是在法国和俄罗斯,这种有;独立意识;的女性可就不受欢迎了。当地人认为埋单付一半钱是很不礼貌的,所以在付账的时候,你要么自己全付,要么就让别人全付。事实上,大多数女生在约会的时候都不带钱包,从这点就能看出她们不打算付一分钱。Since we#39;re on the topic, it#39;s also expected to dress for the occasion. Jeans and a tee are never ok. In Russia, it#39;s viewed as an honor to get acquainted with someone new. When getting y for your date, it#39;s preferred to dress formal.Say you were invited to eat at someone#39;s home, it#39;s extremely rude to show up empty-handed. When you#39;re first greeted, it#39;s also taboo to shake hands through a doorway. Also, don#39;t ask for a to-go box or doggy bag. In America, we see it as a sign that we loved our meal and want to take it home. In France, it#39;s the exact opposite. There is a bunch of differences we accept over here but people across the water may not share our sentiments. Something as simple as using the wrong hand gesture is social suicide. Your trip will be much more pleasant if you study the taboos before you travel.既然说到了约会,那我们一定要聊聊约会的着装问题。切记,约会的时候别随随便便图省事穿个仔裤和T恤就出门。俄罗斯人把初次见面看得很神圣,所以如果要跟新朋友约会的话,最好穿得正式得体些。还有,如果别人邀请你去他家做客,别空着手去,因为这也是很不礼貌的。如果是初次见面,在门口握手也是不允许的。还有,饭后最好也别问主家要外卖盒或者打包袋。要是在美国,把饭菜打包回家表明你很喜欢这个菜,可如果是在法国,意味则恰恰相反。所以,由于地方差异,别国的人可能会常常会错我们的意,甚至一个错误的手势也可能造成巨大误会。如果动身之前能好好研读一下对方国家的一些禁忌,那么相信大家的旅途会更加顺利和愉快。7.Italians Are Sensitive About Their Cheese7.意大利:别轻易要芝士!Our Italian dining experience is normally tailored around ordering lasagna from Olive Garden. On the contrary, an authentic experience in Italy will vary quite a bit. First thing to remember, don#39;t insult the chef by asking for more cheese. Instead, you might get a swift whopping by an old loaf of garlic b. Seafood in Italy isn#39;t meant to have cheese on it. If you ask nicely, the chef might oblige but most of the time, you#39;ll just get a dirty look.提到吃意餐的经历,大家好像一般也就是到橄榄花园点一份经典的烤宽面条。然而,如果真到了意大利,你可能会大跌眼镜。首先要切记,除非餐厅提供额外的芝士,否则千万别问大厨要,要不大厨会觉得你在蔑视他的厨艺。不过,你可以;曲线救国;,点一长条奶香浓郁的蒜蓉面包,因为面包一般都会配有芝士。与美国人饮食不同,意大利人吃海鲜一般不加芝士。如果你问得恰当的话,或许有的大厨不会介意,不过大多时候他们都会很生气,小心大厨;小胖附体;,用恶狠狠的眼神秒杀你!Also, Italians take their meal definitions seriously. Breakfast food is for breakfast. Lunch is for lunch, and so on. Ordering a cappuccino after breakfast is not cool. More milk than what#39;s in a macchiato#39;s after mid day will give the locals permission to tell you about yourself. You don#39;t need to speak Italian. They#39;ll make it perfectly clear that you#39;ve crossed the line. When you#39;re offered food, proper etiquette says you should always decline the first time. After they insist again, you humbly accept and merrily enjoy the cuisine.此外,意大利人对吃饭比较讲究。早饭就是早饭,午饭就是午饭,不能随便吃。你要是早饭后喝一杯卡布奇诺,那可就不合适了。还有,如果别人知道你午后喝了比黑糖玛奇朵里多一丁丁的牛奶,那即使你说着一口流利的意大利语,他们也能判断出你非当地人的身份,因为当地人肯定不会这样做,他们都觉得午后喝牛奶不利于消化。再来,如果别人邀请你一同进餐,得体的做法是先委婉拒绝,然后等对方再三坚持邀请,你再谦虚地接受,愉快地共餐。6.Tardy Tanzania6.坦桑尼亚:我迟到我骄傲!This dining taboo is one we can get used to. Americans pride themselves on arriving promptly on time (well, most of them), but in Tanzania it is considered rude to show up to an invitation early. Out of respect, invited guest should always wait 15-20 minutes after the affair#39;s commencement to make an appearance. If you#39;re looking for something to wear, loose-fitting clothing is always appropriate. Most meals are enjoyed while sitting on the floor.这个风俗大家似乎比较乐意接受。美国人一直都以严谨的时间观念而自豪(啊哦~大多时候还是比较准时的~),但是在坦桑尼亚,人们却认为提前到场是很无礼的。出于尊重,应邀的客人总要在活动开始后的15-20分钟之后,才稀稀拉拉地出场。至于衣着的话,穿的宽松些永远不会错。大多时候,大家都是齐坐一地享用美食。Also, Tanzanian men and women don#39;t eat together. In fact, taboo prevents men from entering the kitchen at all. That#39;s a card we know a bunch of American men wish they could pull. ;Honey, I would help with the dishes but I#39;m forbidden from coming in the kitchen.; A bowl of water and towel will be passed around for you to clean your hands. This as well as the ugali, or communal bowl for the meal, must all be passed only with the right.还有,在坦桑尼亚,男女不可一同用餐。事实上,男性甚至是不允许进厨房的。美国男人多希望本国也有这样的禁忌啊,(一脸无辜的便宜相);亲爱的,我特想帮你做饭洗碗,可惜……我不能进厨房。;在坦桑尼亚,主人在饭前会端上一大碗水和一条毛巾,让大家轮流洗手。吃乌加里的时候也有一个类似的公共碗,碗中盛有乌加里,食客轮流手抓食用,记住传碗的时候只能用右手。翻译:毛志遥 来源:前十网 /201509/400517

After 340 days in orbit, American astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko have returned safely to Earth.在太空轨道上停留340天后,美国宇航员凯利和俄罗斯宇航员科尔尼延科安全返回地球。A Russian Soyuz spacecraft carrying Kelly and Kornienko and a second Russian cosmonaut, Sergey Volkov, made a soft landing on the frozen steppes of Kazakhstan early Wednesday morning, three hours after separating from the International Space Station. Volkov is back after spending the last six months aboard the ISS, the typical mission length for space station crews.星期三清晨,运载凯利、科尔尼延科和另一名俄罗斯宇航员沃尔科夫的俄罗斯联盟号飞船在天寒地冻的哈萨克斯坦平原地带安全着陆。在此3小时前,联盟号飞船从国际空间站起航。沃尔科夫在国际空间站停留了6个月,宇航员在国际空间站执行任务通常都是半年时间。Kelly now holds the American record for the longest continuous time in space, as he and Kornienko circled the world 5,440 times aboard the ISS, covering 144 million miles and witnessing 10,880 orbital sunrises and sunsets.凯利目前是在太空停留时间最长的美国宇航员,他和科尔尼延科在国际空间站上环绕地球飞行了5440圈,飞行总长1亿4千4百万英里,看到了1万零880次日出日落。The duo#39;s mission was designed to measure how a long-term stay in a microgravity environment impacts the human body and mind, with an eye toward planning for future multi-year missions that will be necessary to take crews to Mars or other places in the solar system.这两名宇航员的使命是测试长期处于微重力环境对人类身体和心智的影响,以便为将来飞往火星或太阳系其它地方需要持续数年的宇航使命制定计划。 /201603/429546

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