原标题: 厦门玻尿酸注射丰唇珠价格泡泡常识
Books and Arts; Book Review;Diana Athills letters;Dear Edward;文艺;书评;戴安娜·阿西尔的信;致亲爱的爱德华;Instead of a Book: Letters to a Friend. By Diana Athill.并不是一本书,只是些给朋友的信。戴安娜·阿西尔著。Diana Athill was well past normal retirement age when she wrote a series of memoirs that made her a cult figure. As a young woman she had written a novel, a collection of short stories and a cathartic memoir about being jilted by her lover. But her literary skills went mainly into editing the books of others at André Deutsch, a London publisher, where she worked for decades until she was 75. Near the end of this career she started writing again, and over the next 22 years she produced five more memoirs, including “Stet”, an acclaimed account of her editing life, working with authors such as Philip Roth and John Updike, published when she was 83. She finished with “Somewhere Towards the End”, about getting old, for which she earned the Costa Biography prize as well as an OBE in .当戴安娜·阿西尔完成自己的系列回忆录,备受追捧的时候,她早已经过了正常退休年龄。年轻的时候,她也写过一部小说,一本短篇故事集,还有一本宣泄感情的回忆录,记述的是她被爱人抛弃的故事。但是她在伦敦André Deutsch出版社工作期间,其文学上的天赋主要投入了编辑出版别人的书,而这一做就是几十年,直到她七十五岁才退休。在她职业生涯结束之际,她重新执笔开始创作,在接下来的22年间先后又出版了五部回忆录。其中包括她83岁那年出版的回忆录《留存》。这本书记录了她当年和像菲利普.罗斯、约翰·厄普代克这样的作家一起共事的记忆,称颂了自己的编辑生活。此后,她凭借《终点前某处》(有关老年生活)的创作,于年获得科斯塔文学奖同时被授予大英帝国勋章。Now 93, Miss Athill still takes speaking engagements, but her writing seems to be behind her. So it is good to have this new collection of her letters to Edward Field, a close friend, spanning a period of 26 years. This is not just squeezing the lemon for a bit more juice. By their nature these letters are quite different from the polished prose of the memoirs. They are spontaneous and unstructured, full of daily minutiae (visits to the dentist, car trouble, useless builders) and delightful snippets from her colourful personal life. She gossips about mutual friends and tells stories about the literary world she is immersed in (“I am going to have an interesting lunch tomorrow with the mistress dumped by Vida Naipaul when he married his Indian wife”). Mr Field, a poet six years her junior, is gay, so he was never one of her many lovers, but the relationship is clearly very close, both personally and professionally.现龄93岁的阿西尔女士仍然会去做演讲,不过她在写作方面似乎没有跟上。所以说这本新鲜出炉的书信集是一次很好的尝试。其收信人是阿西尔女士一位的密友爱德华·菲尔德,信件的时间跨度则有26年之长。这可不只是为了多榨点汁而去挤柠檬。从其本质来说,这些书信与回忆录里那些优美的散文可谓是大相径庭。这都是发自肺腑之言,随性而为的叙述,满是日常生活的细枝末节(像看牙医,交通纠纷,失效的洗选强化剂),还有她丰富多的私生活里那些幸福的片段。她闲话自己的好朋友,也会说些关于那个她所沉浸其中的文学世界的故事(“我明天要和被韦达·奈保尔抛弃的那个女人一起吃午饭,这一定很有趣,要知道韦达要娶个印度女人”)。菲尔德比阿西尔小六岁,是一位诗人,不过是同性恋,因此他也绝不会成为阿西尔的众多情人之一,但是很显然他们之间的关系不论是私交还是在专业领域都非常亲密。For all Miss Athills pleas of relative poverty, hers has been a privileged life. Raised in a grand country house, she lived for decades in Primrose Hill, a salubrious bit of London, in a house belonging to a cousin (a journalist at The Economist, it so happens), with weekends in the cousins Norfolk cottage and lots of trips to places like Venice and the Caribbean. When money seemed tight, cash always turned up from somewhere. Her voice on the page is that of an upper-middle-class Englishwoman—good things are “dear” or “darling”, bad things are “tiresome”, “horrid” or “vile”. But she also swears like a trooper and does not care what people think.尽管阿西尔一直声辩自己比较穷困,她的生活其实非常优越。在豪华的郊区住宅长大的她,之后在伦敦环境宜人的樱草花山也住了有几十年。房子是她一个表兄的(经济学人的记者,很巧),周末则到她表兄的诺福克别墅去小住,没事就去像、加勒比海这样的地方旅行。手头紧的时候,钞票总是又会在哪冒出来。字里行间透露的是那种中上层阶级英国女性的调调:好的事情则叫“宝贝”呀,“亲爱的”呀,糟糕的事情则说“讨人嫌”呀,“讨厌”呀,或者是“糟透了”。但是她也会像巡警一样破口大骂,完全不在乎别人怎么想。Miss Athill did not keep the letters she received from Mr Field. When he suggested that hers be made into a book, she had reservations about “publishing ones private conversation”, particularly if it meant printing only “half the conversation”. Luckily he persuaded her, and the result makes for addictive eavesdropping. Miss Athill writes beautifully, even about mundane subjects, and it is fascinating to follow the change in her preoccupations with advancing years. The letters are frank about the indignities of getting old, from hearing aids to cataract operations, and about the burdens of looking after Barry, her increasingly ailing Jamaican partner.阿西尔女士并没有保留菲尔德给她写的信。最初还是菲尔德建议她把自己那部分的信件整理出来出本书,但阿西尔对于“公开私人谈话”的做法还是有所保留,尤其如果是要仅仅发表“一半的谈话内容”。幸亏菲尔德说了她,结果这本书出来让人们迷上了“窃听”。阿西尔的文字非常漂亮,即使是写微不足道的小事也毫不逊色。读者会情不自禁地跟随她,关注她一直所关心的事情随着年华逝去将会如何变化。阿西尔在信中坦率地表达了老年生活的窘困,从助听器到白内障手术,还有照顾她那位病情日甚一日的牙买加伴侣——巴里。But Miss Athill is too clear-eyed to become a bore about such things. Her correspondence with Mr Field continues, now by e-mail, but the letters in the book end in 2007. She explains in a postscript that this is “because we have become old and…too often the experience old people have to share is wobbly health.” Enough said.但是阿西尔的头脑可是相当精明,她才不会对这种事情一钻到底。她与菲尔德的通信一直在继续,只是现在改成发电子邮件,但是书中的信件则截止到2007年。她在附言中解释到,这是因为“我们都年事已高,而且……老年人之间能够分享的无非就是不稳定的健康问题”。说得应该够多了吧。 /201305/241771Business this week本周经济要闻The eurozone economy recorded zero growth in the second quarter. It had been expected to grow, if barely, but was dragged down by worse than expected GDP data from Germany and France. Germanys economy contracted by 0.2% as its export industry struggled. France chalked up a second straight quarter of zero growth. The stagnant economy means that Frances Socialist government is likely to miss its budget deficit target, again.欧元经济区报告称第二季度经济增长率为零。原本预计出现小幅增长,但德法GDP数据未达预期。德国出口疲软使经济收缩0.2%。法国增长率则为零。经济不景气意味着,法国的社会主义政府有可能仍不能避免其预算赤字规划。China reported a record monthly trade surplus, of 47.3 billion for July. Exports to America grew by 12.3%, and those to Europe by 17%, compared with July 2013.中国发布了七月贸易盈余报告,数额为473亿美元。与去年同期相比,对美国的出口增长了12.3%,对欧洲的出口增长了17%。An increase in Japans sales tax on April 1st was blamed for the biggest contraction in its economy since the earthquake and tsunami in 2011. GDP fell by 6.8% at an annual rate in the second quarter, offsetting the bump in demand in the first quarter as consumers brought forward purchases to beat the tax rise. The tax is scheduled to increase again, from 8% to 10%, in October next year.日本遭遇2011年海啸与地震以来最严重经济衰退,四月一日上调营业税的举措被目为主要原因。按全年计算,第二季度GDP下降6.8%,抵销了第一季度需求上升(民众储备商品以应对增税)的拉动。按计划,日本将于明年10月再次将营业税上调8%到10%。Assessing the impact评估影响Russias central bank said it would have to tear up its previous economic forecasts because of uncertainty about the impact of sanctions imposed over the conflict in Ukraine. It will present an updated outlook next month.俄罗斯央行称可能要修改原先的经济预测。乌克兰冲突导致俄罗斯受到经济制裁,由此带来了不确定性。下个月该行将发布新的经济预测。Oil prices continued to fall despite heightened tensions in the Middle East and Russia. Brent dipped to a 13-month low. Oil markets, which the International Energy Agency described as “eerily calm in the face of mounting geopolitical risks”, have been quiet because the increase in American and OPEC production has led to a glut in supply. Worldwide demand for oil has also eased slightly.尽管中东和俄罗斯局势紧张,油价仍持续下跌。布伦特油价跌至13个月来的最低点。面对越发激烈的地缘政治危机,石油市场仍然平静,因为美国和欧佩克调高产量保持供应充足。世界范围内对石油的需求也稍稍下降。Shale of the century世纪的页岩Kinder Morgan, the biggest fuel-pipeline operator in America, laid out a plan to consolidate four partnerships it controls in a 44 billion buy-out. Formed in 1997 through assets acquired from Enron, Kinder Morgan has been buoyed by Americas shale boom. The consolidation of its various units into one publicly traded company will make it the biggest energy firm in America after Exxon Mobil and Chevron.美洲最大的燃料管道经营者Kinder Morgan发布计划,试图通过一项价值440亿美元的收购联合其控股的四家合伙企业。Kinder Morgan,的资产最初来源于安然,如今借着页岩气的东风扶摇直上。此次联合行为将使Morgan麾下的上市公司成为美洲仅次于埃克森·美孚的能源企业。Malaysias sovereignwealth fund moved to nationalise Malaysia Airlines by buying out the stricken carriers minority shareholders. Squeezed by lowcost competitors it had been losing money for years, long before the recent disasters of one plane disappearing en route to Beijing and another being shot down over Ukraine. But the plan to take it under full state control has been criticised by some, including Mahathir Mohamad, a former prime minister.马来西亚主权财富基金买下马来西亚航空公司少数股东所持股份,从而将该公司国有化。世人关注马航缘于其一架飞往北京的航班失联,另一架则在乌克兰被击落;但事实上早在这两起事故的几年之前,该公司由于竞争者低价打击,业务量已经缩减。但将其完全置于国家控制之下亦受到批评,其中包括前总理马哈蒂尔·穆罕默德。A court in Shanghai sentenced a British corporate investigator working in China and his American business partner to prison for breaking privacy laws by collecting information about individuals. Peter Humphrey and Yu Yingzeng were two of the best known corporatefraud experts in China and were at one time employed by GlaxoSmithKline. They were arrested soon after Chinese authorities accused the drug company of bribing doctors and hospitals.因为违反隐私法收集个人信息,皮特·汉弗莱及其美籍商业伙伴虞英曾被一座上海法院判处徒刑。汉弗莱是一位在中国工作的英籍公司调查员,他和其妻均是中国最知名的企业欺诈专家,并同时受雇于葛兰素史克。中国政府以贿赂医生和医院为由起诉葛兰素史克后不久,旋即拘留了上述二人。Fruit shake水果摇一摇The planned merger of Chiquita and Fyffes to create the worlds biggest banana distributor was challenged by a rival joint bid for Fyffes from Cutrale, Brazils biggest supplier of oranges, and the Safra Group, controlled by Joseph Safra, Brazils second-richest man. The merger was one of the first tax-inversion deals to be announced this year, with Chiquita hoping to relocate from America to Ireland, where Fyffes has its headquarters.Chiquita 与Fyffes 计划合并以组建全球最大的香蕉经销商,但Cutrale与Safra集团联合向Fyffes 提出报价。此次并购名列今年公布的第一批税收反转交易,Chiquita希望借此机会从美国搬迁至爱尔兰,后者正是Fyffes总部所在地。Tata Motors of India launched its first new model in four years. It thinks the Zest, priced at 7,500, will reclaim some of the market for compact cars in India that it has lost to Japanese and South Korean rivals.印度塔塔汽车公司推出四年来首款新车型。该公司给Zest定价7500美元,希望借其将夺回紧凑型汽车在印度的部分市场,这些份额如今被日本与韩国公司占据。A federal judge in California rejected a proposed settlement between four big Silicon Valley companies and former employees in a case that alleges that the four colluded in hiring staff, to keep wages down. The judge said that the four—Apple, Google, Intel and Adobe—had taken part in an “overarching conspiracy” to make sure they did not offer positions to each others staff, and suggested that the value of the settlement should be raised to at least 380m.在一起共谋压低薪水的案件中,加州一位联邦法官驳回了双方提交的和解协议。法官称,四家大型硅谷公司彼引勾结,互相保不向其他公司的员工提供职位降低员工工资。法官还称和解金额不能低于三亿八千万美元。A privateequity bidding war broke out for Treasury Wine Estates in Australia, one of the worlds biggest wine companies. Treasury traces its roots back to the establishment of the Lindemans label in New South Wales in 1843. It also owns the Beringer vineyard in the Napa Valley in California, as well as other familiar supermarket brands, such as Wolf Blass and Penfolds.在澳大利亚,围绕财富酒业打响了一场私募股权竞购战。财富酒业可溯源至1843年创立于新南威尔士的Lindemans商标。它还拥有位于加州纳帕谷的贝灵哲葡萄园,以及其他常见的超市品牌。 201408/324207

DON:Todays Moment of Science is about lightning bugs.唐:今天的科学一刻我们要讲的是关于萤火虫。Lightning bugs are cool because if you squish em you can make...oh, forget it!萤火虫可是非常酷,因为如果你压扁它们就可以…哦,还是算了吧!YAEL:Whats the problem?雅艾尔:出了什么问题?DON:Im just tired of working for A Moment of Science.唐:我只是厌倦了今天科学一刻的工作。Do you know how hard it is to come up with another fascinating tidbit every day?你知道每天想出另一个引人入胜的话题有多难么?Im going to find a new job.我要另谋高就了。YAEL:Ive got a job for you.雅艾尔:我已经为你找到了一份工作。DON:Oh yeah? Does it pay better than this one?唐:哦,是吗?待遇可比这里更好?YAEL:Ill let you figure that out.雅艾尔:我会让你明白的。The job lasts for one month, and you only get one penny on the first day.这份工作持续一个月, 第一天你只能得到1分钱。DON:Hey! What kind of deal is that?唐:嘿!这是个什么活计?YAEL:Hang on! On the second day Ill pay you twice what you made the first day. Thats two pennies.雅艾尔:坚持听完!第二天我会付给你第一天薪金的2倍。也就是2分钱。DON:Three cents altogether-now were getting somewhere.唐:总共3分钱,现在我们总算有些进展。YAEL:On the third day Ill again pay you twice what youve made the day before.雅艾尔:第3天我会再次给你前一天的2倍。Thats four more cents.也就是4分钱。Every day Ill double the amount made the day before.就这样每天我都给你前一天的2倍。At the end of one month youre out of a job. What do you say?月末你的工作结束。你怎么看?Do you take the offer?接受吗?DON:No, of course not. Who would work for pennies?唐:不,当然不。谁会为区区几分钱折腰?YAEL:Thats a shame, because youre not realizing how numbers work.雅艾尔:太遗憾了,因为你没有意识到这些数字是如何变化的。When a number continually doubles itself we say it is ;increasing geometrically.;当一个数字本身不断翻倍我们说它是以几何数字增加。That means the larger the number becomes, the faster it rises with each additional day.这意味着数字越大,每一天的额外增长就越快。How much would you guess you would earn just on the last day of the month?你猜在月底最后一天你会赚多少钱?DON:Um...ten bucks?唐:嗯…十块钱?YAEL:Over ten million dollars!雅艾尔:超过一千万美元!DON:Ten million dollars? Starting from a penny!?!唐:拿到一千万美元吗?从一分钱开始?YAEL:Thats geometric increase.雅艾尔:几何增长嘛。DON:Hmmm...do I get health insurance too?唐:额…我自己上了健康保险没? 201311/265714Business商业报道Legal jobs法律工作The price of success成功的代价Some American law schools are paying many of their graduates salaries一些美国法律院校正在为许多他们的毕业生付薪水EACH YEAR when U.S. News, an American publisher, releases its league table of law schools,每当U.S.News发布他们的年度法学院排行榜,potential students seize on it and the universities decry it for oversimplifying a personal and unquantifiable decision.有潜力的学生们会好好把握这份资料,而各大院校则会开始谴责该排名的公允性,认为这份榜单忽视了个人的选择倾向,以及量化了无法量化的因素。But the schools can ill afford to ignore it,但这些学校都难以回避它,since not just applicants but donors and even credit-rating agencies pay close attention to the scores.因为不仅仅是入学申请的学生们,连学校的捐赠人,甚至是专业评级机构都十分重视排行榜上的分数。Among the rankings most important components is the share of graduates who find jobs.就整个评级系统来说,最重要的指标便是毕业生的就业比例。The 2014 table, announced on March 11th, shows that the University of Virginia and George Washington University do especially well on this.3月11日公布的2014榜单显示,弗吉尼亚大学和乔治华盛顿大学在这方面显得尤为突出。Although UVAs law students are only in ninth place for their scores in standard admission tests,虽然UVA的法律专业学生标准入学考试成绩仅排第九位,97.5% of the class of 2012 had a job on graduating—the best mark in the country.但其2012年毕业生97.5%的就业率,则名列全国第一。At GW the discrepancy was even more striking: its 85% graduate-employment rate ranked ninth, whereas its admission-test scores were 21st.而GW的数据差异则更惊人:名列第九位的85%毕业生就业率的同时,他们的SAT入学成绩仅排21位。However, the two schools performance is not as stellar as it seems.然而,两所院校的表现并不像其外表那么璀璨。A close look at the online employment database of the American Bar Association reveals that GW and UVA are among the leaders in a striking trend:在美国律师协会网上就业数据库的研究揭示出,GW和UVA都呈现出一个惊人的趋势:law schools paying the salaries of their alumni when they go to work in legal firms, non-profits or the government.当毕业生们进入律师事务所、非盈利组织或政府工作时,法律院校将为他们付薪水。GW paid the starting salaries of a whopping 22% of its 2012 graduates;2012年,GW惊人地为他们22%的毕业生付了起始薪水;at 15%, UVA was not far behind.而UVA也不甘落后,其比例为15%。Some law schools have long given aid to a few alumni who forsake high-paying corporate firms to pursue public-interest law.部分法律院校一直以来都为一些放弃了高收入企业的职位,转而投身于公益法律援助的毕业生提供帮助。But since the 2008-09 recession, entry-level jobs at big firms have been scarce.但自2008-09年的经济衰退以来,大企业的入门级职位已十分稀少。This has led to a big expansion of bridge to practice schemes,这一趋势,令法律院校不得不扩大所谓的就业桥梁计划,in which the schools pay graduates a stipend to do a work placement.其中的具体方式便是由学校去补贴毕业生的实习工作。In a recent survey by the National Association for Law Placement,近期,一份由全国法律就业组织所调查的结果显示,45 of the 94 schools that responded now run such programmes.94所院校当中有45所正执行着该项计划。Half of them began in or 2010, but UVAs has run since 2007.他们当中的半数,是从年或2010年才开始的。但UVA自2007年起便一直在执行就业桥梁计划。It now pays 31,500 for graduates to work in public service for a year.目前,UVA为其务于公共部门的毕业生付每年31500美元的补贴。Arizona State University plans to set up a non-profit law firm, modelled on teaching hospitals,而亚利桑那州立大学则计划仿照医学院附属医院的模式,成立一家非盈利律师事务所。that will hire 30 recent graduates to provide legal services to lower-income clients.这家事务所将雇佣其大学30%的毕业生,并且将致力于为低收入的顾客提供法律务。With demand for newly minted lawyers down by around 30%,市场对新律师的需求同比以下降百分之三十。the schemes spare the alumni from having an awkward gap on their CV,而在这一情况下,上述计划能够让毕业生们免于在职业生涯中留下尴尬的空白,and give them valuable work experience and contacts.同时还能给予他们宝贵的工作经验和人脉资源。Their cash-strapped temporary employers, meanwhile, get talented staff they can put to socially useful ends.与此同时,资金短缺的临时雇主们,也能得到具有才能的员工,并让他们一展所长。Dennis Corkery, a GW graduate,GW毕业生丹尼斯?卡尔凯利,got 525 a week from his alma mater to work on job-discrimination cases at the Washington Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs, a non-profit.正在为致力于公民权利和城市事务的非营利组织华盛顿律师委员会工作,主要工作是解决职业歧视方面的纠纷。而他得到了来自母校每周525美元的补贴。The organisation started topping up his wages from the university after four months, and gave him a full salary after 11.在四个月的工作过后,该组织补足了来自学校的补贴,并在11个月后给予了他一份全额薪水。Mr Corkery sees the scheme as a good way to give young lawyers an apprenticeship.卡尔凯利先生认为,该计划确实是一个能够给予年轻律师学徒资格的好方法。But so long as graduates put on these schemes are lumped in with those who found genuine paid work at law firms,但只要参与这些计划的毕业生们,仍然与真正得到事务所聘用的人混为一谈,the schools will in effect be buying themselves precious U.S.那么实际上就相当于各大法律院校每年付数百万美元的费用,News ranking spots for a few million dollars a year.用以维持他们在美国新闻排行榜上珍贵的地位。And applicants to law school who are considering taking on a six-figure debt will get a misleading picture of the job market.与此同时,早已准备好承担六位数学费贷款的法学专业申请者,也会被这些数据所误导,从而对律师行业的市场需求有着错误的认识。The programmes rarely last more than a year, and often pay a pittance.这项补贴计划很少能持续超过一年,而且补贴量往往很低。GW, which spends 4% of its budget on these wages,2012年,将总预算的4%投入到了该计划的GW,tried to cut pay rates in 2012 from 15 an hour to 10 before reversing itself after an uproar.试图将补贴水平从时薪15美元降低到10美元,而经历了一次抗议后便否决了之前的降薪计划。Moreover, their success in getting graduates into genuine jobs is spotty:此外,毕业生真实的就业成功率并不尽如人意:the NALP survey found that only 24% of participants from the class of 2012 had been hired by their employers or in related fields by the following February.NALP的调查结果显示,只有24%的2012届就业计划参与者最终被他们的雇主聘请或是在接下来的二月里就职于相关领域。GW and UVA say their success rate is far higher than this.GW和UVA则表示,他们毕业生的就业成功率远高于上述比例。Robert Morse of U.S. News says it would consider excluding or reducing the weight of school-funded jobs.美国新闻出版社的罗伯特莫尔斯表示,院校排名榜单将考虑排除或减少由学校补贴就职情况的影响,if it could somehow distinguish which ones are genuinely sought-after placements with the prospect of a proper job.但这一切的前提是,我们能够去辨别出一份经过层层筛选并且具备良好就业前景的实习机会。The risk is that, like pre-bail-out carmakers dumping surplus vehicles on their dealers,目前,整个法律教育界所存在的风险是,法律院校早已习惯于为企业买单,the law schools get used to paying legal firms to soak up their excess graduates.其目的是吸收多余的毕业生。这就像是提前采取的救助措施的汽车制造商一样,把自己多余的汽车都往经销商处输送。The real test of the schools motivations will be whether they continue to run such programmes if and when it no longer bumps them up the rankings.只有在这样的计划不再能够提高他们的排名之时,我们才能通过观察这些计划的执行与否,来判断各大院校的真实意图。 /201403/281266

13,000 years ago, the ice age cheetah was the pronghorns greatest enemy.在13,000年前的冰河时代,猎豹是叉角羚的天敌。And pronghorn would have needed all their amazing speed.叉角羚以其令人惊叹的速度著称。The American cheetah was larger than its African cousin. But it had the same Achilles heel.美洲豹比非洲豹的体型要大。但他们的致命弱点相同。A cheetahs high-performance muscles overheat in minutes, and unlike pronghorn, they cant switch to cruising speed.猎豹高性能的肌肉会在几分钟内变热,和叉角羚不同的是,猎豹不能长时间保持这一速度。So if the pronghorn managed to outrun the cheetah for the crucial first few hundred meters, it would probably survive.所以如果叉角羚能在开始关键的几百米内跑过猎豹,那便有可能幸存。The cheetah hasnt roamed the plains of North America for thousands of years, but pronghorn are still prime for the chase.几千年来,猎豹一直没有在北美平原游荡,而叉角羚在这场角逐中依然占据优势。Other extinct links to Africa had been found in caves steep in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri.其他的一些与非洲相关联的线索十分稀缺,但被发现于密苏里州欧扎克山脉的悬崖峭壁中。Preserved in mud were huge prints recreated here, more than 18 centimetres wide. What could have made them?这里的淤泥中保存下来一些脚印,有18多厘米宽。这是什么动物的脚印?They belonged to another ice age cat, the top cat of the plains, a lion.他们是另一种冰河时代的猫科动物,也是美洲平原猫科动物的王者——狮子。 英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201305/240224

Books and Arts; Book Review;The young and the restless;文艺;书评;年轻与焦躁;British and American fiction gets off to a promising start in 2010;2010年英美小说闪亮开篇;The Unnamed. By Joshua Ferris.《莫名》,作者约书亚·费里斯。VLADIMIR NABOKOV, who liked to observe other people, once declared that “professional book reviewers are veritable bookmakers”. They gleefully declare whos in, whos out, and ask: “Where are the snows of yesteryear?” Hot young novelists, many believe, are meant to follow a predictable script. First, burst onto the scene with some bold, voice-of-the-generation debut—preferably with a comely author photo. Then, years later, deliver to the expectant public a sophomore effort that is, alas, disappointing. Critics favour lamenting squandered promise to praising yet another fine book from someone with unlined skin.喜欢他人的费拉迪米尔·纳科夫曾经宣称“专业书评家是名副其实的庄家”,他们兴致勃勃地宣布谁是入时的,谁是落伍的,并问出“去年的雪在哪里?”这样的问题。许多走红的青年小说家都被认为是循着老套的模子走出来的。首先,在文艺界以大胆表露情感,代表时代之声的形象如惊雷般亮相出场——最好再有着英俊的长相。接着,在数年之后向期待中的大众呈上他一个黄毛小子呕心沥血的成果,然而,却只不过是令人失望的作品。批评家们倒也热衷于哀叹对于某位青年才俊又一部好作品尽溢美之词的许诺又无法兑现了。Not all writers oblige. Occasionally, a well-known name, such as Peter Carey, an Australian, will go through a fallow period only to enjoy a return to form (see article); a rare few, having written a debut of note, then go on to pen an even better second book.并非所有作家都是被迫写作的。间或也有像澳大利亚著名作家皮特·凯里这样的人,他将休笔一段时间,而这仅仅是为了调整自己的状态;极少有作家在完成一部佳作后还会继续创作另一部超越性的作品。Joshua Ferris became an international success in 2007 with “Then We Came to the End”, a smart and breezy satire of office life in an advertising firm. Told in the collective first person, it was a stylish rendering of workplace ambivalence in the wake of the dotcom bust. (“We were delighted to have jobs. We bitched about them constantly.”) It wasnt perfect, but it was fresh, with pages that turned freely and unpretentiously. At 32, Mr Ferris—gracious, photogenic, based in Brooklyn—was anointed a writer to watch.约书亚·费里斯在2007年因《当我们来到尽头》一书而享誉世界。在这本书中,他用富有智慧的语言及轻松愉快的笔调嘲讽了一个广告公司的办公室生活。全书用第一人称的口吻,生动的描述了在网络经济崩溃中觉醒的人们在工作场所的矛盾心理(我们为有一份工作而感到高兴,然而也时常抱怨)。这部作品并不完美,但体裁新颖,文风自在狂妄。在费里斯先生32岁的时候,他居住在布鲁克林,和蔼,上镜,就像上帝为我们挑选的作家。Readers have not had long to wait for “The Unnamed”, his second novel. Anyone keen on another comedy of manners will be disappointed. So too will those who hoped to write off Mr Ferris as a victim of literary hype.他的第二本书《莫名》并没有让读者们等太久。但那些期待着又一部风尚喜剧的人将会大失所望,同样会失望的还有那些希望费里斯先生被扼杀在文学炒作中的人。From the opening page, he makes it plain that this is a very different book. “It was the cruellest winter. The winds were rabid off the rivers. Ice came down like poisoned darts…They were waiting for him. They didnt know they were waiting for him.” The novel seizes ers by the lapels with a story that feels serious and mysterious. Tim Farnsworth, a successful Manhattan lawyer in his 40s, returns home one night and declares to his wife, Jane, “Its back.” Whats back? A strange, unknown disease—one that compels the hero to walk helplessly, incessantly, until he drops from exhaustion. After a reprieve, Tim is once again a victim of his wayward body, “the frightened soul inside the runaway train of mindless matter, peering out from the conductors car in horror.”在第一页作者就向我们展示了这本书的与众不同。“这是一个严酷的冬天。狂风卷过河面,冰屑像浸了毒的飞镖落下……他们正等着他。然而他们却并不知道。”小说开篇就用一种紧张神秘的气息抓住了读者。40多岁的缇姆·法恩斯沃思是曼哈顿有名的律师,一天晚上他回到家郑重地告诉妻子简说:“它又来了。”什么又来了?那是一种奇怪的不为人知的疾病——它让我们的主人公无助、不停地行走,直到精疲力竭。短暂的间歇之后,缇姆又会成为他失控身体的受害者,“他的躯体就像无缘由失控的列车,他的灵魂惊恐的向这车外望着。”Tim is otherwise “horse-healthy” and content, a self-assured workaholic, devoted husband and father to a teenage daughter. But in a flash he is uncontrollably off, leaving his wife to find him passed out in a municipal parking place, a hospital or behind some chemists shop in the middle of the night. “Was she up for this?” Jane asks herself. These spells last for months at a time, and caring for him is a full-time job. But Jane has no choice: he could die out there. So she s survivalist manuals, prepares his pack (a first-aid kit, snacks, GPS, a poncho—to carry at all times), and then waits for the call to pick him up. The only alternative is to tie him to the bed and ignore his screams.缇姆原本是一个健康,满足,自信的人,他醉心于工作,是一个衷心的丈夫,一个十几岁女孩的父亲。但是突然间他无法控制的想要走路,他的妻子三更半夜找到他时他出没在政府的停车场,医院,或者在一些药店的后面。“我要这么做吗?”简问自己。缇姆的病每次发作长达几个月,照顾他成了简的全职工作。但是简没有选择:他这样下去会死的。于是她阅读生存手册,为缇姆准备背包(一套急救装备,零食,全球定位系统,一件斗篷——时刻都带在缇姆身边),然后等电话去接他。除此之外就只能把他绑在床上,任由他叫喊了。Doctors around the world have no idea what the problem is. Tim, alone in his mutinous body, is left wondering whether the trouble is in his head. Readers wonder about this too. Here Mr Ferris achieves a clever balance: Tim behaves strangely, but isnt that natural for anyone who loses the life he understood? Isnt madness inevitable when suffering from something no one can explain? A subplot about a murder trial, which yields a haunting exchange between Tim and a possible suspect on a bridge at night, raises more questions about his mental stability. Yet Jane stops speculating that her husband might be crazy after she goes through the menopause. She could only imagine how infuriating it would be if a doctor insisted her hot flushes were “all in her head”.所有的医生都束手无策。缇姆的灵魂独自留在他失控的身体里,思考着是否他的大脑真的出了问题;读者们也在思考。在这里作者费里斯先生很高明的设置了两个难以抉择的判断:缇姆的行为是怪异的,但当一个人失去了他所能理解的生活时这不又是正常的吗?小说中有一个关于一起谋杀案的审判的次要情节,在审判过程中,缇姆在一个晚上同本案的嫌疑犯在一座桥上进行了一场令他难忘的交易,这也使他的精神状况越发不稳定。而此时简在经过她的更年期后也不再猜测丈夫可能患上了精神病。她能想象的到如果医生坚持说她的潮红症状都是她想出来的那将会是一件多么令人恼怒的事情。Mr Ferris keeps his prose direct and uncluttered, with only occasional flourishes (Tims feet “were like two engorged and squishy hearts”; a diners “fluorescent brutality” is “the national colour of insomnia and transience”). His fondness for his characters sometimes veers towards the sentimental. Still, he exercises a mature writers restraint, content to leave questions unanswered. He also has a fine ear for speech, and a good sense of what feels real, even when chronicling the surreal.费里斯先生的散文依旧简洁明快,偶尔也会迸发出奇特的灵感(缇姆的双脚“就像两颗饱满、湿软的心脏”;一位用餐者的“野蛮行为散发的荧光”是“失眠症和暂时性的名族色”)。他热爱自己笔下的人物,但不见得完全受感情的配,他依旧会运用成熟作家的控制力,遗留一些未给出的问题。他还可以清醒地聆听演讲,对真实的事物有着良好的感受力,即使是在将超现实的事情载入编年史的时候。Mr Ferris insists that “The Unnamed” is not a work of magical realism, but of “realist magic”. By inventing an incurable disease, he can meditate on its impact—on a marriage, on a career, on a characters self-esteem—without dragging in the baggage of a familiar illness. This also amplifies the horror, leaving ers just as perplexed about what is afflicting Tim. Is this a physical or mental problem? Can a line be drawn between the two? In the last third of the book, Tim gives himself over to his need to walk. Raving and deteriorating, he lets his legs take him across the country, living a hobos life without possessions or attachments (“To own something was to keep it on his back or risk losing it forever”). Yet Tims dilemmas still feel real and his needs sympathetic. How does he go on? How does anyone?费里斯先生坚持《莫名》并不是一部“魔幻现实主义”的作品,而是一部“现实魔幻小说”。他能够通过创造一种难以治愈的疾病来思考它对于婚姻,事业或者主人公自尊心的影响——而不是通过某种司空见惯的疾病。也正是这样,小说又加深了它带来的恐惧感,使读者对缇姆痛苦的原因困惑不解,到底是生理的还是心理的问题呢?这两者之间能不能画出一条分界线?在小说后三分之一的部分,缇姆放弃了一切去满足自己行走的需要。他任由自己的双腿穿越整个国家,咆哮着,病情不断恶化,他过上了流浪者的生活,没有财产,没有携带任何附属装置(“拥有某物就是一直将他背在背上或者冒着永远失去它的危险”)。但缇姆的困境始终可以被真实的感知,并且他需要人们的同情。他会怎么样?其他人呢?This is a story about a man with a walking problem, but it is also a larger tale about struggling with uncertainty. Scattered throughout the novel are some odd events: blizzards, floods, fires, dying bees. Mr Ferris is reminding us of how little we know about the world we live in, and how little we know about ourselves within it, and yet we persist. This is not to say that Tims walking is some clunky metaphor. Mr Ferris is wise enough not to teach a lesson. Rather, he has teased ordinary circumstances into something extraordinary, which is exactly what we want our fiction writers to do.这是一个关于行走强迫症患者的故事,更是一部描述了于不确定中的挣扎的作品。小说中充斥着古怪的事件:暴风雪、洪水、大火、垂死的蜜蜂。费里斯先生让我们意识到我们对于我们生存之世界及我们自己是多么的不了解,然而我们仍旧存在。这并不是说缇姆的行路癖是一个拙劣的隐喻,菲尔斯先生有足够的智慧使他的作品不流于说教。相反地,他把一些平常的事件夸大并进行了嘲讽,而这也正是我们期待着作家做的。 /201305/238397Private equity私募股权融资Tax attack税收攻击Leveraged buy-outs face legal scrutiny衡平收购面临法律审查Aug 24th 2013 |From the print editionTAX planners at private-equity firms are having an unusually busy summer. A fiscal ruling in Sweden and a court case in America are threatening to upend the arrangements that buy-out firms use to minimise their tax bills.私募股权公司的税务规划师这个夏天非一般的忙碌。瑞典的金融管制以及美国的一起案件有可能颠覆收购公司用于最小化其税收单的安排。Both cases relate to a tax loophole used by private-equity firms in America and much of Europe. Under “carried interest” rules, buy-out executives pay (relatively low) capital-gains taxes on profits made from buying and selling companies, in the same way investors or entrepreneurs do. This is odd, given that the money wagered on private-equity deals comes overwhelmingly from outside investors, not the executives themselves. It would make more sense for these profits to be taxed like salaries, or bankers’ bonuses, at the (higher) income-tax rate.这两起事件都与一个税收漏洞有关,这个漏洞在美国和欧洲大部分地区的私募股权公司被利用。根据附带权益规则,控制股权收购的主管跟投资者和企业家一样付相对较低的资本利得税,这项税是针对公司买卖获利所征收。鉴于押在私募股权融资交易中的资金大部分来自外部投资者,而不是主管,所以这项规则很奇怪。这些利润应该按照工资税或者家的红利,征收更高的所得税更合理。That is exactly what Sweden’s tax administration has decided. In a ruling on August 20th it demanded SKr647m (m) of back taxes from EQT, a local private-equity fund, and its executives. The amount covers the difference between the 25% capital-gains rate and the 57% income tax for 2007-09, plus interest and penalties. EQT is not alone: dozens of other executives at other firms have been handed multi-million-kronor bills as a result of the tax authorities’ change of heart. The potentially impoverished bosses say they are confident courts will find in their favour on appeal.瑞典的税务局就是这样做的。在8月20日的一起判决中,税务局命令一个当地的私募股权基金EQT及其主管补交税款6.47亿瑞典克郎(9900万美元)。这笔税款包括25%的资本利得税和自2007年到年的57%的所得税加上利息和罚金。不只是EQT一家,其他几十家公司的主管也因为税务局中心的改变而交出了数百万克朗的资金。这些即将变成穷光蛋的老板说他们很有信心法庭能找到有利于他们的请求。The American case, decided on July 24th, chips away at carried interest from another angle. An appeals court in Boston ruled that Sun Capital, a private-equity fund that specialises in turning around distressed companies, is liable for some pension obligations of a firm it bought in 2006, and which subsequently went bust.美国的案子于7月24日作出判决,从另一个角度撤销了附带权益。位于波士顿的一家上诉法院判决私募股权基金太阳资本对其于2006年购买的一家公司的养老金付负有责任,这家公司最终破产。太阳资本专注于使运转不佳的公司好转。The case is limited to pensions (and is being contested by Sun Capital) but the precedent could have a wider tax impact, says Jon Zorn of Ropes amp; Gray, a law firm. The core of the ruling blows away a legal fiction that private-equity funds are passive investors who do not actively control the companies they buy. That premise is also used to justify putting profits into the lower tax bracket.这起案件局限于养老金,并且太阳资本提出了异议。但是格雷律师事务所的Jon Zorn表示,先前的例子对税收更有影响。判决的核心推翻了私募股权基金都是不会主动控制收购公司的消极投资者的法律假想。该假定之前也常常用于将利润划为更低的税率等级征税的辩护。Executives in Sweden and America complain about the uncertainty created by the cases. They have a point. It would be better to make clear that private-equity profits should be taxed as income, and carried interest done away with.瑞典和美国的主管抱怨案件引起的不确定性。他们有一个观点。弄清楚私募股权利润应该按照所得征税,并且废除附带权益,这样更好。 /201308/254358

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