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2019年05月26日 09:31:58来源:光明专家

  • A week ago Scotland’s nationalists were trying to break up Britain. Now, it is the turn of England’s Tories. In the wake of Alex Salmond’s referendum defeat, David Cameron’s Conservatives have set about handing the leader of the Scottish National party the victory denied him by Scotland’s voters. Now there is a rum thought: Mr Salmond lost the battle but the English may yet concede the war.本月早些时候,苏格兰的民族主义者试图分裂英囀?如今轮到英格兰的保守党这么干了。苏格兰选民的意志,让苏格兰民族SNP)领导人亚历克#8226;萨尔蒙德(Alex Salmond)在公投中失败了,然而戴#8226;卡梅David Cameron)的保守党似乎要帮助他取得独立胜利。如今有一种奇怪的看法:萨尔蒙德输掉了一场战斗,但英格兰人可能输掉整场战争。In a state of some excitement, perhaps because it is the autumn party conference season, the Tories are clamouring for “English votes for English laws The price for Scots of more devolution, they say, must be a diminished role for their MPs at Westminster.保守党正在宣扬“英格兰人为英格兰法律投票”——他们有些兴奋,或许是因为秋季会期的到来。他们说,既然苏格兰要获得更多自治权,苏格兰议员在英国议会的地位就必须相应削弱。This is partly about electioneering. The Tories have only one MP in Scotland; Labour has 40. Flying the English flag could paint the opposition into a corner at next year’s general election. Mr Cameron also wants to guard his flank against rightwing English nationalists.他们这样说,部分原因是为了竞选。保守党在苏格兰只有1名议员,工党(Labour)0名。高举英格兰旗帜,就有可能在明年大选中将在野的工党逼入绝境。卡梅伦还希望防备英格兰右翼民族主义者从侧面攻击他。On the face of it, the prime minister has a case. The closer Scotland gets to home rule, the odder it seems for its MPs to vote on English affairs. The snag, however, with deceptively simple solutions to complex problems, is that they are, well, deceptive.表面上看,首相这样做有一定道理。苏格兰越接近实现自治,苏格兰议员就英格兰事务投票就越显得奇怪。然而,用貌似简单的方法解决复杂问题是行不通的,这些方法带有欺骗性。The exclusion of Scottish MPs from most of the business of the House of Commons would amount to English secession by another name. It would also substitute a shuffling of power between politicians English MPs get more, the Scots less for the urgent task of dispersing authority within England. Creating a group of second-class legislators does nothing to loosen Whitehall’s deadening grip over the great cities and shires of England.不让苏格兰议员参与下议院(House of Commons)大多数事务,将意味着另一种名义上的分裂。而且,这将用政客之间的权力再分配(英格兰议员得到更多权力,苏格兰议员得到更少),代替向英格兰放权这项迫在眉睫的任务。制造一群二等议员无助于让白厅放松对英格兰大城市和郡的牢牢把控。The neat answer would be a federal system. Goodness knows, Britain needs to decentralise power by returning to city mayors and councils authority to make choices about local taxes and sershy;vices. The facts of the union, unfortunately, do not match the political theory textbooks. England’s overwhelming economic and political dominance among the UK’s four nations rules out a classic federation. For the union to work, its constitutional arrangements must serve as a counterweight to English hegemony. This means England has to be generous about the voice afforded to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Generations of English politicians have wrestled with this question and concluded, rightly, that a division of power perfectly calibrated to reflect respective populations or economic weights would be unworkable.一个简单的方案是,实行联邦制。天哪,英国居然得通过恢复市长及市政厅在地方税收和务方面的决策权,来分散中央集权。遗憾的是,联合王国的现实情况并不符合政治理论教科书上有关建立联邦制的学说。在英国的四个地区中,英格兰在经济和政治上占据显著的主导地位,使得典型的联邦制在英国不可行。这样的联盟要成功,其宪制就必须对英格兰的主导地位起到牵制。这意味着英格兰在给予苏格兰、威尔士和北爱话语权方面必须慷慨一些。几代英格兰政治家都曾努力解决这个问题,最后得出了一个正确的结论,那就是:精确地依据各个民族的人口或经济权重来分配权力是行不通的。Nor, anyway, is it possible to draw a neat line between legislation that is uniquely English and laws that affect Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The deep integration of public policy and finances across the nations means there are precious few decisions taken at Westminster that do not have an impact throughout the UK.同样,也很难清晰地区分哪些法律是只影响英格兰的,哪些是影响苏格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰的。英国四个地区在公共政策和财政方面的深度一体化,意味着英国议会所做的决策中,只有极少一部分不是影响整个英国的。When MPs voted for university tuition fees in England, it changed fundamentally the structure of education funding in the other nations. William Gladstone grappled with this during the 19th-century debates about Irish home rule. Even in a much less complex world, he decided the circle could not be squared.议员们就英格兰大学学费做出的投票,也会深刻改变英国其他地区的教育经费结构。威#8226;格拉德斯William Gladstone)9世纪有关爱尔兰自治的辩论中就曾面对过这个问题。即便当时的世界比现在简单得多,他最终仍然得出这种方法行不通的结论。Follow the logic of English votes for English laws and it leads to an English parliament and government. Such would be the dominance of these English institutions that the Commons would be reduced to a foreign policy talking shop. Even then, an English parliament might want to choose a different relationship with, say, the EU than the other nations. And once Westminster loses the power to raise UK-wide taxes, the union will be by any measure dead.按照“英格兰人为英格兰法律投票”的逻辑,就有必要建立英格兰议会和英格兰政府。这些英格兰机构将拥有主导地位,而下议院将沦为对外政策的清谈场所。这样一个英格兰议会还可能想和欧EU)间保持一种不同于英国其他地区的关系。而一旦英国议会失去了在整个英国征税的权力,联合王国将名存实亡。The noise about “unfairnessis in inverse proportion to a more prosaic reality. There have been only a handful of occasions in recent decades when Scottish MPs have been “swingvoters. On at least two of them, during Tony Blair’s premiership, these MPs were voting with a government that had a majority in England. As for the myth that Labour invariably relies on Scotland for a majority at Westminster, the electoral facts show it is just that a myth.叫嚷“不公平”的聒噪与相对平淡的现实情况形成了反差。近几十年来,苏格兰议员成为关键的“摇摆”投票人的情况只有寥寥数例。其中至少有两次——都在托#8226;布莱Tony Blair)担任首相期间——这些苏格兰议员投票持了这个在英格兰拥有多数的政府。至于所谓工党向来依靠苏格兰才能在英国议会中占多数的传说,选举事实表明这只是个“传说”而已。Home rule in Scotland does raise important questions about the governance of the rest of the UK. There is a legitimate debate to be had about if and when Scottish MPs should step back from voting at Westminster. There will also be room for scrutiny of the Barnett funding formula for public spending in Scotland once Edinburgh gains more fiscal autonomy.苏格兰地方自治确实引发了关于英国其他地区如何治理的重要问题。对于苏格兰议员在英国议会的投票权是否以及何时应该削弱,确实有必要开展一场合理辩论。此外,如果爱丁堡在财政上获得更多自主权,在苏格兰公共开方面实行的巴聂特算the Barnett Formula)也有待检讨。But the prior question is whether England wants a parliament that represents all four nations of the union? If the answer is yes, then it cannot expect a formulaic English votes for English laws.不过,首要的问题是英格兰是否想要一个代表联合王国所有四个地区的议会?如果这个问题的是肯定的,英格兰就不能指望出现“英格兰人为英格兰法律投票”这种公式化结果。The strength of Britain’s unwritten constitution has lain in its capacity to accommodate anomalies and contradictions. If tidy English minds now redefine “fairnessas perfect symmetry between Scotland and England, the unavoidable consequence will be the break-up of the union. Mr Salmond, of course, is rubbing his hands at the prospect.大不列颠不成文宪法的优点在于它包容非常规和矛盾事物的能力。如果英格兰有智之士将“公平”重新定义为苏格兰和英格兰的绝对平等,这将不可避免地导致联合王国的解体。当然,萨尔蒙德对此满怀期待。来 /201410/332608。
  • At least 100 people are reported to have died at the Bataclan concert hall in central Paris. Gunmen took many hostages there before being overpowered when police stormed the building. Others died in attacks near the Stade de France, with some reports suggesting a suicide blast, and at restaurants.据今日报道,至少有一百人已经死在巴黎中心的巴塔克兰剧院。持袭击者在被闯入大楼的警察控制之前,在这里劫持了许多人质。其他罹难者死于发生在法兰西体育场和餐厅附近的袭击,一些报道指出这是一场自杀式爆炸袭击。Paris residents have been asked to stay indoors and military personnel are being deployed across the city.巴黎居民被要求呆在室内,军方人员也已经被安排在了城市各处。The deadliest attack appears to have targeted the Bataclan concert hall. The Bs Hugh Schofield says scores of ambulances have arrived at the scene, suggesting many victims inside.这场极端的袭击表现出是以巴塔克兰音乐厅为目标的。B的Hugh Schofield说几十辆救护车已经到达了现场,这表示里面有许多受害者。Other attacks hit neighboring Le Petit Cambodge and Le Carillon restaurants in the 10th district where a B reporter could see 10 people lying on the road, either dead or seriously injured.还有袭击在第十区的Le Petit Cambodge和Le Carillon两家餐厅,在这里B的记者看到了诗人躺在路上,可能是死了或者受了重伤。And an eyewitness told Liberation newspaper that he had heard more than 100 rounds being fired at La Belle Equipe cafe in the 11th district. Gunfire was also heard at Les Halles shopping centre.一位目击者告诉解放报,他在第十一区的La Belle Equipe咖啡厅听到了超过100轮的击。在巴黎中心的Halles购物中心也能听到声。US President Barack Obama spoke of ;an outrageous attempt to terrorize innocent civilians;.美国总统奥巴马说这是“一场残暴的针对无辜平民的恐怖袭击”。UK PM David Cameron said he was shocked and pledged to do ;whatever we can to help;.英国首相大卫卡梅伦说他对此感到十分震惊并且保会尽其所能帮助法囀?来 /201511/409839。
  • As IBM seeks to complete a .3 billion sale of its server business to China’s Lenovo, the U.S. is worried.IBM希望3亿美元的价格将旗下的务器业务出售给中国的联想集团(Lenovo),引起了美国政府的担忧。Although the deal was made in January, little has happened in the months since as the two tech companies try to resolve security concerns raised by the U.S. government, which is currently investigations the matter.虽然这两家公司的交易早在今年一月份就已经开始,但之后几个月却一直没有进展,因为它们不得不尽量解除美国政府对安全问题的担忧。目前,美国政府正在就此事展开调查。But what has the U.S. worried? IBM’s x86 servers are used in some of the country’s most sensitive networks including by the Defense Department and the U.S. Air Force, according to anonymous sources cited by theWall Street Journal. These servers may be open to attack by Chinese spies or hackers if the deal goes through, according to U.S. security officials and members of the federal Committee on Foreign Investment, an interagency group that reviews transactions involving foreign companies.美国人到底在担心什么?《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal)援引匿名人士的话称,IBM的x86务器被用于多个美国最敏感的网络,其中包括美国国防部(the Defense Department)和美国空军(the U.S. Air Force)。美国国防官员和联邦外国投资委员会(Committee on Foreign Investment)成员认为,如果这笔交易获得通过,这些务器将门户大开,容易受到中国间谍或黑客的攻击。美国外国投资委员会是一家跨部门组织,负责审查涉及外国公司的交易。But in their defense, IBM and Lenovo say that the technology used in the x86 servers is made by many other companies in the U.S. and that they contain Chinese components. Meanwhile, Lenovo says that it will only use the servers for commercial goals.但IBM和联想却认为,x86务器所用的技术由美国多家公司联合开发,其中也包括中国的组件。此外,联想表示只会将务器用于商业目的。The deal should still be approved despite the pushback, according to the Wall Street Journal’s sources, and a decision is expected by the year’s end.《华尔街日报》的消息人士透露,尽管遭遇阻力,但这笔交易最终仍然会获得通过,预计美国政府将在年底前做出决定。In order to meet the concerns raised by the U.S., the companies say that IBM will actively have a stake in maintaining the servers, although that has also drawn worry from the U.S. government. Similar concerns were also raised in 2005 when Lenovo purchased IBM’s personal-computer business.为了打消美国政府的忧虑,这两家公司表示,IBM仍将积极参与务器的维护,尽管美国政府对这一点同样表示担忧。早005年,联想收购IBM的个人电脑业务时,美国政府也曾有过类似担忧 /201406/308563。
  • ABERDEEN, Scotland Even before Craig May, a longtime Chevron executive, moved to this North Sea port city two summers ago, he knew that the oil wealth in Britains waters was on the steepening slope of a decadeslong decline.苏格兰阿伯丁——克雷格·Craig May)是雪佛龙公司(Chevron)的资深高管。即使在两年前的夏天搬到北海的这座港口城市之前,他就已经知道,英国水域的石油财富已经处在了数十年来的下降过程中一个愈加陡峭的阶段。Along with other Big Oil players that make Aberdeen their North Sea hub, Chevron had let its aging offshore operations become inefficient. There was still plenty of oil and gas out there. But the rising expenses, May said, no longer justified the diminishing revenue from the undersea wells.还有一些石油巨头也把北海枢纽设在了阿伯丁,而它们和雪佛龙遇到了同样的困难:日益老化的近海业务变得效率低下。那里仍然存储着大量的石油和天然气。但梅表示,成本不断攀升,海底油井的营收日益减少,从经济上说不再合理。“We recognized we werent structured the right way,said May, who now leads the companys exploration and production in northern Europe. “Cost always matters.”“我们那时候就认识到,我们的结构有问题,”梅说。他现在是该公司欧洲北部勘探与生产部门的负责人。“成本一直都是重要因素。”And that was when oil was selling for more than 0 a barrel.当时,石油的价格还在每桶100美元以上。Now, with oils price per barrel down about 40 percent from a year ago, and with some operators shutting down aging platforms, May and Chevron are in a race against irrelevancy for their North Sea operations.现在,随着油价比一年前下跌了约40%,一些石油公司在关停日益老化的平台。梅和雪佛龙在北海的业务可能会变得无足轻重,而他们正在与之赛跑。The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, which meets on Friday in Vienna, is unlikely to provide any sort of relief to the North Sea industry by cutting production to prop up prices. Instead, OPEC which does not include Britain or any other North Sea producer hopes that a spell of low prices will discourage new investment in high-cost regions like the North Sea, reducing their output.石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries,简称欧佩克)将于本周五在维也纳碰头。它不太可能通过削减产量的方式来撑油价,给北海业务提供喘息的机会。相反,欧佩克——其中不包括英国或其他北海产油国——希望,持续的低油价能够阻止新的投资进入北海这样的高成本地区,从而让它们的产出减少。Even before the price of oil began collapsing last summer, May was taking steps to trim Chevrons North Sea costs and planning new technologies including a million integrated operations center in Aberdeen to wrest renewed efficiencies from 20- and 30-year-old offshore oil and gas rigs.早在去年夏天油价开始崩盘之前,梅就开始采取措施,削减雪佛龙在北海的运营成本,并计划采用新的技术——包括一个造价300万美元的阿伯丁综合作业中心——来努力提高二三十年前修建的近海油气钻井平台的效率。There is much more at stake than one companys profitability. The efforts are a test of the continued viability of an energy region that, if nurtured, could continue to give Europe a hedge against its reliance on oil and gas from Russia and the OPEC nations.其中牵扯的,绝不仅限于一家公司的盈利能力。这些努力是对一片能源区域持续开采作业能力的测试。若是获得改善,北海能够持续给欧洲提供一个立足点,让它不那么依赖于俄罗斯和欧佩克的油气。Just as crucially, the techniques that Chevron is experimenting with in the North Sea could lead the way for other oil companies around the world to coax continued life from aging offshore energy operations wherever they are and learn from some industry mistakes.同样关键的是,雪佛龙在北海尝试的技术,可能会为世界各地的其他石油公司指引方向,让它们得以延续日益老化的近海能源业务——无论它们地处哪里——的生机,并从同行的错误中吸取经验教训。In a sense, British waters are a microcosm of the global industry. Costs, especially for offshore operations, have risen across the globe, eating into profits and reducing incentives for new exploration.从某种意义上说,英国水域是全球石油行业的一个缩影。世界各地的石油生产成本都在上升,近海业务尤其如此,因此利润遭到挤压,进行新勘探的动力也随之减少。Despite the global push toward renewable energy and onshore drilling of oil and gas from shale in the ed States and elsewhere, the world is likely to require a long-term, adequate supply of undersea oil if it can be extracted economically. Chevron, for one, has postponed a big Scottish deepwater project called Rosebank, where the North Sea gives way to the North Atlantic just northwest of the Shetland Islands, judging it not feasible under current industry economics.尽管可再生能源与从美国等地的页?中开采油气的陆上钻探的趋势获得了全球性的推动,但我们可能还是需要长期而充足的海底石油供应——如果它能够以经济可行的方式获得的话。比如,雪佛龙推迟了位于苏格兰的大型深水项目罗斯班克(Rosebank),因为公司认为,在目前的行业经济状况下,这个计划是不可行的。罗斯班克位于北海和北大西洋的交界处,正好在设得兰群岛的西北方。As other large oil companies in the region have, Chevron has turned to layoffs and other cost-cutting moves. While total industry job cuts in the North Sea region have so far been in the low thousands, the management consulting firm Ernst amp; Young forecasts that as many as 35,000 of the 375,000 jobs related to the oil industry in Britain could be lost over the next four years.就像该地区的其他大型石油公司一样,雪佛龙也采取了裁员等削减成本的方法。虽然迄今为止,油气行业在北海地区总共裁减了小几千人,但据管理咨询公司安永(Ernstamp; Young)预测,英国与石油业有关的37.5万个工作岗位中,可能有至.5万个会在未来四年中遭到裁减。“The issue in the North Sea is existential around the cash cost of operation at the current level of oil prices,Simon Henry, Royal Dutch Shells chief financial officer, said recently while discussing the companys quarterly results.“北海业务存亡问题的核心是,在目前油价水平上开采作业的直接成本,”荷兰皇家壳牌公Royal Dutch Shell)的首席财务官西蒙·亨利(Simon Henry)近期在讨论公司的季度业绩时表示。And in the North Sea, no company is an island.而在北海,没有哪家企业是一座孤岛。The region is a vast web of interconnected fields and pipelines and other infrastructure, with different owners, that transport the oil and gas. If one company closes a node in this network, others might be forced to shut down portions of their own operations.这片地区是一个巨大的网络,油田、管道及运输油气的其他基础设施彼此相连,属于不同的公司。如果这个网络上有一家公司关闭一个节点,那么其他公司可能就不得不关停自己的部分业务。Chevron, for example, lost production for several months from a field called Erskine because its oil flowed through a field operated by the BG Group. That field had been closed since October for an upgrade but recently came back online.例如,雪佛龙有一块名为厄斯金(Erskine)的油田,蒙受了数个月的生产损失,因为它出产的石油要流经BG集团(BG Group)的一块油田。从去年10月开始,BP的那块油田因升级改造而关停,不过近期又重新连接到网络中。“It takes only one field that has exposure to a piece of infrastructure to put the whole system in jeopardy,said Derek Leith, an energy consultant at Ernst amp; Young in Aberdeen.“只要有一块油田的一处基础设施出问题,整个网络就会处境不妙,”安永驻阿伯丁的能源顾问德里克·利Derek Leith)表示。Once fields start to shut down, the companies cannot simply abandon them. International laws require the companies to safely and cleanly dismantle the platforms and underwater equipment, a process with considerable costs.一旦油田开始关闭,相关公司也不能简单弃用,而是要按照国际法的要求,安全、无污染地拆除钻井平台和水下设备。这个过程需要投入大量成本。The industry is projected to spend about 15 billion pounds ( billion) in the next decade on North Sea decommissioning spending the industry can hope to partly defer the longer it can squeeze life from existing operations.在未来十年里,整个行业预计会在退出北海业务上花费150亿英镑(约合1400亿元人民币)左右。现有业务持续得越久,该行业就越有希望推迟部分开销。Apache, a midsize oil company based in Houston, is considered something of a model. In 2003, Apache acquired a portion of the Forties field, a vast North Sea plot 140 miles northeast of Aberdeen that was discovered in 1970 and once produced about a half-million barrels a day. By the time Apache bought its portion from BP, output had dwindled to 41,000 barrels a day.总部位于休斯顿的中等规模的石油公司阿帕奇(Apache)被认为堪称这方面的榜样003年,该公司收购了福蒂斯油Forties)的一部分。这片广阔的油田也位于北海,在阿伯丁东北140英里(约25公里)处。福蒂斯970年发现的,曾经能日产原油0万桶。到阿帕奇从BP手里买下油田的一部分时,其产量已跌至每天4.1万桶。But Apache has raised production 20 percent, to about 50,000 barrels a day, by investing in new wells and installing more electrical generators to reduce downtime, according to James L. House, the companys North Sea manager until this month.不过,在本月之前一直担任阿帕奇北海业务经理的詹姆斯·L·豪斯(James L House)称,通过投资新油井,以及增加发电机来减少停工期,公司将产量提高了20%,达每天万桶。“We all have access to the same level of technology and hire people with similar educational backgrounds,he said. “It is how decisions are made and how they are executed.”“我们所有公司掌握的技术水平是一样的,雇的员工的教育背景也类似,”他说。“关键是决策的制定和执行。”At Chevron, May says he is encouraged by his companys efforts to reclaim the North Sea. Chevron is continuing with development of a new field called Alder. And the giant Rosebank project could yet go ahead, May said.雪佛龙公司的梅表示,他受到了公司恢复北海业务的种种行动的鼓舞。雪佛龙正在继续开发一个名叫阿尔德(Alder)的新油田。据他介绍,庞大的罗斯班克项目仍可能推进。“We have been here for 50 years,he said. “We want to stay.”“在这里50年了,”他说。“我们想留下来。”来 /201506/378911。
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