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郑州/脱毛技术哪家医院好120生活郑州中心医院打玻尿酸多少钱

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郑州市中心医院去痘印价钱费用郑州/哪家整形医院最好Many people know that marine mammals, like whales, porpoises and dolphins, breathe air, like wedo.大多数人都知道些海洋哺乳动物,比如鲸鱼,鼠海豚和海豚。它们和我们一样都要呼吸空气。But, many people dont know that marine mammals have developed some interesting sleepinghabits in order to accommodate their regular trips up to the surface for air.但是大多数人都不知道这些哺乳动物已经养成了一些有趣的睡眠习惯,以配合来回水面呼吸空气。Today, A Moment ofScience looks at what its like to sleep with the fishes.今天,科学一刻将探究一下,这些哺乳动物是如何像鱼类一样睡觉的。Unlike our own breathing, which does not require conscious effort, marine mammals mustconsciously go to the surface of the water to breathe through a blowhole on top of their heads.与人类“无意识”呼吸不同,这些动物必须到水面,通过头顶的气孔,进行“有意识”的呼吸。Because of this, marine mammals dont sleep for a solid 8 hours a night, the way we do.因此,它们不像我们,每晚能够稳定的睡上八小时。Some marine mammals sleep while swimming.有些海洋哺乳动物边睡觉边游动。Whales nap for brief periods while swimmingalongside an alert friend who guides them.对于鲸鱼,只要有同伴放风,并引导着,他们就会边游边打会个盹。In fact, young whales must sleep alongside their motherbecause the mothers slipstream actually pulls the calf along: it will sink if the mother stops.实际上,幼鲸必须在母鲸身边睡觉,因为母鲸游动时产生的水流可以推动幼崽向前:如果母鲸停止游动,幼崽就会沉下去。Other marine mammals, like dolphins, sleep while floating on the surface of the water or take shortcatnaps while floating below the surface.而其它海洋哺乳动物,像海豚,睡觉的时候是浮在水面上,打盹的时候就浮在水面下。Researchers claim that while marine mammals sleep theirbrain is always partially alert.研究表明,海洋哺乳动物睡觉时,他们部分大脑依然保持警觉。Aside from these brief naps, dolphins are active most of the night.海豚在晚上,除了打盹,其余时间都处于活跃状态。Of course, marine mammals are equipped to handle underwater sleeping.当然,也有些海洋哺乳动物具备水下睡觉的能力。They haveproportionately larger lungs, exchange air more fully at each breath, and carry more oxygen intheir blood than we do, so they can hold their breath long enough to sleep with the fishes.相应地,他们的肺都很大,每次呼吸都能换进更多的空气。他们的血液中的含氧量就比我们的高,这样他们就能长时间屏息,像鱼类一样睡觉。201401/273516郑州大腿溶脂哪家医院好 Happy season 11 everybody!A good number. This is our first show of our brand new season and I have a promise for you right now,right up from Im gonna say it. This season Im gonna work it while I twerk it. Oh,did you have a good summer,everybody?热烈庆祝第十一季开播 真是个好数字 今天是我们新季开播第一天 当着大家的面 我郑重承诺 这一季我会边扭边主持 大家假期过得不错吧Good summer? Yeah? Great. What did you do? All right. my turn. I have a great summer. i had a wonderful summer.很棒的假期 好的 你们都干了什么 好了 该我说了 我这个夏天过的超级精 非常棒的假期Im really happy to be back though, but I got a ... I got a little bit of sun, I relaxed. I a lot of sangria recipes. And I went to two different weddings which are always beautiful.我当然是很高兴能重新站在这 但是这个假期里 我沐浴阳光 放松身心 还看了好几种sangria的调法 我还参加了两场婚礼 婚礼总是那么美好I love weddings. My brother got married. My brother vance got married and this is ...him. With his beautiful bride.我很喜欢婚礼 我哥哥结婚了 我哥哥vance结婚了 这就是...他 和他的漂亮新娘And it was surprise for everybody because they have been together for a long long time,like I dont know, ten,twelve years something like that, a long time.但所有人都很吃惊 因为他俩已经在一起很久了 大概有个10年,12年的样子 很长时间了So...I forget her name,but she is a lovely woman,start with an R or Q.我记不住她的名字 但她是个可爱的姑娘 名字开头字母是R还是Q的But shes so sweet. shes uh...No,its joanna and I love Joanna. So shes my sister-in-law.And that was beautiful. Im so happy for him.但她真的超可爱的 她... 开玩笑啦 她叫joanna 我很喜欢她 她是我的嫂子 婚礼很美 我很为我哥哥高兴And it was fantastic and we danced for hours all night long. This is a photo brought of Portia and i dancing,and this is...I know...I know...I have to photo crop her. I dont know who...I dont know who she is.更让人开心的是我们跳了一晚上舞 这张照片上是我和Portia在跳舞 还有这是 我懂的 我懂的 我得想办法把她p掉 我不知道...我不知道她是谁啊But it looks romantic,we are actually going ;Do I have broccoli in my teeth?; ;No. do you have bro...; We are looking for broccoli.虽然看起来很浪漫 其实我们是在说“我牙上有菜叶子吗” “没有 你有...”其实我们是在看有没有菜叶子So thats my brothers wedding. And then we went to my friend ,Jimmy Kimmel got married,so we went to Jimmys wedding. They got married the same place my brother got married.那是我哥哥的婚礼 接下里是我的好友jimmy kimmel 他也结婚了 所以我们就去参加他的婚礼 他和我哥哥是在同一个地方举行婚礼They got married at the Ojai Valley Inn. And thats Molly of course.Its beautifu place,Ojai. Lets...pan out if we can. I will show you how pretty it is.Oh,there shes again. How did she get both weddings? Thats crazy.都是在Ojai Valley大酒店 这就是Molly Ojai非常漂亮 能不能缩小一下 给你们看下有多好看 怎么又是她 怎么两场婚礼都有她 这不科学啊We had a great time at the wedding as well.We hung out with our friends Jen and Justin. Now,nobody was impressed that was our table card.那场婚礼上我们也玩得很开心 Jen 和Justin也在 当时就没人注意 那个是我们名卡I pulled it out of jens ear and no one was...is impressed that I thought they would have been.我是从jen的耳后变出来的 都没人关注 我还以为会有很多人注意到呢I went to the hamptons,and I had fun at the hamptons.I did some dancing and some singsing.我还去了汉普顿 在那也很开心 又唱歌又跳舞Here I am with Jamie Foxx and Pharrell right there.yead. thats me in the middle.这张是我和jamie foxx 和pharrell 对的 中间那个是我And...we were singsing Pharrells hit song get lucky.我们正唱着pharrell的热歌《get lucky》And they were all up all night to get lucky.I went to bed on eight thirty.so..and I also...it was a star-studded summer.他们疯了一晚就为了“求好运” 但我八点半就睡了 反正这是个群星璀璨的夏天I hung out with Oprah because i moved into a neighbourhood. Im right down the street from where oprah lives.我最近搬到了oprah附近 所以总跟她混在一起 她住街头 我住街尾And she knew that I was in neighbourhood so...she was so nice.she brought over a beautiful basket of like fruits and vegetables from her garden,and thats her bring a...她也知道我搬过去了 所以她 她人超好 所以她就给我送了个蔬果篮 说是自家院子里种的 这就是她送...and I dont wanna say anything bad about oprah,but when I empty the basket,I found a trader joes receipt at the bottom,so, I was like;oh,i wanna see the garden.;其实我不想说oprah的坏话啦 但是当我把东西都拿出来了 篮子底赫然一张trader joes的小票 所以我就说“我去你的果园看看吧”she goes,;not today.; I dont think she has a garden.她却说“今天不对外开放” 我才不相信她有果园呢Its great to be friends with the oprah neighbours, with oprah.当然还是很高兴和oprah以及邻居们做朋友的Its wonderful. one day she came over,she did my hair whcih was really sweet ever since.So thank you for that.很幸福的一件事啊 有一天她过来 帮我做了曾经很流行的头发 太谢谢了 注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201310/260052河南省第一人民医院做抽脂手术多少钱

郑州曼托假体手术哪家医院好河南复合激光去斑价格 鹤壁市大腿激光脱毛多少钱

郑州市第二人民医院光子嫩肤多少钱Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科技出版业Brought to book好书来了Academic journals face a radical shake-up学术期刊面临彻底改变IF THERE is any endeavour whose fruits should be freely available, that endeavour is surely publicly financed science.如果有人试图把成果免费公开的话,那他一定是科学资助者,Morally, taxpayers who wish to should be able to about it without further expense.确实,纳税人都希望不再花额外的钱来阅读科学著作,And science advances through cross-fertilisation between projects.并且科学的进步也是通过各个学科之间的相互促进吸收,Barriers to that exchange slow it down.而其间的交流障碍使这种进步慢了下来。There is a widesp feeling that the journal publishers who have mediated this exchange for the past century or more are becoming an impediment to it.在过去一个世纪,期刊出版商给人广泛的感觉就是他们调停了这种交流,甚至阻碍了这种交流。One of the latest converts is the British government.而最新的改变发生在英国政府身上,On July 16th it announced that, from 2013, the results of taxpayer-financed research would be available, free and online,它在7月16宣布,从2013年开始,由纳税人资助的科研成果都会在网上免费公开,for anyone to and redistribute.并且任何人都可以阅读和转发。Britains government is not alone.并不是只有英国政府这么做,On July 17th the European Union followed suit.17日欧盟也紧随其后,It proposes making research paid for by its next scientific-spending round—which runs from 2014 to 2020, and will hand out about 80 billion, or 100 billion, in grants—similarly easy to get hold of.建议下一个科研经费周期拿出800亿欧元来补贴类似易于获取资料的方法。In America, the National Institutes of Health has required open-access publishing since 2008.在美国,国家卫生研究所从2008年开始就要求开放出版业。And the Wellcome Trust, a British foundation that is the worlds second-biggest charitable source of scientific money, after the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, also insists that those who take its shilling make their work available free.仅次于比尔和梅林达·盖茨基金会的英国维康信托基金是世界上第二大科研资金获取来源,也坚持—要用我的钱就必须免费公开成果。Criticism of journal publishers usually boils down to two things.而期刊出版商对此的批判常常归结为两件事,One is that their processes take months, when the internet could allow them to take days.一是他们对资料的处理要花费数月,实际上有互联网他们只需要花费数天;The other is that because each paper is like a mini-monopoly, which workers in the field have to if they are to advance their own research,另一个原因就是由于每篇论文就像一个小型垄断,相关领域的工作者想要提升研究水平就必须得阅读那些论文,there is no incentive to keep the price down.这样根本没有动机把价格降下来,The publishers thus have scientists—or, more accurately, their universities, which pay the subscriptions—in an armlock.因此出版商就把那些科学家—准确来说是那些付钱订阅期刊的大学牢牢限制住了,That, combined with the fact that the raw material is free, leads to generous returns.再加上原始材料免费这一事实,这些常常为出版商带来了巨额回报。In 2011 Elsevier, a large Dutch publisher, made a profit of 768m on revenues of 2.06 billion—a margin of 37%.在2011年,荷兰出版商爱思唯尔从20.6亿欧元的投资中获取了7.68亿欧元的回报—利润达到了37%,如此高的收益被认为太过分,Indeed, Elseviers profits are thought so egregious by many people that 12,000 researchers have signed up to a boycott of the companys journals.因此爱思唯尔遭到了12000名研究人员的联名抵制。A golden future?未来一片光明?Publishers do provide a service.出版商也确实做了一些工作,They organise peer review, in which papers are criticised anonymously by experts.他们要对论文经行同业互查,And they sort the scientific sheep from the goats, by deciding what gets published, and where.并且还要对论文进行分类和挑选,决定是否出版和在哪里出版。That gives the publishers huge power.这就给了出版商很大的权利,Since researchers, administrators and grant-awarding bodies all take note of which work has got through this filtering mechanism,因为研究者、管理员和拨款奖励机构都在注意谁的论文通过了这个过滤机制,the competition to publish in the best journals is intense, and the system becomes self-reinforcing,在最好的期刊上发表论文的竞争非常激烈,出版系统就变得更加自我强化,increasing the value of those journals still further.也推高了那些期刊的价值。But not, perhaps, for much longer.或许以后不会再这样了,Support has been swelling for open-access scientific publishing:持开放科学出版业的呼声越来越强烈:doing it online, in a way that allows anyone to papers free of charge.把研究成果放到网上,让任何人都可以免费查阅。The movement started among scientists themselves,这个运动开始由科学家发起,but governments are now,但是现在政府也站了出来,as Britains announcement makes clear, paying attention and asking whether they, too, might benefit from the change.比如英国政府的通告就很清楚,它不仅在关注此事,还询问科学家们是否可以从这个变化中受益。The British announcement followed the publication of a report by Dame Janet Finch, a sociologist at the University of Manchester,Dame Janet Finch的报告发表之后英国政府才发出通告,which recommends encouraging a business model adopted by one of the pioneers of open-access publishing, the Public Library of Science.这位曼彻斯特大学的社会学家建议鼓励一种商业模式,这个方法被一家开放出版业的先锋—公共科学图书馆所采纳。This organisation, a charity based in San Francisco, charges authors a fee and then makes their papers available over the internet for nothing.公共科学图书馆是一家位于旧金山的慈善组织,它会付给作者一笔费用,然后再把他们的论文在网上免费公开。For PLoS, as the charity is widely known, this works well.对于公共科学图书馆来说,它的慈善事业广为人知,并且做得很好,It has launched seven widely respected electronic journals since its foundation in 2000.并且从2000成立开始,已经出版了7大类备受推崇的电子期刊,For reasons lost in history, this is known as the gold model.虽然由于各种各样的原因,它们都淹没在历史的尘埃中,这种方式被称为 “黄金模式”。The NIHs approach is different.国家卫生研究所的方法不一样,It lets researchers publish in traditional journals, but on condition that, within a year, they post their papers on a free “repository” website called PubMed.它允许传统学术期刊发表研究人员的论文,但是有一个条件,就是在一年之内他的论文会在一家名为PubMed网站的免费“知识库”中公布,Journals have to agree to this, or be excluded from the process.期刊出版商必须同意这么做,要么就会被排除在该程序之外,This is known as the green model.这就被称为“绿色模式”。Both gold and green models involve prepublication peer review.不管是黄金模式还是绿色模式都涉及到正式出版前的同业互查问题,But a third does away with even that.但第三种就不需要这样了,Many scientists, physicists in particular, now upload drafts of their papers into public archives paid for by networks of universities for the general good.现在很多科学家都为共同利益而把他们的草稿上传到由大学运营的网络公共档案馆中,Here, manuscripts are subject to a ruthless process of open peer review, rather than the secret sort traditional publishers employ.在这里,手稿都暴露在严格的同业互查之下,而不是被传统出版商私下分类。An arXived paper may end up in a traditional journal, but that is merely to provide an imprimatur for the research team who wrote it.一份被arXiv化论文可能会以传统期刊的出版而结束,但这仅仅只是为研究小组提供出版许可,Its actual publication, and its value to other scientists, dates from its original arrival online.它的实际出版物,还有对其他科学家的价值和原始数据都可以在网上找到。The success of PLoS, and the political shift towards open access, is encouraging other new ventures, too.科学公共图书馆的成功让其把政策转向开放阅览,这也鼓励了其他新的投资者。Seeing the writing on the wall, several commercial publishers are experimenting with gold-model publishing.在看到这些“不祥之兆”后,一些商业出版商开始尝试以“黄金模式”出版,Meanwhile, later this year, a coalition of the Wellcome Trust, the Max Planck Institute and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute will publish the first edition of eLife, an open-access journal with ambitions to rival the most famous journal of the lot, Nature.与此同时,在今年晚些时候,马普研究院和霍华休斯医学研究中心将与维康信托基金会合作,出版首期eLife电子期刊,这份开放阅览的期刊有信心与它们之中最著名的《自然》竞争,The deep pockets of these organisations mean that, for the first few years at least, this journal will not even require a publication fee.那些财大气粗的组织甚至想至少在头几年不对期刊收取出版费。Much remains to be worked out.仍然还有许多要解决的东西,Some fear the loss of the traditional journalscuration and verification of research.一些人担心会失去传统期刊的内容治理和调查核实,Even Sir Mark Walport, the director of the Wellcome Trust and a fierce advocate of open-access publication, worries that a system based on the green model could become fragmented.甚至维康信托基金会的主管和开放出版的坚定持者Mark Walport先生也担心基于绿色模式的系统会分崩离析,That might happen if the newly liberated papers ended up in different places rather than being consolidated in the way the NIH insists on.如果新式宽松论文政策被某些原因终结而不是如NIH所坚持走统一合并的路子,这一切就有可能发生。But research just published in BMC Medicine suggests papers in open-access journals are as widely cited as those in traditional publications.但是根据《BMC医学》最近公布的调查显示,开放阅览期刊被引用的广泛程度和传统期刊一样多。A revolution, then, has begun.所以一场革命已经开始了,Technology permits it; researchers and politicians want it.不仅技术上可行,研究人员和政客也需要。If scientific publishers are not trembling in their boots, they should be.如果传统科技图书出版商没有觉得胆战心惊的话,那现在就是时候了。 /201307/249938 郑州玻尿酸除皱价格郑州华山医疗整形美容医院激光去斑多少钱

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