重庆激光去腋毛导医指南

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月23日 17:12:06
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Back in the 1990s when I was in my early teens, I was sent to the school office at Hoda Girls Middle School for being found in possession of a Michael Jackson tape.早在90年代当我还处在少年时,我被送到HODA女中的校办因为我被发现持有迈克尔杰克逊的录像带。The school counselor forced to deal with me pulled her headscarf forward and glanced warily at the tape on her desk. ;Do you know this singer? Does anybody know whether he is a man or a woman?; she asked, not waiting for an answer before continuing, ;they live like animals. They only want to satisfy their sexual urges. It makes no difference whether they sleep next to a man or a woman. They don#39;t care if they have babies from dogs or…;辅导员被迫向前扯下她的头巾来对付我,且谨慎地扫视了她桌上的录像带。“你知道这个歌手吗?有人知道他是男还是女吗?”她问道。没有等待再继续,“他们活的像个动物。他们只想满足他们的性冲动。他们是否睡在男人或女人旁都没有差别。如果他们的孩子来自于或是什么…他们也不会关心”She lowered her voice and asked me: ;Did you know that this very same singer or dancer or whatever you want to call him has relations with animals?; She pronounced the sentence as though she knew every detail of Michael Jackson#39;s relations with animals. It was the first time that I had ever heard about bestiality, something that according to my counselor was very common in the West.她降低了她的嗓音问我:“你知道这个歌手或舞者或无论什么你想称呼他的人与动物有交往吗?”她断然的宣判好像她知道迈克尔杰克逊和动物有交往的每个细节一样。这是我第一次听说兽交,在我辅导员看来某事在西方特别的寻常。I thought back to that moment in the school office when I statements this week by Mehdi Bayati, the cleric who directs Iran#39;s Strategic Center for Chastity and Modesty. Back when I was in middle school, both my religion teacher and that school counsellor dedicated long hours to how Western men and women have lost their taste for one another, how they are emotionally broken and have turned to animals to satisfy their desires. All this was meant to encourage young students to observe the Islamic hejab, instilling fears in what would become of a society in which women were not sufficiently chaste.当我读到这周Mehdi Bayati,一个指导伊朗的贞洁和谦逊的战略中心的牧师的报告时我回想起了在校办的那个时刻。在我念中学时,我的宗教老师和辅导员都长时间的专注于西方的男女是怎么失去对彼此的审美的,情感是怎么破裂的和怎么满足自己的欲望转向于动物的。所有的这一切是为了鼓励年轻的学生去观察穆斯林的面纱,逐渐灌输去恐惧一个女人不够纯洁的社会。Without hejab, deviance creeps in没有着装规定,越轨行为便蔓延开来(hejab:1.伊朗的着装规范,伊朗法律规定,女性在公共场合必须戴头巾(头发与脖颈不能外露),穿过臀的衣,如果穿裙子,则需至脚背。男性在公共场合则不能穿无袖衣或短裤2.也可指女性佩戴的头巾,面纱)Mehdi Bayati has been putting forward the same argument as my middle school teachers. ;The growth of feminism in the West and the fact the 60 percent of Western women prefer to sleep with dogs rather than men is the result of the absence of hejab and the diminished threshold of women#39;s sexual arousal,; he told the Resa News Agency, run by the Qom seminary.Mehdi Bayati一直在谈的的论点和我的初中老师们不谋而合。“西方女权运动的发展以及西方有60%的女性更愿意和动物睡觉而不是男人这个事实,正是西方着装规定的缺失和女性的性意识觉醒的门槛降低的后果。”他告诉库姆(伊朗西北部城市)神学院旗下的新闻通讯社。He did not specify the source of this figure, but referred to the provocative nature of women#39;s hair. ;It is said that the Prophet Mohammad stated that women#39;s hair sexually arouses men,; he said, conceded that ;perhaps modern science has not proven this; but ;it was said by somebody who only speaks the truth.;他没有具体说明数据的来源,然后他又提到了女性头发的撩拨人的天性。他说:“据说先知穆罕默德曾说过,女人头发性感地撩拨着男人”,尽管他承认“现代的科技可能无法明这种说法”,但(他同时又说道)“这是一位只说真理的人说的。”Invoking one of the less frequently discussed rationales for imposed dress codes, Bayati also said that ;the absence of hejab lowers the libido of men and this would not benefit women.;引用了一个争论较少的强制着装规范的根本原因(先知穆罕默德的话)之后,Bayati又说:“不戴头巾降低了男人的性欲而这对女性是不利的”Iranian clerics have long promoted Islamic hejab by arguing about sexual corruption or deviance in the West, but one of the strangest comments came earlier this year from the cleric Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary, a member of ultra-conservative Endurance Front and the head of an organization called Foundation for Promoting the Way of the Martyrs.伊朗的教士长期以来一直通过对西方的性堕落或者说性越轨行为的抨击进而来提倡伊斯兰教的着装规范,其中最奇怪的说法之一是今年早些时候由Mohammad-Mehdi Mandegary提出的,他是极端保守忍耐阵线的一员,同时也是“发扬殉道者之路基金会”的领导者。Western satellite television can even pollute an embryo卫星电视甚至可以污染胎儿He declared that relations between Western women are sexually promiscuous in a manner not even found in the natural world. ;In the West when one woman has relations with several men, they take pride in it,” he said. “But animals are different and a female of the species does not have relations with several males at the same time.;他宣称西方女性的性生活的淫乱程度在动物界中甚至都找不到。“在西方,如果一个女人跟几个男性保持性关系,她们会引以为傲”他说到,“但是动物却不一样,雌性动物不会同时跟几个雄性保持性关系。”Mandegary, like many hardliners, believes Iranian culture has become too Westernized and distant from true Islamic culture. In a speech he asked Iranian men and women to abstain from sex after watching satellite TV so that the embryo would not be polluted by the banality. “Unfortunately some people are not careful about the moment of conception,” he said in warning. ;They do it after watching satellite TV and listening to inappropriate music. But all this affects the embryo.;跟许多强硬派一样, Mandegary认为伊朗文化已经被过分西化并且远离了真正的伊斯兰文化。在一次演讲中,他呼吁伊朗的男女在看完卫星电视之后不要发生关系,这样就可以使胎儿免于腐朽事物的污染。“不幸的是有一些人并不重视受的那一刻,”他警告说,“他们在看完卫星电视之后做爱并且听一些不合适的音乐。但是这些都会影响胎儿。”Even leggings have been pulled into the fray. Recently tight leg apparel has become the focus of controversy among Islamic Republic officials, and were even brought to the floor of parliament by the Tehran MP Ali Motahari. In an open session he displayed pictures of women in leggings and argued in remarks broadcast on television that ;sexual deviations, homosexuality and bestiality are results of unbridled behavior and the trampling of morality, which hejab would prevent.;甚至连打底裤都被牵连进了这场争论。最近紧身装已经成为伊朗官员们争论的焦点,并且还被德黑兰议员Ali Motahari展示给了伊朗议会的所有与会者,在一次公开的会议中,他展示了一些穿打底裤的女性的照片,并且在电视直播中争辩道:“性变态,同性恋以及人兽性交都是放纵行为以及践踏道德的后果,而头巾可以防止这些”Americans even kiss differently美国人甚至连亲吻都很奇特Another bizarre comment comes from Mohsen Gharaati, a cleric who is the representative of the Supreme Leader at the Literacy Campaign and a frequent TV personality. In a speech he declared that ;Westerners have been cheated when it comes to sex.; He then compared a kiss between an American boy and girl with the kisses that he used to get from his grandmother.另一种奇怪的言论来自Mohsen Gharaati,文化运动中最高领袖的代表同时也是一位经常上电视的电视名人。再一次演讲中他说道:“在涉及到性的方面时,西方人被愚弄了。”他接着把美国男孩女孩之间的接吻同他的祖母经常对他的亲吻做了比较。;When I was in America, I saw boys and girls who were kissing each other but it was as though they were kissing a brick wall,; he said. ;The kisses were not solid because perhaps this was the 96th person they were kissing that day. But when our grandmother kissed us it felt like she was sucking us in.; When the audience laughed he added that ;they think freedom would benefit them but they were cheated.;“当我在美国时,我发现男孩女孩在接吻的时候像是在亲吻墙壁一样,”他说,“这种接吻并不固定,因为很有可能对方是自己今天接吻的第九十六个人。但是当我们祖母亲吻我门的时候,他好像要把我们吞下去似的。”当听众笑的时候他又补充说道“他们认为自由会使他们受益,但是他们被欺骗了。”I turned to Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari, a reformist cleric who spent three years in prison for his political positions, to help me understand the religious or social context for such views. ;These words astonish me as much as they amaze you,; he said. ;I ask myself whether these gentleman are delusional or have been given wrong information. But I cannot find a clear answer for such nonsense.;Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari,一位主张改革的教士并且曾因他的政治主张而入狱三年,我向他请教,帮我找到这种观点的宗教或者社会方面的背景。“这些话不仅使你,也同样使我十分惊讶,”他说,“我不知道他们是在欺骗大众或者是得到的消息有误。但是对于这些胡言乱语我(无论从社会方面还是宗教方面都)找不到一个合理的解释”A sensible cleric#39;s view一位理智的教士的观点Eshkevari noted that such views have a long history, and cited Abolhassan Banisadr, the first president of the Islamic Republic, who returned from Paris and justified imposed hejab by saying that #39;women#39;s hair radiates a spark that arouses men.#39;Eshkevari注意到,这类观点在很早以前就有了,并且举出一个例子——伊朗首任总统Abolhassan Banisadr,他从巴黎回国之后说:“女性的头发散发着一种刺激男性性欲的气质”通过这来明强制要求佩戴头巾是正确的。Banisadr, according to Eshkevari, also interpreted a Koranic verse to mean that some women aroused when beaten. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi interpreted the same verse in the same way about seven years ago, Eshkevari says, concluding that physical harm arouses some women. ;If an Islamic thinker and a Western-educated man such as Banisadr resorts to everything to justify himself, what do you expect from Ayatollah Shirazi?; Eshkevari said.据Eshkevari说,Banisadr还把《古兰经》中的一个章节诠释为“当女性被打时,她们的性欲会被激起”,“伊朗伊斯兰教什叶派领袖Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi在七年前也用相同的方法解释了同一章节,” Eshkevari说,“并且得出结论:人身伤害会激起一些女性的性欲。”“如果一个伊斯兰教的思想家,并且接受过西方的教育,像是Banisadr,都不择手段地来明自己是正确的,那么对于Ayatollah Shirazi还能有什么期待呢?”他说道。But it is not only clerics and Islamic ideologues who use offensive words and images to describe the sexual life of Westerners. Last winter the commander of the Basij paramilitary force General Naghdi used this theme to criticize nuclear negotiations with the Americans. “Thirty-five percent of babies who are born in America are bastards,” he said, without citing a source for his statistics.但是不只是教士和伊斯兰教理论家使用攻击性的语言或者比喻来描述西方人的性生活。去年冬天,准军事力量组织Basji(伊斯兰武装力量动员队)的指挥官Naghdi将军就曾就这个方面来批评伊朗与美国进行的核谈判。“在美国出生的婴儿有35%都是私生子,”他说道,但并没有指出数据的来源。All manner of Godlessness in the West西方的所有不敬神的行为A few months later Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, a member of Iran#39;s Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, went even further in a speech about human rights. ;In Western societies 75 percent of children do not know their fathers and are raised by their mothers,; he told his audience. Defending death by stoning he asked ;Why do Western countries consider this punishment against human rights?; He answered his own question by saying that ;there are no sexual complexes in Islam because in Islam marriage makes faith complete whereas in Christianity marriage is not a godly affair.;几个月之后,伊朗文化革命最高委员会成员之一Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi进行了一次更深层次的关于人权的演讲,他告诉听众:“在西方社会,有75%的孩子是完全由母亲抚养长大的,他们不知道自己的父亲是谁。”为了给石刑(注:一种钝击致死的死刑执行方式,即埋入沙土用乱石砸死)辩护,他问道:“为什么西方国家认为这种刑罚违背了人权?”他自问自答的说道:“伊朗没有混乱的性关系是因为在伊朗,婚姻给人以彻底的信念(生活下去),而基督教的婚姻却不是一件神圣的事情。”Last month Hassan Abbasi, the head of the Center for Doctrinal Strategic Studies in the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps and a theoretician in the office of Supreme Leader, claimed that the ;Western human rights approves of incest. Incest is very rare in animals but the Western man has debased himself so much that he supports incest as a human right.;上个月,伊斯兰革命卫队的宗教战略所的带头人、最高领袖办公室的专家组成员之一Hassan Abbasi讲到:“西方所谓的人权提倡乱伦,而乱伦即使在动物界中也很少见,但西方人却自取其辱的把乱伦也认为是人的一种权利。”;In America 100 percent of men have free sexual relations after marriage,; he said in another speech, which was aired on TV. ;While in Iran perhaps two men out of ten thousand might marry a second wife. Listen to them shout about equality between men and women.;“在美国,每个男人在婚后都会依旧保持自由的性生活”他在另一个电视上公开的演讲上说到,“然而在伊朗,一万个男人中可能最多有两个人会娶第二个妻子。听听,(这就是)他们叫嚷着的男女平等!”Abbasi then referred to Anousheh Ansari, an Iranian-American astronaut and the first Iranian woman in space. ;The basis of the Shi#39;a thought is chastity and the West uses women to destroy Shi#39;ism. Why did they send this woman Anousheh Ansari into space with a few men? They want to kill chastity. This is the main plank of feminism and feminism is the foundation of American lifestyle.;Abbasi接下来又提到了Anousheh Ansari,一个伊朗裔美籍女宇航员并且是第一个进入太空的伊朗女性。“什叶派的基本思想就是(保持)贞洁,而西方却通过女人来破坏什叶派的教义。他们为什么会把Anousheh Ansari这个女人和几个男性宇航员一块送入太空?他们想消灭贞洁。这也是女权运动的基本纲领并且女权主义又是美国生活方式的基础”Reading and researching such statements, I wonder how widely held such attitudes still are today, among mainstream Iranians. On a whim I went on Facebook and searched for my old school counselor, who in her profile picture still wears hejab but not as strictly as in those days.阅读并且研究这些说法之后,我在想,当今伊朗人的主流社会中人有多大范围的人持有这种观点。由于一时的性质,我到脸谱网上搜索了一下以前我们学校的辅导员,在她的一张侧面的相片中她仍然戴着头巾,但并没有以前那么严格了。I noticed a picture of her daughter, who was our classmate, and out of curiosity visited her page. She was not wearing hejab but more surprising that that, is married to an Englishman. I was reminded of what her mother, the school counselor, told us so many years ago: ;Ninety percent of Westerners have sexual problems. They are not aroused and most of them have relations with animals.;我注意到她女儿的一张相片,我跟她女儿是同学,由于好奇我访问了她的主页。我发现她并没有戴头巾,并且更使人惊讶的是她跟一个英国男人结婚了。这是我想起了她的母亲,我们学校的辅导员,曾经告诉我们说:“90%的西方人都有性方面的问题。他们很难被激起性欲并且他们大多数都跟动物发生关系” /201501/354104

  Writing is like “chatting up a woman”, Japan’s superstar novelist Haruki Murakami has said: “You can get better with practice to a certain degree, but basically, you’re either born with it, or you’re not.”写作就如同“和姑娘搭讪,勤练会让你有所提高,但归根结底,要看你有没有天赋。”日本著名小说家村上春树如是写到。The novelist was responding online to one of the questions he has received from fans over the last few days, in his new guise as Japan’s most literary agony uncle. He began posting on Jan 15 on a site, Murakami-san no tokoro – or Mr Murakami’s Place – set up by his publisher, Shinchosa, which has said he will be taking questions until the end of the month.自从村上春树化身文艺“知心大叔”,短短几天内,就有不少粉丝上网提问,而上面正是村上对其中一个问题的回复。本月15日,村上春树开始在网站“村上家”上与广大粉丝交流,回答粉丝的提问。该网站由其出版商日本新潮社设立,在1月底之前都会接受粉丝们的提问。Cats make regular, enigmatic appearances in Murakami’s fiction and one er was keen to know if the author of Norwegian Wood and The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle might know where her lost cat had got to: “Cats just disappear sometimes. You have to love and appreciate them while they’re near you,” advised Murakami. Another wondered if the writer had any tips to stop his wife from burping; Murakami phlegmatically pointed out that “burping is far better than farting”.在村上春树的小说中,猫是“常客”,总是神秘莫测地出现。一位读者就很想问问这位《挪威的森林》和《奇鸟行状录》的作者,自己走失的猫咪去哪儿了。对此,村上春树这样建议:“猫儿们时不时就玩消失。所以当它们亲近你时,你要疼爱它们,欣赏它们。” 另一位粉丝则问村上是否有诀窍能让他的妻子停止打嗝 ,村上淡定地指出“(这么说请见谅)但我想打嗝总比放屁要好多了……”The novelist has replied almost entirely in Japanese, with an “unofficial” English translation carried out by a fan. One er, who was married with children and having an affair, asked if “there is some kind of rulebook for wicked women”. Murakami replied: “Cheating is what it is, but I think you should be careful about using the ‘D-word’ (divorce). It’s dangerous to actually utter it out loud.” He added: “I hope everything works out for you. You are not a terrible woman. This is rather common. But you must take great care in your actions.”村上基本上是用日语来回复的,而一位粉丝则给出了自己的“非官方”英文翻译。 有一位已经生儿育女的粉丝有了婚外情,她问村上,“有没有什么办法可以约束坏女人”。村上回答道:“偷情是一回事,但我觉得你应当慎重使用‘D’打头的那个词(divorce离婚)。轻易说出它是很危险的。”他又说道:“我希望你一切顺利,你并不是坏女人。婚外情很平常,不过还是慎重为好。”The author of novels from Kafka on the Shore to Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage, which sold 1m copies in a week in Japan, Murakami is clearly enjoying his online adventure. Questions he has answered range from the literary, to the intimate, to the playful – has Murakami ever wanted to be a cat? No, it turns out, although he has wished to be the wind.村上春树写过不少小说,从《海边的卡夫卡》再到前年在日本面世一周就热销百万册的《没有色的多崎作和他的巡礼之年》,无一不被粉丝熟知。现在,村上春树显然很享受他的网络奇遇之旅,他回答的问题既有文学困惑,也有私人问题,还有玩笑之语,比如,“村上先生,你想过做一只猫吗?”是没有,不过他倒是想过化成一阵风。Another er asked how the novelist feels about being named the frontrunner for the Nobel prize in literature. It’s “kind of a nuisance”, he said, according to the fan’s translation. “It’s not like I’ve been officially nominated or anything, it’s just unaffiliated bookmakers who are putting odds on me. It’s not a horse race!”另有读者问及村上“领跑”诺贝尔文学奖是一种怎样的感受。 根据粉丝的翻译,他的回答是:“其实挺困扰的,因为并非官方提名,只是被民间机构拿来定赔率罢了。这又不是赛马!”Two correspondents wrote to Murakami in English, one asking: “Do you think cats can understand how humans feel? My cat Bobo ran away when she saw me crying.” The novelist told her: “I suspect that either you or your cat is extremely sensitive. I have had many cats, but no cat has ever been so sympathetic. They were just as egoistic as they could be.”还有两位提问者使用了英文,一位问道:“ 你认为猫能理解人类的感受么?我家猫Bobo每次看到我哭就会跑开。”村上君的回答是:“我觉得要么是你家猫太敏感,要么就是你想多了。我养过许多猫,但它们从来都是以自我为中心,从没见它们表现出同情心。”And asked if he had any places where he stayed “for a while”, Murakami replied in English: “An easy question. In the bed with someone I love. Where else?”当被问到有没有什么地方是总会待上“一阵子的”,村上则用英文答道:“这个问题简单。和爱的人一起在床上。不然还能是哪儿呢?” /201501/357190

  A nutrition advisory panel that helps shape the country’s official dietary guidelines eased some of its previous restrictions on fat and cholesterol on Thursday and recommended sharp new limits on the amount of added sugar that Americans should consume.协助制定美国官方膳食指南的营养顾问小组周四发表声明,表示应适当放宽此前提出的对脂肪和胆固醇的限制,并就美国人摄入的添加糖量的上限提出了严苛的新建议。The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, which convenes every five years, followed the lead of other major health groups like the American Heart Association that in recent years have backed away from dietary cholesterol restrictions and urged people to cut back on added sugars.近年来,美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)等主要卫生组织逐渐放开了对膳食胆固醇的限制,并敦促美国人民减少添加糖的摄入量。如今,美国膳食指南咨询委员会(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee,每五年召开一次会议)也加入了他们的行列。The panel said that Americans were eating too much salt, sugar and saturated fat, and not enough foods that fit a “healthy dietary pattern,” like fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish and moderate levels of alcohol. Members of the panel said they wanted Americans to focus less on individual nutrients and more on overall patterns of eating, such as a Mediterranean-style diet, which is associated with lower rates of heart disease and stroke.该顾问小组指出,美国人饮食中的盐、糖和饱和脂肪过多,但符合“健康饮食模式”的食物,如水果、蔬菜、坚果、全谷物制品、鱼却不足,另外饮酒也不够节制。该小组成员表示,他们希望美国人不要过于关注单一的营养成分,应该更注意饮食的整体模式,如地中海式饮食(该饮食模式与较低的心脏病和中风率相关)。The panel singled out added sugars as one of its major concerns. Previous dietary guidelines have included warnings about eating too much added sugar, but for the first time the panel recommended that Americans limit it to no more than 10 percent of daily calories — roughly 12 teaspoons a day for many adults — because of its link to obesity and chronic disease.该小组将添加糖单独挑出来作为其重点关注对象。以往的膳食指南都警告人们不宜食用过多的添加糖,但现在,该小组首次建议,鉴于其与肥胖和慢性疾病有关,美国人应将添加糖摄入量控制在每天热量总摄入量的10%或以下——对于大多数成年人而言,相当于每天约12茶匙。Americans consume 22 to 30 teaspoons of added sugar daily, half of which come from soda, juices and other sugary drinks. The panel said sugary drinks should be removed from schools, and it endorsed a rule proposed by the Food and Drug Administration that would require a distinct line for added sugars on food nutrition labels, a change the food and sugar industries have aggressively fought.美国人平均每天的添加糖摄入量约为22至30茶匙,其中一半来自汽水、果汁和其他含糖饮料。该小组表示应将含糖饮料驱逐出校园,并持美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, FDA)提出的“在食品营养标签上将添加糖单列一行明确标识”的规定,而食品和食糖行业则激烈地反对这一改变。Many experts, including some who disagreed with the panel’s cautions on salt and saturated fat, applauded its stronger stance on added sugars.这种对添加糖的更强硬的态度,赢得了许多专家,包括一些不同意该小组关于盐和饱和脂肪的警示意见的专家们的赞同。“That was one of the high points of these guidelines, and something that was sorely needed,” said Dr. Ronald M. Krauss, the director of atherosclerosis research at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. “There is a striking excess of added sugar intake in all age groups across the population.”“这是该指南的一大亮点,而且,目前也正迫切需要如此,”儿童医院奥克兰研究所(Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute)动脉粥样硬化研究的负责人罗纳尔·M·克劳斯士(Ronald M. Krauss)说。“鉴于美国人各年龄组中添加糖的摄入量都明显过剩,这些措施很有必要。”Dr. Krauss, the former chairman of the American Heart Association’s dietary guidelines committee, said that the advisory panel’s emphasis on overall dietary patterns was “a tremendous move in the right direction.” As part of that move, the panel dropped a suggestion from the previous guidelines that Americans restrict their total fat intake to 35 percent of their daily calories.克劳斯士是美国心脏协会膳食指南委员会的前任主席,他称赞该顾问小组开始强调整体饮食模式是“朝正确方向的一大进步”。另一个进步是,该小组废止了既往指南中“美国人应将脂肪总摄入量限制在每日热量总摄入量的35%”的建议。Since they were first issued in 1980, the guidelines have largely encouraged people to follow a low-fat diet, which prompted an explosion of processed foods stripped of fat and loaded with sugar. Studies show that replacing fat with refined carbohydrates like b, rice and sugar can actually worsen cardiovascular health, so the guidelines encourage Americans to focus not on the amount of fat they are eating but on the type.最早的一份膳食指南诞生于1980年,其主要目的在于鼓励人们遵循低脂肪饮食,但它们却促成了脱脂加糖的加工食品的迅猛发展。研究显示,以面包、大米和糖等精制碳水化合物来替代脂肪实际上反而会令心血管健康恶化,所以新指南鼓励美国人不要只盯着脂肪总量,更重要的是要看他们食用的是何种类型的脂肪。The guidelines advise people to eat unsaturated fat — the kind found in fish, nuts, and olive and vegetable oils — in place of saturated fat, which occurs primarily in animal foods.指南建议人们以不饱和脂肪——也就是鱼、坚果、橄榄油和植物油中所含那种——来代替主要存在于动物性食物中的饱和脂肪。The panel also dropped a longstanding recommendation that Americans restrict their intake of dietary cholesterol from foods like eggs and shrimp — a belated acknowledgment of decades of research showing that dietary cholesterol has little or no effect on the blood cholesterol levels of most people.此外,该小组还撤销了一条久已有之的建议:“美国人应限制膳食胆固醇的摄入量(主要来源于蛋类、虾等食物)”。几十年来,多项研究显示,膳食胆固醇对大多数人的血液胆固醇水平很少或完全没有影响,现在这些研究结果终于获得了迟来的认可。“For many years, the cholesterol recommendation has been carried forward, but the data just doesn’t support it,” said Alice H. Lichtenstein, the vice chairwoman of the advisory panel and a professor of nutrition science and policy at Tufts University.该顾问小组的副主席、塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)的营养科学和政策学教授艾丽斯·H·利希滕斯坦(Alice H. Lichtenstein)说:“多年来,人们一直秉承着限制膳食胆固醇的建议,但是研究数据却并不持它。”Dr. Krauss said that some people experience a rise in blood cholesterol after eating yolks and other cholesterol-rich foods. But these “hyper-responders” are such a minority — roughly a few percent of the population — that they do not justify broad restrictions on cholesterol intake.克劳斯士承认,有些人在食用蛋黄等富含胆固醇的食物后血液胆固醇水平会升高。但这些“超应答者(hyper-responders)”在总人口中的比例极小——大约百分之几,因此不能以他们为由来普遍地限制胆固醇摄入。The advisory panel does not issue the official guidelines. Its report is sent to the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture, which publish Dietary Guidelines for Americans every five years. The agencies usually adhere very closely to the panel’s recommendations.该顾问小组并未发布官方指南。但其报告已发送至美国卫生和公众务部(Department of Health and Human Service)和农业部(Department of Agriculture),也就是每五年一次发布《美国膳食指南》(Dietary Guidelines for Americans)的部门。这些机构通常都会严格遵循该小组的建议。Although consumers rarely pay direct attention to the guidelines, they nonetheless influence the diets of tens of millions of people. The guidelines shape the s of the school lunch program, which feeds more than 30 million children each school day, and they are incorporated into national food assistance programs like WIC and SNAP.虽然消费者很少会直接关注这些指南,但它们仍然影响着上千万人的饮食。膳食指南指导着校园午餐工程食谱的设计,也就是说,它们与每个教学日里超过3000万儿童的饮食息息相关;此外,它们还被纳入了WIC(Women, Infants and Children,即妇女、婴儿及儿童营养计划)和SNAP(补充营养援助计划)等全国性的食品援助计划。The advisory panel included the vegetarian diet as an example of what it called a healthy eating pattern, noting that a plant-based diet is also more sustainable, with less of an impact on the environment. But critics questioned whether the guidelines might overstep the mandate to focus on health and nutrition.顾问小组还将素食纳入了健康饮食模式的范例,并指出以植物为主的饮食习惯更具有可持续性,对环境的不良影响较小。但也有批评者怀疑这些指南是否逾越了其注重健康和营养的基本职责。“It appears the advisory committee was more interested in addressing what’s trendy among foodies than providing science-based advice for the average American’s diet,” said Howard Hill, a veterinarian and president of the National Pork Producers Council.美国猪肉生产者协会(National Pork Producers Council)主席,兽医霍华德·希尔(Howard Hil)说:“看样子,与为普通美国人提供基于科学的膳食建议相比,顾问委员会对研究美食家中的流行趋势倒是更有兴趣。”The advisory panel was also criticized for its advice against saturated fat, which has been challenged by several recent studies. Dr. James DiNicolantonio, a cardiovascular scientist at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute, said that replacing saturated fat with the polyunsaturated fats in vegetable oils could worsen blood cholesterol levels and raise cancer and heart disease risk.根据最近的几项研究结果,也有人对该顾问小组反对饱和脂肪的意见提出了批评。圣路加中美心脏学院(Saint Luke#39;s Mid America Heart Institute)的心血管研究专家詹姆斯·迪尼古拉安东尼奥(James DiNicolantonio)表示,以植物油中的多不饱和脂肪替代饱和脂肪可能对血液胆固醇水平造成更糟糕的影响,并增加患癌症和心脏病的风险。“The recommendations on saturated fat are a farce,” he said.“有关饱和脂肪的建议简直是一场笑话,”他说。Adele Hite, a registered dietitian and spokeswoman for the nonprofit Healthy Nation Coalition, said that in the decades since their inception, the guidelines had played a direct role in the explosion of obesity and chronic disease by steering people away from nutritious whole foods like meat, eggs and butter.非营利性组织健康国家联盟(Healthy Nation Coalition)的注册营养师兼发言人阿黛尔·海特(Adele Hite)表示,自其诞生起,几十年来这些指南对肥胖症和慢性疾病的爆发负有直接责任,因为它们一直在驱使人们远离营养丰富的天然食品(whole foods),如肉类、蛋类和黄油等。Since the 1980s, Americans over all have been eating more grains, produce, cereals and vegetable oils, while generally lowering their intake of red meat, whole milk and eggs, Ms. Hite said, and yet the population is fatter and sicker than ever.海特女士指出,20世纪80年代以来,美国人的粗粮、农产品、谷物和植物油摄入量普遍增加,而红肉、全脂牛奶和鸡蛋的摄入量则有所降低,但总体而言,美国人健康情况却比以往更糟了,肥胖问题也比之前任何时候都更加严重。“Despite the unavoidable conclusion that the guidelines have failed in some fundamental way,” she said, “the response from the advisory committee seems to be that an even more restricted list of acceptable foods will, this time around, do the trick.”“由此必然得出这样一个结论:这些指南在某些最根本的方面非常失败,”她说。“但看顾问委员会的反应,他们似乎以为这次制定出更加严格的‘建议食物清单’就可以解决问题。” /201503/366716。

  It’s been just three years since UK singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran broke through into the pop world with his debut single The A Team. But now, he’s aly one of the leading figures in the British music industry.三年前,身为创作型歌手的艾德#8226;希兰携处女单曲The A Team(书名号只能用于中文)空降流行乐坛就大获成功;而如今,他已经成为英国乐坛的领军人物。The 23-year-old artist has performed at the Victoria’s Fashion Show, on X Factor and on The Voice’s finale, and toured with top singers including his close friend Taylor Swift. He was named most streamed artist globally on Spotify in 2014 and won Best British Artist at the B Music Awards. X, his second studio album, which was released in June, conquered the UK music charts and was nominated for the 57th Grammy Awards’ Album of the Year.年仅23岁的他不仅登上过维秘、X元素以及美国好声音的舞台,还曾为包括闺蜜泰勒#8226;斯威夫特在内的诸多一流歌手登台助阵。他是2014年Spotify在线收听量最大的歌手,是B音乐盛典的最佳英国艺人。他的第二张专辑X在6月一经发行就占领英国各大音乐榜单,并获得第57届格莱美年度专辑提名。Who would believe this was the same red-haired British boy who bought a plane ticket from England to Los Angeles in April 2010, with just one date in his diary – playing guitar at a poetry night?可是谁又会相信这个红头发的英国男孩曾在2010年4月买了张机票从英格兰只身来到洛杉矶,只为在一个名为“诗歌之夜”的活动中抱着吉他演奏一场。Always showing up in baggy jeans, a T-shirt and a hoodie, with no fancy stage gear, what makes this red-haired nice guy stand out is his musicianship, said Financial Times. His songs are simple but emotional, with catchy tunes and touching lyrics inspired by real life.“他总是穿着宽松的牛仔裤、T恤和帽衫,没有华丽的舞台表演,而他的音乐才华足以让这个红头发的乖男孩出类拔萃。”《金融时报》如是评价道,“他的歌简单动人,曲调朗朗上口,歌词都是对现实生活的有感而发。”During his early days in London, at one point, he slept on the streets outside Buckingham Palace, which inspired his song Homeless. Weeks before his grandfather passed away, Ed wrote Afire Love with the heartbreaking words, “And if you fell to your death today, I hope that heaven is your resting place.”还在伦敦时,一次睡在白金汉宫外大街上的经历成为艾德创作Homeless的灵感来源。几周前,他的祖父离世,他于是在Afire Love中写到,“如果你坠落而亡,愿天堂成为你的安息之地”,令人心碎。Sheeran went to an ordinary school in Suffolk, England. He learned to play guitar at a young age and began to write songs at around 12. The boy’s earliest stage was his school’s concerts. At 16, Sheeran made the decision of a lifetime, to drop out of school and move to London to pursue his music career. He slept on friends’ sofas to save money to record his songs and gigged constantly for three years.希兰曾就读于英格兰萨福克郡一所普通的学校。他自幼学习吉他,12岁起就开始了音乐创作。学校的音乐会是他最早的舞台。16岁时,希兰做出了改变一生的决定——辍学前往伦敦追寻自己的音乐事业。为了省钱录专辑,他睡在朋友的沙发上,并在三年间不断地登台演奏。In early 2011, the young artist released his first EP No. 5Collaborations Project, which prompted a surge in his popularity on iTunes and brought him the attention of Elton John. Soon he signed to Asylum Records and his debut album + went quintuple platinum in the UK.2011年初,希兰发布了首张个人EP No. 5 Collaborations Project。这首歌令他在iTunes名声大噪,并且引起了(英国摇滚歌星)艾尔顿#8226;约翰的注意。很快他就签约大西洋唱片,而他的首张专辑+在英国销量已经超过500万。He doesn’t try to be anything but himself – an average boy next door. Sheeran explains his philosophy to The Independent as “being selfish”. “Why bother to please everyone? Please yourself. The rest will follow.”希兰从未想过成为别人,他一直在做自己——一个看似普通的邻家大男孩。在接受英国《独立报》采访时,希兰曾说自己的人生哲学就是“自私”一些,他说“为什么要纠结于取悦他人?做自己就好,其他的都顺其自然。” /201412/351205

  With a state-owned power plant in nearby Shanxi Province temporarily shut down to reduce air pollution, one of its engineers, Liu Cixin, is using the free time to work on his hobby: reigning as China’s best-selling science-fiction author.北京——工程师刘慈欣在山西附近的一座发电站工作(为减少空气污染,该站已经暂时关闭),他用业余时间经营自己的爱好,当上了中国最畅销的科幻小说作家。Along with working on a new novel and advising on screenplay adaptations of his earlier fiction, Mr. Liu, 51, has been promoting the English translation of “The Three-Body Problem,” the first book in his best-selling apocalyptic space opera trilogy. Translated by Ken Liu, an award-winning science-fiction writer in his own right who is based in the ed States (the men are not related), it is one of the few Chinese science-fiction novels to be translated into English. It will be released in the ed States on Tuesday by Tor Books.51岁的刘慈欣目前在创作一部新小说,也在给自己之前小说的电影改编剧本提建议。此外他还在宣传自己的小说《三体》的英译本,这是他的畅销天启太空歌剧三部曲中的第一部。该书由刘宇昆翻译,他同样是一位获奖科幻小说作家,现居美国(两人没有亲属关系)。目前被译为英文的中文科幻小说非常少见,本书将于周二由托尔图书出版社(Tor Books)在美国发行。The success of the “Three-Body” series, as it is called in China, has gained a following beyond the small but flourishing science-fiction world here. Since the third book was published in 2010, each entry in the series has sold about 500,000 copies in the original Chinese, making Mr. Liu the best-selling Chinese science-fiction author in decades.《三体》系列的成功令它的影响力超越了小而繁荣的科幻界。自第三部于2010年出版后,该系列每一部的中文版都卖出了约50万册,令刘慈欣成为几十年来最畅销的中国科幻小说作家。In addition to the usual high school and college-age fans of science fiction, China’s aerospace and Internet industries have embraced the books. Many interpret the battle of civilizations depicted in the series as an allegory for the ruthless competition in the nation’s Internet industry.除了科幻小说界常见的中学生与大学生拥趸,中国的航空航天和互联网业界人士也热爱这套书。很多人把书中不同文明之间的战争为中国互联网业内的无情竞争。The series has also breathed new life into a genre that, here as elsewhere, the literary establishment often marginalizes.这部系列也为科幻小说这一类型赋予了新活力,和在世界其他地方一样,在中国,科幻小说的文学价值经常被边缘化。For decades, science fiction was subject to the whims of Communist Party rule. The genre went from being a vehicle for popularizing science for socialist purposes to drawing criticism in 1983 from party newspapers for “sping pseudoscience and promoting decadent capitalist elements.” When the prestigious People’s Literature literary magazine published four of Mr. Liu’s short stories in 2012, it was a sign that the genre was back in official good graces.在中国,几十年来,科幻小说受到共产党反复无常的配。这一类型曾经被当做社会主义科普的工具,也在1983年遭到党报批评,称其为“传播伪科学,宣扬腐朽的资本主义”。2012年,声望很高的文学杂志《人民文学》刊登了四篇刘慈欣的小说,这标志着这一类型重新获得当局垂青。At its core, science fiction capitalizes on uncertainty about the future to push the boundaries of the er’s imagination. In fast-changing China, stories that lay out what coming years may hold in store have therefore found deeper resonance among ers.本质上,科幻小说利用未来的不确定性,推动读者想象的边界。因此,在快速变革的中国,关于未来可能发生的事情便能在读者当中找到更深的共鸣。“China is on the path of rapid modernization and progress, kind of like the U.S. during the golden age of science fiction in the ’30s to the ’60s,” Mr. Liu said. “The future in the people’s eyes is full of attractions, temptations and hope. But at the same time, it is also full of threats and challenges. That makes for very fertile soil.”“中国正处在高速现代化与发展的过程中,有点像20世纪30年代到60年代的美国,那也是科幻小说发展的黄金时期,”刘慈欣说。“人们眼中的未来充满魅力、诱惑与希望。同时也充满威胁和挑战。这为科幻小说提供了肥沃的土壤。”Chinese science fiction serves another purpose in the eyes of Xia Jia, a science-fiction writer and professor at Xian Jiaotong University. “Chinese science fiction, in a way, has borne the weight of the ‘Chinese dream’ since the genre first appeared in China in the late Qing dynasty,” she said, referring to the turn of the 20th century.在科幻小说作家与西安交通大学讲师夏笳看来,中国科幻小说还有另一个目的。“科幻小说是从晚清开始在中国出现,自那以后,中国科幻小说便在某种程度上承载着‘中国梦’,”她指的是19世纪与20世纪之交的那段时期。“The dream is about wanting to overtake the Western countries and become a very powerful modern China while still preserving these old elements,” she added. “This is what we who write science fiction in China have to grapple with.”“这个梦是关于追上西方国家,成为强大的现代中国,同时又保存古老的元素,”她补充,“这是我们中国的科幻小说作者必须应对的问题。”The “Three-Body” tomes chronicle a march of the human race into the universe set against the recent past, the tumultuous years of the Cultural Revolution. It is a classic science-fiction story in the style of the British master Arthur C. Clarke, whose work Mr. Liu says he grew up ing. “Everything that I write is a clumsy imitation of Arthur C. Clarke,” he said.《三体》三部曲按年代顺序记载了人类进军宇宙的征程,故事从不久的过去开始,即“文化大革命”动荡的岁月。这是经典的科幻小说故事,有着英国科幻小说大师阿瑟·C·克拉克(Arthur C. Clarke)的风格,刘慈欣说,自己从小就看克拉克的小说。“我写作的一切都是对阿瑟·C·克拉克的笨拙模仿,”他说。The first book in the series explores the world of the Trisolarans, an alien civilization on the brink of destruction. When a secret military project in China attempts to make contact with aliens, the Trisolarans capture the signals and decide to invade Earth. Back in China, people split into two camps: those who welcome the aliens and those who want to fight them.该系列的第一本探索了三体人的世界,这个外星文明正处于崩溃边缘。中国的一个秘密军事行动试图和外星人取得联系,三体人收到信号,决定入侵地球。在中国,人们分裂成两大阵营,一派欢迎外星人,另一派希望同他们开战。The series is likely to be a change of pace for science-fiction fans in the ed States, where many leading contemporary writers in the genre are rejecting classic alien-invasion plots in favor of those that take on real-world issues like climate change or shifting gender roles.这个系列有可能改变美国科幻小说迷的口味,目前美国的很多顶尖科幻小说作家摒弃传统的外星人入侵情节,更青睐反映现实世界的题材,诸如气候变化和性别转变之类。“I don’t think the demand for this kind of classical golden age science fiction has necessarily gone away,” Liz Gorinsky, an editor at Tor Books, said of the decision to introduce the series to American ers. “The ‘Three-Body’ series sort of scratches the same itch that harkens back to the kinds of books people when they were kids.”“我不认为对这类黄金时代经典科幻小说的需求已经消失,”托尔出版社的编辑莉兹·格林斯基(Liz Gorinsky)在谈起为何将该系列引入美国时说。“《三体》系列正是人们小时候读过的那种书。”Some experts link the popularity of the “Three-Body” series to a growing confidence among Chinese about their country’s growing role on the world stage.有些专家把《三体》系列的流行同中国人对国家在世界舞台上扮演的角色感到日益自信联系起来。“There have always been science-fiction stories that contemplated China as a leader in the world,” said Wu Yan, a science-fiction scholar and professor at Beijing Normal University. “People may have liked them, but, in their hearts, they didn’t truly believe them, or they thought it was really far off in the future. Now, with the ‘Three-Body’ series, people think, ‘Wow, it really could be possible that China might be given a say in the fate of humankind.’ ”“总有一些科幻小说把中国描绘为世界的领袖,”科幻小说作家、北京师范大学教授吴岩说。“人们或许喜欢它们,但在内心深处,他们并不相信,或者觉得这是遥远未来的事。现在,看了《三体》,人们觉得,‘啊,中国真有可能在关于人类命运的问题上发言了。’”In the book, scientists attempt to solve the traditional three-body problem in physics, in which the otherwise stable gravitational interaction between two objects in space becomes random and unpredictable when a third object is introduced.在这本书里,科学家试图揭开物理学中传统的三体问题:在宇宙空间中,如果引入第三个物体,两个物体之间稳定的引力作用会变为随机而不可预测。Mr. Liu’s revered status in the genre was evident this month at a book signing at the fifth annual Chinese Nebula Awards, one of the largest gatherings of science-fiction writers and fans in China. More than 2,000 people attended the events, held in an empty museum space on the western outskirts of Beijing.一年一度的华语星云奖是中国科幻作家和读者最大的盛会之一,这个月的第五届星云奖充分显示了刘慈欣在科幻界的崇高地位。2000多人出席了活动,北京西郊一家空荡荡的物馆顿时水泄不通。Mr. Liu stepped out of the elevator and made his way through the throngs to the table. Gasps and excited whispers were audible among the hundreds of fans who had lined up around the building. Two hours later, more than 100 fans, mostly college-age, were still waiting for a chance to meet him. One, Wu Liang, 27, trembled with excitement after her encounter with Mr. Liu.刘慈欣走出电梯,穿过人流,来到桌前。室内有几百个粉丝,兴奋的吸气声和耳语清晰可闻。两小时后,一百多个粉丝(其中大部分是大学生的年纪),仍在等着与他见面的机会。27岁的吴莲(音译)见到刘慈欣后,不禁激动得发抖。“You just bury your head in the ‘Three-Body’ books, and all of a sudden you feel so energized,” said Ms. Wu, who works at an Internet company in Beijing and attended the event in full Jedi attire. “It’s really a milestone in Chinese science fiction.”“你埋头读着《三体》,突然就觉得那么兴奋,”吴说,她在北京一家互联网公司工作,穿着绝地武士装来参加这次活动。“它的确是中国科幻小说的里程碑。” /201411/342578

  

  A: “Rock pie”---that’s it!A:;石头饼;,就是这个。B:Who in their right mind would eat rock pie?B:哪个头脑清楚的人会吃石头饼?A:Nobody.I’ve entered a pie-throwing contest.A:没有,我只是参加了一个饼投掷大赛。 /201506/375889

  Is the Christmas card obsolete? I suppose the answer depends on what function you think the Christmas card is intended to serve, if any at all. Surely it is no longer intended to convey information. Email and social networks do a more efficient job, and including a Christmas newsletter or family photograph (I do both) will earn you only scorn from any self-respecting British snob.圣诞卡过时了吗?我认为取决于在你心目中圣诞卡应该承载什么功能(如果你认为它有任何功能的话)。毫无疑问,圣诞卡已经不再用来传达信息。电子邮件和社交网络比圣诞卡更有效,如果你在圣诞卡里加上圣诞简报或者家人照片(我两个都加),只会让任何自命不凡的英国人对你投来白眼。Some believe that the Christmas card list, where we keep track of old favours and slights, is a sort of passive-aggressive vendetta. There is truth in this. Late in 1974, two sociologists, Phillip Kunz and Michael Woolcott, posted more than 500 Christmas cards to people they did not know. Some of them were “high status” cards, using expensive materials and signed “Dr and Mrs Phillip Kunz”. Others were from “Phillip and Joyce Kunz” or used cheaper stationery or both.有人认为,记录着我们之前得到过的帮助和受过的怠慢的圣诞卡寄送名单,是一种消极的复仇。这话有些道理。1974年末,社会学家菲利普#8226;孔兹(Phillip Kunz)和迈克尔#8226;伍尔科特(Michael Woolcott)向陌生人寄出了500多张圣诞卡。其中一些是“高尚”卡片,纸质精良,署名为“菲利普#8226;孔兹士夫妇”。其他一些卡片或是署名为“菲利普和乔伊丝(Joyce)#8226;孔兹”,或是纸质较差,抑或两者皆是。The Kunz family received, along with a complaint from the police, some rather touching replies: “Dear Joyce and Phil, Received your Christmas card and was good to hear from you. I will have to do some explaining to you. Your last name did not register at first#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Please forgive me for being so stupid for not knowing your last name. We are fine and hope you are well. We miss your father. They were such grand friends.”“孔兹一家”除收到了一封来自警方的抗议信以外,还收到了一些相当感人的回复:“亲爱的乔伊斯和菲尔,我已经收到了你们的圣诞卡,收到你们的消息真是太好了。我必须向你们做些解释。一开始我没认出你们的姓……请原谅我如此愚蠢,不知道你们的姓。我们很好,希望你们也好。我们想念你的父亲。他们真是很好的朋友。”But what is most striking is that more than 100 strangers felt obliged to send a signed card in response. That is the power of reciprocity. (Response rates were particularly high if “Dr Kunz” had written on a fancy card to a working-class household. That is the power of status.)但最惊人的是,有逾100个陌生人认为有必要回寄一张手写的卡片。这就是礼尚往来习俗的力量。(寄给工人阶层家庭的署名“孔兹士”的高档卡片回复率格外高。这就是社会地位的力量。)If this is what Christmas cards are all about — mindless reciprocal obligation coupled with some social climbing — then I think we can all agree on two things: we could do without them; and we’ll never be rid of them. Thomas Schelling, a winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics, once advocated a bankruptcy procedure — wiping clean the list of people to whom we “owe” a Christmas card. If only.如果这就是圣诞卡的意义所在——机械的礼尚往来义务、加上一点攀高枝活动,那么我认为所有人应该都同意以下两点:我们可以没有圣诞卡;并且我们永远不会摆脱圣诞卡。诺贝尔经济学奖得主托马斯#8226;谢林(Thomas Schelling)曾经提议采取某种“破产”程序,把我们“欠”下的圣诞卡债清零。我们要是真能这样做就好了,可惜……But perhaps the Christmas card also serves other purposes. Consider the exchange, “How do you do?”, “How do you do?” This is phatic communication. It conveys no detailed information but it acknowledges others and implies that there is nothing much to report. “I’m OK, and you’re OK, and lines of communication are open if that changes.”但圣诞卡或许还承载了其他功能。想想这样的交谈,“你好吗?”,“你好吗?”。这是一种交际对话。这段对话没有传达任何具体信息,只是向别人打招呼,并暗示没什么值得一说的事情。“我很好,你也很好,如果出了什么事,尽管告诉我。”A Facebook “poke” could achieve the same thing at much lower cost. But perhaps the expense and the hassle is part of the point. If someone invites you for dinner and you say “thank you” as you leave, you may still wish to follow up with a thank-you note to show that you have enough invested in the relationship to take the trouble. If relationships weren’t hard work, they would not be relationships.Facebook的“戳一下”(poke)能够以低得多的成本达到同样的效果。但或许寄圣诞卡的部分意义恰恰在于它费钱费事。如果有人邀请你吃饭,你在离开时也说了“谢谢”,你可能还是希望在晚些时候再写一份道谢便条,以示你对这份关系足够重视,愿意费这个事。不需要花费精力维护的人际关系就不是人际关系了。There’s a thing called the “social brain” hypothesis: it states that humans evolved large and energy-intensive brains not to do hard sums or design clever tools but because they needed them to navigate the complexities of dealing with other people. Back in 1992, Robin Dunbar — an anthropologist and psychologist now based at the University of Oxford — published a fascinating addendum to that idea. Dunbar had been looking at the social group size and the brain size of different primates, and found that primate species with larger neocortices had grooming relationships with larger social groups. Extrapolating to humans, he produced what has become known as Dunbar’s Number. If our brains are any guide, we’re built to handle a social network of about 150 people.有一个所谓“社会大脑”假说认为:人类进化出消耗大量能量的大体积大脑,不是为了进行复杂的运算,也不是为了设计巧妙的工具,而是因为人需要大脑来应对复杂的人际交往。早在1992年,现任职于牛津大学(Oxford)的人类学家和心理学家罗宾#8226;邓巴(Robin Dunbar)就发表了一篇非常有趣的文章,对这一思想进行了补充。当时邓巴对不同的灵长类动物的社群规模和脑部大小进行了比对研究,发现新皮层更大的灵长类物种在更大的社群内相互梳理毛发。推及人类,他提出了所谓的“邓巴数字”(Dunbar’s Number)。如果可以进行这样的推断的话,那么以人类的大脑,每个人应该能应付大概150个人的社交网络。Dunbar’s Number is both more uncertain and more complex than popular presentations would have you believe. Dunbar himself argues that social networks are nested, following rough powers of three: five people to whom we might turn for substantial emotional or financial support in a moment of true crisis; 15 intimate friends; 50 friends; 150 rather casual friends, and so on.流行的解读会让你觉得邓巴数字是一个确定而简单的原则,但实际上它要更不确定、也更复杂一些。邓巴本人认为,社交网络的构建大致遵循三倍原则:你在真正遇到麻烦时会向他们寻求实质性情感或者财务持的密友有5个人;比较亲密的朋友有15个人;关系较好的朋友有50个人;泛泛之交则有150个人,以此类推。Social networking tools let us reach more people, more quickly, and in some detail if we so choose. I can reach 90,000 followers on Twitter but — how can I put this tactfully? — they are not my friends. These new technologies are a great convenience but it is not clear that they are allowing us to expand the number of genuine friends that we have. A recent study by Bruno Gon#231;alves, Nicola Perra and Alessandro Vespignani examined 25 million conversations between Twitter users, and found that the network with whom people might actually have several reciprocal conversations was between 100 and 200 — Dunbar’s number again. As for close friends, women engage in two-way communication with around six people on Facebook; men with just four.社交网络工具让我们能以更快的速度接触到更多的人,如果我们愿意,这些工具还能帮助我们进行比较详细的接触。我在Twitter上能接触到9万名粉丝,但是,我该怎么委婉地说呢,他们不是我的朋友。这些新科技给我们提供了很大的便利,但并无明显迹象显示它们能让我们得以扩展真朋友的数量。布鲁诺#8226;贡萨尔维斯(Bruno Gon#231;alves)、尼古拉#8226;佩拉(Nicola Perra)和亚历山德罗#8226;韦斯皮尼亚尼(Alessandro Vespignani)最近进行了一项研究,他们查看了Twitter用户间的2500万次对话,发现人们可能进行几次相互对话的社交网络大概包含100到200人——这又印了邓巴数字。至于密友,女性在facebook上大概与6个人进行双向交流;而男性仅与4个人保持这种关系。Much like primate grooming, a Christmas card requires effort, time and expense. An up-to-date Christmas list requires some thought about who matters to you, for reasons noble or ignoble. And a few years ago, two researchers carefully examined how big Christmas cards lists tended to be, once allowing for the fact that a single card could reach several members of a household. The researchers were Russell Hill and Robin Dunbar. And the number of people reached by a typical British Christmas card list? 154.与灵长类相互理毛的举动很像,圣诞卡需要花费精力、时间和金钱。要列一份最新的圣诞卡寄送名单,你需要思考一下谁对你来说很重要,不管是出于光明正大的理由,还是上不了台面的理由。几年前,两名研究者仔细研究了圣诞卡寄送名单的一般长度,并考虑一张卡片可以同时接触到同一个家庭中的好几个人的事实。这两名研究者分别是拉塞尔#8226;希尔(Russel Hill)和罗宾#8226;邓巴。那么在英国,一张圣诞卡片寄送名单通常能接触到多少个人?是154个。 /201412/350220。

  For years pregnant women have been warned about eating tuna because of concerns about mercury exposure. But a federal panel has reignited the debate about the benefits and risks of eating tuna and other seafood during pregnancy.多年来,因为汞污染问题,妇一直被警告不宜食用金鱼。然而,联邦政府的一个顾问小组最近却就妊娠期食用金鱼等海产品的风险和收益,重新挑起了争论。Experts agree that seafood is a rich source of important nutrients, and that most of us don’t eat enough of it. Fish is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, iodine, selenium and vitamin D. And numerous studies show that the nutrients in fish are particularly important for brain development in fetuses and nursing infants.专家们一致认为海产品是重要营养物质的丰富来源,且我们大多数人的海产品摄入量都不足。鱼肉中富含ω-3脂肪酸、B族维生素、碘、硒和维生素D。众多研究表明,鱼肉中的营养物质对于胎儿和哺乳期婴儿的大脑发育尤为重要。As part of a sweeping review of nutrition recommendations, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee recently reiterated the current seafood guidelines: Americans should eat a wide variety of seafood. The report also acknowledges the risk of mercury exposure from certain kinds of seafoods, and notes that women who are pregnant, nursing or may become pregnant should avoid certain kinds — tilefish, shark, swordfish and king mackerel — because of their high mercury content.此次对营养建议的全面复审由美国膳食指南咨询委员会(Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee)负责。作为这项工作的一部分,该小组最近重申了当前的指南:美国人应食用多种多样的海产品。其报告承认某些种类的海产品存在汞暴露风险,并指出妇、哺乳期或备女性应避免食用某些汞含量偏高的鱼类:方头鱼、鲨鱼、箭鱼和王鲭。The panel withheld a recommendation about tuna, second only to shrimp in popularity in the ed States. Current guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency warn pregnant and nursing women to limit tuna consumption to six ounces per week.但是,该小组并不赞同关于金鱼,也就是美国仅次于虾的第二受欢迎的海产品的建议。美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration)和美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)的现行指南警告:妇和哺乳期妇女应将金鱼的摄入量限制在每周6盎司(约合170克)。The advisory committee has recommended that these agencies “re-evaluate” their stance on tuna for pregnant women. In the report, the panel argues that albacore tuna is a “special case.” They noted that even when women ate double the recommended weekly amount of tuna, the benefits far outweighed the risks. “All evidence was in favor of net benefits for infant development and (cardiovascular disease) risk reduction,” the panel wrote.咨询委员会建议上述机构“重新评估”他们在妇食用金鱼问题上的立场,并在报告中指出:长鳍金鱼应作为一个“特例”。即使妇女食用每周建议量两倍的金鱼,其净收益也远远大于风险。“所有的据都持它有益于婴儿发育,并可降低(心血管疾病)的风险。”The suggestion that pregnant women can eat more white albacore tuna — the type of tuna typically used in canned tuna — has upset advocacy groups that have called for increased warnings about mercury on tuna packaging.顾问小组表示妇适当多吃些白长鳍金鱼(常用于制作金鱼罐头)也无妨,这令大声疾呼应对包装金鱼食品的汞污染提高警惕的宣传组织十分不满。“Tuna is responsible for nearly seven times more mercury exposure than the four high-mercury fish that the Federal Food and Drug Administration advises pregnant women not to eat,” said Michael Bender, director of the mercury policy project, in a statement. “So why would the proposed 2015 dietary guidelines recommend that pregnant women eat more of it?”“金鱼中的汞污染是美国食品和药品监督建议妇不要食用的四种高汞鱼类的近七倍,”汞政策项目”(mercury policy project)的负责人迈克尔·本德尔(Michael Bender)在一份声明中称。“那么,又为何提出在2015年的膳食指南中建议妇多吃金鱼?”But Dr. Steve Abrams, a panel member involved in the seafood recommendations and medical director of the Neonatal Nutrition Program at Baylor College of Medicine, said that while women need to be aware of the types of fish they are eating, the evidence is strong that fish consumption by mothers is good for the brains of their babies.但是,参与制定海产品膳食建议的顾问小组成员、美国贝勒医学院(Baylor College of Medicine)新生儿营养项目(Neonatal Nutrition Program)主任史蒂夫·艾布拉姆斯(Steve Abrams)士表示,虽然妇女需要对自己食用的几种鱼类多加注意,但强有力的据显示母亲食用鱼肉对婴儿的大脑有好处。“The goal of the dietary guidelines is to give people a healthy way to eat and not to include or exclude certain foods,” said Dr. Abrams. “The benefit of having (omega-3 fatty acids) in your diet really exceeds the likely risk of contamination. The point is that you should have a variety of types of seafood and not limit yourself to one type, and variety includes canned tuna.”“膳食指南的目的在于指导人们以健康的方式饮食,而不是将某些食物纳入或排除出食谱,”艾布拉姆斯士说。“膳食中加入含(ω-3脂肪酸)的食物带来的收益大大超过了可能的污染风险。问题的关键是,你应该食用包括金鱼罐头在内的多种的海产品,而不是局限于某一特定种类。”Alice Lichtenstein, senior scientist and director of the Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory at Tufts University said the panel hasn’t suggested that pregnant women eat more tuna. “The issue of fish contamination is a moving target and you need very current data,” said Dr. Lichtenstein. “It may be that the issue is re-evaluated and there is no change.”塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)心血管营养实验室(Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory)主任、资深科学家艾丽斯·利希滕斯坦(Alice Lichtenstein)表示,该小组并未建议妇多吃金鱼。“鱼肉污染的情况无时无刻不在发生变化,需要研究即时的数据,”利希滕斯坦士说。“很可能,在重新评估过该问题后,发现无需做出改变。”Mercury levels in our oceans are on the rise due to an increase in industrial mercury emissions. Plants, plankton and tiny fish that have absorbed small amounts of mercury are eaten by larger fish. Over time, large fish sharks and swordfish accumulate high levels of mercury. As a result, health officials recommend fish like sardines, salmon, tilapia and trout that are lower on the food chain and have accumulated less mercury in their tissue.工业汞排放的增加造成海洋中的汞含量持续上升。植物、浮游生物和小鱼体内都吸收了少量的汞,而它们又是大鱼的口中餐。随着时间的推移,鲨鱼和箭鱼等大型鱼类体内就积累了高浓度的汞。因此,卫生官员建议人们食用位于食物链较低位置,组织中积累汞含量较少的鱼类,如沙丁鱼、鲑鱼、罗非鱼和鳟鱼等。The benefits of fish consumption on a developing fetus are clear. In a Harvard study of 135 mothers and infants, researchers tracked fish consumption during pregnancy and tested the mother’s hair to measure her mercury exposure. They found that for each weekly serving of fish the mother ate while pregnant, her baby’s score on visual recognition memory tests increased an average of four points. At the same time, a baby’s score dropped by 7.5 points for every one part per million increase in mercury found in the mother’s hair sample. The babies who scored highest on the memory tests were those whose mothers had consumed two or more servings of fish each week during their pregnancy, but were tested to have very low mercury levels.食用鱼肉对发育中的胎儿的益处显而易见。在哈佛大学(Harvard)的一项研究中,科学家们以135对母婴为研究对象,跟踪了母亲在妊娠期食用鱼肉的情况,并检测了母亲的头发以测定其汞暴露程度。他们发现,妇每食用一周份的鱼肉,日后其孩子在视觉识别记忆测试中的得分平均将增加四分。同时,母亲头发样本中的汞含量每增加一百万分之一(p.p.m.),她孩子的上述得分就会降低7.5分。当母亲在妊娠期间每周至少食用两份鱼肉,头发检测出的汞浓度又非常低时,孩子在记忆测试中得分最高。Health officials have long worried about balancing warnings about mercury against the obvious benefits of consuming more fish. Currently fewer than one in five Americans eats the recommended two servings a week of fish. About one-third eat one serving of seafood weekly and nearly half of us eats very little seafood or none at all.长久以来,卫生官员在究竟是强调多吃鱼好处多多还是警惕汞摄入量之间,举棋不定。目前,只有不到五分之一的美国人遵照建议每周食用两份鱼肉。约三分之一的人每周食用一份海产品,近一半人仅食用很少或根本不食用海产品。This fall Consumer Reports issued a lengthy paper on fish and mercury exposure, noting the special concerns about canned tuna due to its popularity. Six ounces of canned tuna contains 60 micrograms of mercury compared to just 4 micrograms of mercury in a six-ounce serving of salmon, according to Consumer Reports. (A six-ounce serving of swordfish contains 170 micrograms, the magazine said. )去年秋天的时候,《消费者报告》(Consumer Reports)发表了关于鱼类和汞暴露的长篇文章,并对广受欢迎的金鱼罐头表示了特别关注。《消费者报告》称,6盎司金鱼罐头中含有60微克的汞,相比之下,一份6盎司的鲑鱼中汞含量只有4微克。(该杂志还称,一份6盎司的箭鱼中含有170微克的汞。)For people who want to safely eat more seafood, the magazine recommended shrimp, scallops, sardines, salmon, oysters, squid and tilapia as the lowest-mercury seafood. Also low are haddock, pollock, flounder and sole, Atlantic croaker, crawfish, catfish, trout, Atlantic mackerel, crab and mullet. In addition to the usual warnings about high mercury fish, Consumer Reports added marlin and orange roughy to the list. They suggested limiting consumption of grouper, Chilean sea bass, bluefish, halibut, black cod, Spanish mackerel and fresh tuna.杂志建议,如果想要放心地食用较大量的海产品,可选择虾、扇贝、沙丁鱼、鲑鱼、牡蛎、鱿鱼和罗非鱼等汞含量最低的海产品。其他汞含量较低的品种有:黑线鳕、青鳕、比目鱼和鳎、细须石首鱼、小龙虾、鲶鱼、鳟鱼、大西洋鲭鱼、蟹和鲻鱼。高汞鱼类的警告列表中,除了常见的那几种之外,《消费者报告》又补充了马林鱼和大西洋胸棘鲷。建议有限制地食用的鱼类有:石斑鱼、智利海鲈鱼、扁鲹、星鲽、银鳕、马鲛鱼和新鲜金鱼。 /201504/368763

  

  

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