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2019年11月21日 09:26:24 | 作者:365信息 | 来源:新华社
The New Republic will celebrate its 100th birthday on Wednesday with a black-tie gala in Washington featuring remarks by Bill Clinton and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, a performance by Wynton Marsalis and a 400-person guest list studded with boldface names.《新共和》(The New Republic)杂志将于周三在华盛顿举办一场正装庆典,庆祝该杂志成立100周年,出席者包括比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)与拉斯·巴达·金斯堡(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)。温顿·马萨里斯(Wynton Marsalis)将献上演出,共有400名宾客出席,其中不乏重要人物。For those in an extra-nostalgic mood, the party has brought to mind the magazine’s semilegendary 70th-anniversary gathering in 1984, when Barney Frank and Gary Hart mingled with Henry A. Kissinger, who in an after-dinner speech declared it “traumatic” to be photographed with so many liberals.对于那些格外怀旧的人来说,这场派对会令他们想起1984年该杂志那场近乎传奇的70周年庆典,当时的出席者包括巴尼·弗兰克(Barney Frank)、加里·哈特与亨利·A·基辛格(Henry A. Kissinger)。基辛格在餐后讲话上声称,和这么多自由主义者一起合影,让他觉得“很受伤”。“The pictures are kind of a scream,” said Franklin Foer, the magazine’s 40-year-old editor, vicariously reminiscing about the days when The New Republic was toasting its status as the hot political magazine of the moment. “You look at them and then at Washington now, and you think, ‘Wow, that’s quite a tumble.#39; ”“这些照片就像一声呐喊,”杂志编辑,40岁的富兰克林·弗尔(Franklin Foer)说,人们通过照片可以间接感受到《新共和》身为最热点的政治杂志的时代。“看着他们,再看看如今的华盛顿,就会觉得‘哦,一代不如一代’。”Like Washington’s cast of characters, The New Republic has also changed. Under Chris Hughes, the Facebook multimillionaire who bought the magazine in 2012 from a consortium including its longtime owner Martin Peretz, the biweekly publication has more than doubled its staff, redesigned its print edition and broadened its coverage to be less Beltway-centric. It has also vastly increased its web traffic to more than four million unique users a month, according to the magazine.正如华盛顿的变化,《新共和》杂志也在改变。2012年,Facebook的亿万富翁克里斯·休斯(Chris Hughes)从一个财团手中买下这本杂志,杂志的长期所有者马丁·佩雷兹(Martin Peretz)也在该财团之中。在休斯领导下,这本双周刊的员工扩充了一倍,它重新设计了纸质版,拓宽了报道范围,使其不再像以前那样以华盛顿为中心。它的网络流量也大幅增加,杂志声称,杂志网站每月有400万名用户。And further changes are afoot. As the anniversary arrives, Mr. Hughes has hired Guy Vidra, a 40-year-old former Yahoo News executive, for the top of masthead as The New Republic’s first chief executive. This has set off speculation in Washington journalism circles that a magazine as famous for its ferocious office politics as for its contrarian political coverage might be on the verge of another round of upheaval.更多变化亦在发生中。周年庆典到来之际,休斯聘请了雅虎新闻的前任执行官,40岁的盖伊·维德拉(Guy Vidra),他的名字被印在刊头,成了《新共和》的第一位首席执行官。这在华盛顿新闻界引发了一阵推测,一家以残酷的办公室政治斗争和离经叛道的政治报道而闻名的杂志,或许正处于另一场巨变的边缘。Eyebrows were raised last year when Mr. Hughes, a former organizer for Barack Obama, introduced the redesigned magazine with an editor’s letter that omitted the words “liberal” or “liberalism.” These days, while he says he remains committed to print, he is also y to jettison “magazine.”去年,曾为贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)做过组织工作的休斯推出这本经重新设计的杂志,附有一封编辑致读者信,其中没有提到“自由”或“自由主义”这些词,当时有不少人对此表示疑虑。如今,休斯说自己仍对纸质印刷出版保持忠诚,但也准备好了抛弃“杂志”概念。“Twenty years ago, no question, it was a political magazine, full stop,” Mr. Hughes said in a joint interview with Mr. Vidra in New York. “Today, I don’t call it a magazine at all. I think we’re a digital media company.”“20年前,毫无疑问,它是一本政治杂志,这一点没什么可说的,”休斯在纽约与维德拉共同接受采访时说。“如今,我并不把它称为一本杂志。我觉得我们是一家数字媒体公司。”Mr. Hughes (who gave up the editor in chief title but remains publisher) and Mr. Vidra dismissed speculation that they wanted to take the magazine in a more lowbrow, BuzzFeed-like direction. But they did say there was room to increase the digital audience to as much as “tens of millions” of unique monthly visitors by focusing on a broader range of topics and on new forms of digital storytelling that “travel well” on the web.休斯放弃了总编地位,但保留出版人这个头衔。有人推测他和维德拉将把这本杂志引向低俗,走向BuzzFeed的方向,他和维德拉否认了这一说法。但他们也说,有可能通过关注更广泛的题材,采取新的数码叙事形式,在网上“走得更好”,为杂志吸引数以千万计的网络读者。Whatever The New Republic is today, it has been busy flogging its storied past. Mr. Foer and Mr. Hughes, 30, have been out promoting “Insurrections of the Mind,” an anthology of about 50 articles spanning the magazine’s history. Leon Wieseltier, the publication’s silver-maned longtime literary editor, has thrown out the first pitch at a Washington Nationals game (“high and away,” he admitted) and appeared on “The Colbert Report” to debate the merits of “centrist hair.”不管《新共和》如今变成了什么样,它仍在忙于利用自己传奇的过去。弗尔和30岁的休斯正忙着宣传《头脑的叛乱》(Insurrections of the Mind)这本文选,它收录了贯穿该杂志历史的50篇文章。长期在杂志工作的自由主义编辑里昂·维塞尔迪尔(Leon Wieseltier)如今已是满头白发,他刚刚为华盛顿国民队的一场比赛开球(他确认“开得又高又远”),后来又上综艺节目《科尔伯特报告》(The Colbert Report)中,探讨“中分头发”的价值。During Mr. Peretz’s tempestuous three-decade reign, whose door-slamming fights were recalled (mostly) fondly in an article in the anniversary issue by a former editor, Hendrik Hertzberg, The New Republic enraged many on the left, including many on its own staff, with its support for the contras, the anti-Communist insurgents in Nicaragua; an excerpt from “The Bell Curve,” Charles Murray’s 1994 book on race and I.Q.; and its full-throated support, later reconsidered, for the Iraq war. (Mr. Peretz, who attacked Mr. Hughes last year in an op-ed article in The Wall Street Journal, is not invited to the party, Mr. Hughes said.)在佩雷兹暴风骤雨般的30年任期中,有过很多激烈的争吵。周年纪念专刊上,前任编辑亨德里克·赫兹伯格(Hendrik Hertzberg)在一篇文章中以亲切的口吻回忆了这些往事(大部分)。《新共和》得罪了许多左派,其中包括不少自己的员工,它持尼加拉瓜反共产党的反对派起义者、持查尔斯·穆雷(Charles Murray)1994年的书《弧线排序》(The Bell Curve)中关于种族与智商的章节,还在事后的反思中全力持伊拉克战争。去年佩雷兹曾在《华尔街时报》(Wall Street Journal)的专栏文章中攻击休斯,休斯表示没有邀请佩雷兹来参加派对。These days, The New Republic’s goal of parting its hair down the middle, starting with its decision to stop running editorials, strikes some as a diminishment.最近,《新共和》开始走中立路线,最初的举措就是决定取消社论,有人认为这是一种衰退。“The magazine used to be schizophrenic,” said Eric Alterman, a columnist for The Nation and a longtime critic of Mr. Peretz’s. “But now, the most you can compare it to is a nice sailboat that usually has something smart in it but isn’t taking you anywhere.”“这家杂志曾经是精神分裂的,”《国家》(The Nation)杂志的专栏作家和佩雷兹的长期批评者埃里克·阿尔特曼(Eric Alterman)说,“但是现在,最好的比喻是,它就像一艘美丽的小帆船,上面总有很漂亮的东西,但是没法带你去往任何地方。”But others say the magazine’s direction under Mr. Hughes represents a return to the pragmatic idealism of its Progressive Era roots. “There’s a greater public-spiritedness and broadness of vision to the magazine now,” said Robert S. Boynton, director of the literary journalism program at New York University. “The fact that there’s some confusion about its identity is actually a healthy sign.”但其他人说,这家杂志在休斯治理下,开始回归它在进步时代的根源,即实用理想主义。“现在的杂志有更大的公众精神和更广泛的视野,”纽约大学自由主义新闻项目的负责人罗伯特·S·伊恩顿(Robert S. Boynton)说。“事实上,它的身份引起了一些困惑,这其实是一个健康的信号。”Intraoffice fights still happen, but not always in the magazine’s pages. When The New Republic ran an excerpt from a book on the history of the pro-Israel lobby by John Judis, a longtime senior editor, Mr. Wieseltier vented his displeasure in a scathing, semiprivate email published by The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative website.办公室内的斗争还在继续,但并不总是体现在杂志的版面里。杂志多年的高级编辑约翰·朱迪斯(John Judis)写了一本关于亲以色列游说集团历史的书籍,《新共和》刊登了节选,维塞尔迪尔在一封半私人的电子邮件中尖锐地表达了自己对此感到不快,这封邮件被刊登在保守派的网站“华盛顿自由灯塔”(The Washington Free Beacon)上。“Spirited debate is an incredibly important value to the institution,” Mr. Hughes said of that incident. “So is mutual respect.”“激烈的争辩是这家杂志非常重要的价值观,”休斯这样评价这场风波,“互相尊重也是如此。”That might come as a relief to Mr. Clinton, who could deliver a marathon self-roast at Wednesday’s gala simply by ing choice vituperative ’90s-era coverage of him and Hillary Rodham Clinton in The New Republic.这对于克林顿先生来说可能是个安慰。周三庆典上的祝酒词中,光是朗读90年代《新共和》就他与希拉里·罗德姆·克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)的报道中的辱骂之词,他就可以马拉松般说上半天。Not that The New Republic has gone nice. It has “dialed back on the smartypants-ness” but still runs tough pieces about Republicans and Democrats alike, Mr. Foer said, pointing to Noam Scheiber’s much-talked-about critical profile of the Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett in the anniversary issue.并不是说《新共和》变得温和了。弗尔说,它只是“减少了自作聪明”,仍然在刊登对共和党与民主党同样严厉的文章。他指的是周年纪念刊上诺姆·谢伯(Noam Scheiber)关于奥巴马的顾问瓦莱丽·贾勒特(Valerie Jarrett)的批评性特写,这篇文章受到很多议论。And in the culture pages, long Mr. Wieseltier’s autonomous domain, no-holds-barred criticism still reigns, as in the same issue’s gleeful takedown of Lena Dunham by James Wolcott and a long essay by Mr. Wieseltier declaring, among other things, that “ferocity is as essential to our system as civility.”在长期处于维塞尔迪尔自治状态下的文化版面,仍然实行无拘无束的批判主义,纪念刊中登出了詹姆斯·沃尔科特(James Wolcott)的一篇文章,欢快地讽刺莉娜·杜汉姆(Lena Dunham);还有一篇维塞尔迪尔的长文,宣布,“对于我们的体系来说,凶狠和礼貌同等重要。”Mr. Wieseltier also gets in the issue’s last word, with a closing column warning against giving technology “ultimate authority over human existence.”维塞尔迪尔还为这期杂志做了总结,在刊尾文章中,他警告那种赋予技术“超越人类存在的至高无上的权威”的做法。To connoisseurs of old-school intrigue in The New Republic, that may sound like a shot at the magazine’s digital future. But Mr. Wieseltier, who calls himself a “platform pluralist,” waved away the suggestion.品味《新共和》的老式技巧或许像是在攻击杂志的数码化未来。但维塞尔迪尔否定了这种看法,把自己称为“平台多元论者”。“This is a moment to celebrate,” he said. “For a hundred years, the country has been a little less dumb than it might have been without us.”“这是庆祝的时刻,”他说,“百年以来,如果没有我们,这个国家怕是会更蠢一些。” /201411/343602On the first day of my recent trip to Hong Kong, the South China Morning Post had a front-page story bemoaning the neglect of English.我不久前去香港,刚到的第一天,《南华早报》(South China Morning Post)在头版刊发了一篇感叹英语受到忽视的文章。While Hong Kong was officially bilingual, local ministers were increasingly giving speeches and blogging in Chinese without providing an English translation, the paper said.该报称,尽管香港官方使用两种语言,但政府部门首长在讲话和写客时越来越多地使用中文,而且不提供英语版本。It is not just officials abandoning English. There are frequent complaints that Hong Kong generally has lost its ability to communicate in the language.抛弃英语的不只是官员。经常有人抱怨,香港人普遍丧失了用英语交流的能力。This was my third visit to Hong Kong in a year, and I too have been struck by how many people struggle to speak English. It is a contrast with everywhere else I have travelled in recent years.这是我一年内第三次去香港,对香港那么多人讲不好英语,我感到很吃惊。这跟我近年来去过的所有其他地方形成了对比。I have written before about how hard it is to practise European languages because people insist on replying in English.以前我写过文章,讲述学说欧洲语言是多么困难,因为人们执着地用英语回答。Because English has Germanic and Romance roots, with plenty of Greek words, it is, of course, far easier for Europeans to learn English than it is for Chinese speakers.由于英语的源头包括了日耳曼语和罗曼语,其词汇里有大量的希腊语单词,所以,欧洲人学英语当然比讲中文的人学英语要容易得多。But it is not just in Europe that people appear to speak better English. Singaporeans seemed, when I went there last year, to speak English more fluently — and with a playfulness and joy that I missed in Hong Kong.但是,英语讲得好的地方并不限于欧洲。去年我去新加坡时,发现当地人的英语似乎讲得更流利,带着一种香港人讲英语时没有的活泼和欢快。In Shanghai, which I visited in 2009, I was struck by the number of people who spoke excellent English. Some had been to university in English-speaking countries, but others had just worked hard on the language at home.在上海——2009年我去过那里——我对很多人英语讲得特别棒感到吃惊。有些人曾经到讲英语的国家读大学,其他人只是在国内下了很大功夫学英语。More extensive surveys have reached the same conclusion. The EF English Proficiency Index, which analysed test data from 750,000 adults in 63 countries, found that Hong Kong was well behind Malaysia and Singapore. The survey found that South Korea, Japan, Indonesia and Taiwan were all ahead of Hong Kong in English.覆盖面较广的调查得出了相同的结论。对63个国家75万名成年人的测试成绩进行分析得出的英孚英语熟练度指标(EF English Proficiency Index)显示,香港的英语熟练程度远远落后于马来西亚和新加坡。调查发现,韩国、日本、印尼和台湾的英语水平都好于香港。For the first time ever, the survey said, Shanghai had overtaken Hong Kong in English proficiency.该调查表明,上海的英语熟练程度有史以来第一次超过了香港。Answering a question in the Legislative Council in December on how this had happened, Eddie Ng, Hong Kong’s education secretary, said the EF index was based on the responses of self-selected online participants and that more objective tests, both internal and external, showed that Hong Kong’s English was either steady or slightly improving.去年12月在香港立法会回答为何会出现这个局面时,香港教育局局长吴克俭(Eddie Ng)表示,英孚指标是基于自行选择的在线参与者的应答,而更客观的测试,无论是本地的还是国际测试,都显示香港人英语水平保持平稳或有轻微进步。It is true that the EF index is not a scientific survey. And worries about declining English standards in Hong Kong are not new.没错,英孚指标并非科学调查的结果。而对香港人英语水平下降的担忧也不是新鲜事儿。In 2000, David Eldon, then Hong Kong-based head of HS in Asia, complained that recruits from Beijing and Shanghai who had never left China spoke better English than those in Hong Kong. “If you are going to have multinationals investing here, they are going to want people who are conversant and fluent in English. Today, they would be hard pressed to find them,” he said.2000年,当时驻香港的汇丰(HS)亚太区主席大卫#8226;埃尔登(David Eldon)抱怨称,在北京和上海招募的从未离开过内地的员工,比香港的员工英语讲得更好。“如果你想让跨国企业到这里来投资,他们会想要精通英语并且表达流利的员工。如今,他们要找到这样的人才会很困难,”他说。Several people I spoke to blamed the decline on local education policy which, since the 1997 handover from Britain to China, prevents most schools using English as the language of instruction for other subjects.好几个跟我交谈过的人认为原因在于香港的教育政策。自1997年从英国回归中国之后,本地政策阻碍大多数学校把英语作为其他科目的授课语言。But complaints about English predate the handover. The first Financial Times article on the decline appeared in 1988, when we reported that the University of Hong Kong had become so concerned about students’ English that it had added a foundation year to its three-year courses.对港人英语水平下降的抱怨在回归之前就有了。在1988年,英国《金融时报》刊登了第一篇有关这一话题的文章,我们报道称,香港大学(University of Hong Kong)对学生的英语水平特别担心,于是决定为三年期的课程增设为期一年的预科。You could argue that, with China’s growing power, it is natural for young people today to turn away from English. But Johannes Chan, a law professor at the university, told me there were few signs that their Mandarin was improving as their English deteriorated.你可能会说,随着中国实力上升,年轻人如今疏远英语是自然的事。但香港大学法学教授陈文敏(Johannes Chan)告诉我,英语水平下降的同时,香港人的汉语水平也没有提升的迹象。While he said his law students still spoke good English, “in general, if one goes into the community and looks at the young people, there is a decline not only in their English, but in their Chinese as well. Their Mandarin is not as good as it should be. Their written Chinese is awful.”尽管他表示,他的法学系学生英语还是说得不错,“但总体看,如果你到社会上,看看年轻人,会发现他们不但英语越来越差,而且中文水平也在下降。他们的汉语水平没有达到应有的水平。他们的中文写作惨不忍睹。”In any case, Hong Kong wants to be more than China’s window on the world. It sees itself as a world city, a match for London or New York, and world cities speak English.无论如何,香港的目标并不只是充当中国面向世界的窗口。香港把自己视为一个世界性城市、一座可与伦敦或纽约媲美的城市,而世界性城市都说英语。It takes a lifetime to master a foreign language and, everywhere, people have poured their efforts into English. They are not going to switch suddenly to Mandarin, much less to Cantonese.我们用一生时间才能精通一门外语,在世界各地,人们都在努力学习英语。他们不会突然转向学汉语,更别提粤语了。Whatever happens to the international balance of power, English will remain the world’s language for years. Hong Kong’s rivals in Singapore and Shanghai understand that.无论国际力量对比发生何种变化,英语在未来多年仍将是世界性语言。香港在新加坡和上海的对手们了解这一点。 /201507/383520

Cotton gin棉花杜松酒White lightning strained through an old T-shirt.在自制的威士忌中飘出一件旧T恤 /201505/371669

Christmas lost its soul in the west around the time that I stopped believing in Rudolf, and it’s been a source of angst for those who care about such things for all the decades since. But in China the holiday never had much soul to begin with. That’s what makes it such fun.大约是在我不再相信世上真的存在红鼻子驯鹿鲁道夫(Rudolf)的时候,圣诞节(Christmas)在西方失去了它的灵魂。自那以来的几十年里,它已成为在意这些事的人的焦虑来源。但在中国,圣诞节从一开始就不涉及多少灵魂方面的内容。正因如此,它才变得如此有趣。Christmas in China has nothing to do with history, tradition, relatives or regifting. It is, gloriously and unashamedly, about money and fun. Mainlanders celebrate Christmas — and they do celebrate it, even though it’s not a public holiday — by shopping, eating out, maybe doing a bit of karaoke and then more shopping. There’s none of the guilt, stress or family friction of Yuletide in the west (or for that matter, lunar new year in China).在中国,圣诞节与历史、传统、亲属或礼物转送无关。它堂而皇之且无愧坦然地只关乎金钱和欢乐。中国内地人庆祝圣诞节(他们真的庆祝,尽管它并非公共假日)的方式是购物、外出就餐,可能会唱唱卡拉OK,然后继续购物,丝毫不牵扯西方圣诞节期间(或中国春节期间)往往会涉及的自责、压力或家庭擦。China does have Christians, but it has far more people who celebrate Christmas than believe in it. That disconnect exists globally too. But in China, Christmas without the benefit of Christianity is more of a romantic holiday than a pseudo-religious one.中国确有基督徒,但中国庆祝圣诞节的人要比信基督教的人多很多。这种脱节在全球都存在。但在中国,不附带基督教精神裨益的圣诞节更多的是一个浪漫的节日,而非伪宗教节日。Last year on Christmas Day, for example, 250 couples married at the registry office in one district of one southern city alone. In the west, few people choose to marry on that day, to avoid grousing from guests about having to skip the Christmas goose to attend the ceremony (guests don’t attend registry weddings in China anyhow). In China, Cupid and Santa seem to have interbred to give Christ’s birthday a romantic flavour. At Christmas time last year, aspiring blind daters at a matchmaking event in Shanghai were encouraged to tell Santa which of the other participants they fancied most, so that he could help them hook up. Given the low success rate at such events, it might have been better to ask for an iPhone.例如,去年圣诞节当天,仅在中国南方一座城市的一个区,就有250对新人在婚姻登记处登记结婚。在西方,很少有人选择在圣诞节当天结婚,以免宾客因要出席婚礼仪式不得不错过圣诞鹅而发牢骚(反正中国的宾客不出席登记处婚礼仪式)。在中国,丘比特(Cupid)和圣诞老人(Santa)似乎已合为一体,给耶稣的生日带来浪漫的情调。去年圣诞节期间在上海举行的一场婚介活动中,主办方鼓励踌躇满志的相亲者告诉圣诞老人他们最喜欢哪一位参与者,这样圣诞老人就可以帮助他们牵线搭桥。考虑到这种活动的低成功率,可能当时还不如向圣诞老人讨要一部iPhone。So why do the Chinese celebrate Christmas if it’s got nothing to do with Christ, mass or virgin mothers (that last matter being particularly unpopular, if not illegal, under the so-called “one-child” policy)?如果中国的圣诞节与基督、弥撒或处女母亲(最后一类事物在所谓的“一胎化”政策下即使不违法,也是特别不受欢迎的)无关,那么中国人为何还要庆祝这个节日呢?Adrian Cheng, heir to the Chow Tai Fook jewellery store empire that has been selling baubles to mainlanders for decades, says the past five years have experienced a big boom in giving Christmas presents. “Chinese love festive occasions. If you give them a reason for a festive occasion they will do it, even if they don’t understand the meaning behind it,” he says.珠宝零售帝国周大福(Chow Tai Fook)的继承人郑志刚(Adrian Cheng)说,过去五年出现了送圣诞礼物的大热潮。他表示:“中国人喜欢节日场合。如果你给他们一个欢庆某个节日的理由,他们就会去庆祝这个节日,即使不明白其背后的意义。”周大福在内地市场销售饰品已有几十年了。Chinese sociologists say a lot of it has to do with working too hard; Chinese workers are under so much pressure to perform that they seize any excuse to lighten up.中国的社会学家表示,这种现象在很大程度上与工作太辛苦有关;中国劳动者工作压力非常大,因此他们会抓住一切理由放松自己。Lucky for them the older generation doesn’t celebrate the holiday at all — so they don’t have to visit them. The twenty-somethings may pick up a fetching set of reindeer antlers to wear on a date, but they leave the rest of the decorating to restaurants and shopping malls. Few bother with trees at home — what a relief that must be — and no one makes their own cranberry sauce.对他们来说,幸运的是老一辈人从不过这个节,所以不必去看望他们。二十多岁的年轻人或许会在约会时拿出一套引人注目的驯鹿角戴上,但他们会让餐馆和购物中心来负责其余的装饰工作。很少有人劳神在家里布置圣诞树(这肯定让他们省了不少心),而且没人自己做蔓越莓酱。“In the west we make turkey at home, but when I go to holiday meals in Beijing, the turkey is catered by Kempinski and the log cake is from the Ritz,” says Sara Jane Ho of Institute Sarita, etiquette maven to the nouveau riche.瑞雅礼仪(Institute Sarita)的何佩嵘(Sara Jane Ho)说,“在西方,我们在家里制作火鸡,但我在北京吃节日大餐时,火鸡是由凯宾斯基(Kempinski)制作的,而树根蛋糕来自丽兹(The Ritz)。”瑞雅礼仪是向暴发户传授礼仪的专业机构。“In China, there’s no Black Friday,” she says, referring to another “tradition” that didn’t exist when I believed in Rudolf. “But in China, the whole of December is black December” as retailers compete for that Yuletide renminbi.“中国没有黑色星期五(Black Friday),”何佩嵘在提及另一项“传统”时说道。这项“传统”在我相信世上存在鲁道夫时可并不存在。“但在中国,整个12月都是黑色的”,其间零售商会彼此展开竞争,争取在圣诞节前后多赚人民币。Christmas, Halloween, Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving — China shopped in the cultural supermarket and decided to import them all. But watch out: the trade in holidays is no longer just one way, says Global Times, the English version of the official People’s Daily. It claims that “Single’s Day”, the bn shopping holiday popularised overseas by Alibaba and known in China as “Double 11” (as it occurs on November 11), may be China’s first exportable modern holiday.圣诞节、万圣节(Halloween)、情人节(Valentine#39;s Day)、感恩节(Thanksgiving)——中国置身于文化超级市场,决定全部引进。但要注意:官方喉舌《人民日报》(People’s Daily)旗下刊物、《环球时报》(Global Times)英文版称,节日贸易不再是单向的。该报称,由阿里巴巴(Alibaba)推广到海外的、销售规模达90亿美元的购物节日“光棍节”(由于发生在11月11日,在中国也被称为“双11”),可能是中国首个可出口的现代节日。“The Double 11, a festival created by Chinese people, is now shoulder to shoulder with western festivals like Christmas or Valentine’s Day, and perhaps even overpowers them,” the paper crowed, adding that its “strong emotional appeal has started to infiltrate foreign countries” and could become “the first symbol of China’s ‘soft power’”.该报得意地称:“中国人创造的节日‘双11’现已可以比肩西方的节日如圣诞节或情人节,甚至可能盖过了它们。”该报还称,这个节日“强大的情绪感染力已开始渗透到国外”,而且有可能成为“中国‘软实力’的首个标志”。That’s one way to fill the spiritual void, I guess: pack it full of Taobao packages. Probably works as well as filling it with Christmas trees.我觉得,这是一种填补精神空虚的方式,即用淘宝(Taobao)包裹来把它塞满。这很可能与用圣诞树来填满它一样管用。 /201412/350958

Singapore’s reputation as a “nanny state” — where the sale of chewing gum is banned and persistent litterbugs can be fined up to S,000 (US,000) — is one of the more notorious legacies of Lee Kuan Yew, who has died aged 91.新加坡有着“保姆国家”的名声,这是在91岁辞世的李光耀(Lee Kuan Yew)不甚光的遗产之一。新加坡禁止销售口香糖,多次乱扔垃圾者将被罚款最高1万新元(合7000美元)。It struck at the heart of the founder of modern Singapore’s vision for a society where collective responsibility came above the instincts of the individual, for the greater good.这个词切中“现代新加坡之父”的理想社会的核心特征:为了更广泛的社会福祉,集体责任高于个人天性。Mr Lee justified his government’s intrusiveness on its citizen’s private lives by saying it was necessary for social cohesion. But this paternalistic approach to governing chafes with many in the population who have grown tired of being told how to live their lives.关于政府介入公民个人生活领域,李光耀的理由是,这是形成社会凝聚力的必要之举。但这种家长式的治理作风引起了许多新加坡人不满,他们厌倦了被告诉该如何生活。One of the earliest acts of the ruling Peoples’ Action party in the 1960s was to start a programme of clearing the streets of itinerant hawkers, and rehousing them in “hawker stalls”, organised under a single roof and regulated with strict hygiene standards.执政的人民行动党(People’s Action party)在上世纪60年代采取的最早举措之一,是展开了一项整顿街头小贩的行动,引导这些流动小贩进入集中的、有着严格卫生标准的“小贩中心”。With the massive public housing programmes of the same decade came the introduction of strict rules on cleanliness and order that survive to this day. Urinating in apartment block elevators is banned and urine smell detectors are installed to deter offenders.60年代实施大规模公共住房项目的同时,新加坡也开始推行延续至今的、关于保持清洁与秩序的严厉法规。公寓楼电梯里禁止小便,并且安装有尿味探测器。Failure to flush a public toilet is also a punishable offence.在公厕不冲水也要受惩罚。The authority that administers the country’s massive Housing Development Board housing schemes goes to the length of including on its website items that must not be hung from the bamboo laundry poles that jut from most HDB flats. The list includes cooking woks and even shopping trolleys.大规模的公共住房计划由新加坡建屋发展局(Housing Development Board)负责管理,该局网站上详细列出了不得挂于此类住房中伸出的晾衣竹竿上的物品清单(大多数HDB公寓都有这种晾衣杆)。被禁物品包括炒锅,甚至还有购物用的小推车。Littering has become an increasing problem in Singapore, in spite of a system of “corrective work orders”, which force offenders to pick up litter in public.尽管政府出台了“垃圾虫劳改法令”,强制犯规者打扫公共场所,但乱丢垃圾现象仍日益增多。Fines have risen accordingly. Last year the maximum fine for littering was doubled to ,000 for the first conviction, rising to five times that for repeat offenders.于是对乱扔垃圾者的罚金也相应提高。去年,对初犯者的最高罚金提到了一倍,达2000美元,对屡教不改者的最高罚金则提高了4倍。In January authorities meted out a fine of S,800 (,000) to a smoker for throwing cigarette butts out of his apartment window — the largest ever such punishment.1月,当局以一名吸烟者将烟头扔出自己家窗户为由,对其处以1.98万新元(合1.5万美元)的罚款,为同类罚款中金额最高的一次。Goh Chok Tong, Mr Lee’s successor in 1990, posted a comment on Facebook in January lamenting how Singapore’s reputation as one of the world’s cleanest cities “was going down the rubbish chute” after an outdoor music festival venue was left strewn with rubbish. But the move provoked a reaction from many people who felt he was needlessly patronising.1990年接替李光耀担任新加坡总理的吴作栋(Goh Chok Ton)今年1月在Facebook上发了一条。事情起因是一场户外音乐节结束后,地上扔满了垃圾,吴作栋为此感叹道,新加坡作为全球最清洁城市之一的名声也“沿着垃圾滑槽沉下去了”。但这番言论在社会上引起很大反响,许多人认为,吴作栋不必自视清高。It was Mr Goh who introduced the ban on chewing gum in 1992 — a move unlikely to have gone ahead without the support of Mr Lee, who still wielded enormous influence in the cabinet at the time.1992年实行口香糖销售禁令的正是吴作栋——此事若未得到李光耀的持是推行不下去的,那时李光耀在内阁仍有很大的影响力。The ban was relaxed in 2004 after lobbying by Wrigley, the US gum maker, to allow the limited sale of sugar-free gum for medicinal purposes.在美国箭牌公司(Wrigley)的游说之后,口香糖禁令在2004年有所放宽,允许用于医疗用途的无糖口香糖的有限销售。The government official who implemented the prohibition on gum, Daniel Wang, was reported this week to have died aged 71. “It’s actually good for gum health and that’s why it’s still used for medical reasons today,” he was reported as having said. “But I was under instructions.”本周有报道称,当初负责贯彻落实口香糖销售禁令的政府官员Daniel Wang已经去世,终年71岁。据报道他曾说过这样的话:“嚼口香糖确实有利于牙龈健康,所以今天口香糖仍可用在医疗用途上,但我是奉命行事的。”There is no sign of the ban being fully lifted.目前没有迹象表明,口香糖销售禁令将全面解禁。 /201503/366238

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