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2019年07月21日 15:09:47来源:百姓面诊

Microsoft’s second quarter earnings report released Monday had a few bright spots, including rising sales in mobile devices and cloud services. Overall, the company’s sales were up 8% in the quarter ending Dec. 31, though costs related to acquisitions and layoffs meant profits were down 10.6% to .9 billion.上周,微软发布了第二财季收益报告,其中出现了一些亮点,比如移动设备和云务的销售额不断上升。虽然由于收购和裁员影响,微软的利润下滑了10.6%,降至59亿美元,但该公司截至2014年12月31日的季度销售额总体还是实现了8%的增长。Despite the company’s good sales numbers, revenue from copies of its Windows operating system installed on new computers, long a reliable source of cash, were down 13% year-over-year. Why?尽管微软销售额涨势喜人,新电脑安装Windows操作系统所带来的收入却同比下降了13%,要知道它一直是个可靠的收入来源。为什么会出现这种情况?First, the consumer PC market has been either slipping or stagnant for years, meaning there’s fewer devices capable of running Microsoft’s PC operating system being sold.首先,个人电脑市场近年来一直不景气,也就是说,运行微软操作系统的个人电脑销量减少了。But there’s another reason that’s far more under Microsoft’s control.但还有另一个原因是微软完全不能控制的。Back at the end of 2013, Microsoft MSFT -9.25% was on the verge of ending technical support for Windows XP business customers. That convinced lots of IT and accounting departments it was finally time to upgrade from the decade-plus-old operating system, driving sales of Microsoft’s newer OSes, like Windows 8.到2013年年底,微软就已经基本不为Windows XP的商务用户提供技术持了。许多公司的IT部门和财务部门因此笃信,终于是时候升级这款已有十多年历史的旧系统了,而这将提高微软新系统如Windows 8的销量。However, that XP end-of-life phenomenon wasn’t around to drive sales last year, helping explain Windows’ poor year-over-year numbers. (Microsoft also said cheaper copies of Windows it sold to academic buyers cut into the category’s revenue).然而,XP的寿终正寝并未在去年拉动Windows系统的销量,这就解释了Windows年度同比销量表现低迷的原因。(微软还表示,出售给学术机构的Windows系统售价较低,也影响了该类别的收入。)It’s safe to expect Windows to be less of a moneymaker for Microsoft in the future. Last week, the company announced that its upcoming iteration of the operating system, Windows 10, will be a free upgradefor users with older versions aly installed. That’s a consumer-friendly move that should help drive adoption rates, but it will eat even further into Windows’ revenue figures. Still, if Microsoft continues to be successful in mobile and cloud services, that could more than make up for the free upgrade.我们可以预计,Windows在未来可能不再是微软的摇钱树。该公司近期宣布,即将面世的下一代操作系统Windows 10将为旧版本的Windows用户提供免费升级。这项举措对消费者十分友好,应该会提高该系统的采用率,但它会进一步降低Windows的收入。不过,如果微软能在移动和云务上继续高歌猛进,由此产生的收入将足以弥补免费升级的损失。(财富中文网) /201502/358731。

  • A breakthrough in electrochemistry at Cambridge university could lead the way to rechargeable super-batteries that pack five times more energy into a given space than today’s best batteries, greatly extending the range of electric vehicles and potentially transforming the economics of electricity storage.剑桥大学(Cambridge University)在电化学领域的一项突破,或将催生可充电的超级电池。这种电池在给定空间内存储的能量是目前最好电池的五倍,可大大拓展电动汽车的续航里程,并可能大幅改观电力存储的经济效益。Chemistry professor Clare Grey and her team have overcome technical challenges in the development of lithium-air batteries — the only cells theoretically capable of giving electric cars the range of petrol and diesel vehicles without having to carry excessively bulky and heavy battery packs.化学教授克莱尔格雷(Clare Grey)和她的团队攻克了锂空气电池开发中的技术难关。理论上说,只有这种电池能让电动汽车在不必携带巨大而笨重的电池组的情况下,拥有可媲美汽油车及柴油车的续航里程。If the technology can be turned from a laboratory demonstrator into a commercial product, it will enable a car to drive from London to Edinburgh on a single charge, with batteries that cost and weigh one-fifth of the lithium-ion cells that power today’s electric cars.如果能把该技术从实验室的演示品转变为商品,将令汽车只充一次电就能从伦敦驶到爱丁堡(约合648公里——译者注),所用电池的成本和重量却只有今日电动汽车所用锂离子电池的五分之一。“What we’ve achieved is a significant advance for this technology and suggests whole new areas for research,” said Prof Grey. “We haven’t solved all the problems inherent to this chemistry but our results do show routes forward.”格雷教授表示:“我们取得的成就使这项技术向前迈出了重要一步,预示着全新的研究领域。我们仍未全盘解决这一化学机制所固有的问题,但我们的成果确实揭示了前行的道路。”Because lithium-air has such a big theoretical advantage over lithium-ion which dominates rechargeable batteries today — its energy density is potentially 10 times greater — researchers around the world are working on lithium-air.和目前的可充电电池中盛行的锂离子技术相比,锂空气电池理论上拥有巨大的优势——其能量密度可能要高10倍——以至于全球的研究人员都在开展锂空气电池的研究。A research paper published in the journal Science shows that the Cambridge group has overcome some of the practical problems of the technology, particularly the chemical instability that led to a rapid fall-off in performance of the lithium-air cells demonstrated previously.发表在《科学》(Science)期刊上的一篇研究论文显示,剑桥的这个团队攻克了这种技术中的部分实际问题——尤其是化学上的不稳定问题。在此之前,由于这种化学上的不稳定,锂空气电池会显示出性能迅速衰退的现象。The basic chemistry of lithium-air batteries is simple. The cell generates electricity by combining lithium with oxygen to form lithium peroxide and is then recharged by applying a current to reverse the reaction. Making these reactions take place reliably over many cycles is the challenge.锂空气电池的基本化学原理十分简单。这种电池通过锂和氧结合成过氧化锂实现放电,再通过施加电流逆转这一过程而完成充电。而如何可靠地令上述反应在许多周期内反复发生,则是该技术面临的挑战。The Cambridge scientists adjusted the chemistry to make it more controllable. For example, they converted lithium peroxide to lithium hydroxide (a compound that is easier to work with), they added lithium iodide to the system and they made a very porous “fluffy” electrode from graphene, a form of carbon discovered 12 years ago at Manchester university.剑桥的科学家对相关化学过程做了调整,以提高其可控性。比如,他们将过氧化锂转变为更易处理的氢氧化锂,还向系统中添加了碘化锂,并用石墨烯制作了渗透性极好的“蓬松”电极。所谓石墨烯,是12年前曼彻斯特大学(Manchester University)发现的一种碳的同素异形体。The system demonstrated in the Cambridge lab is 90 per cent efficient, say the researchers, and it can be recharged 2,000 times. But they say at least another decade of work is likely to be required to turn it into a commercial battery for cars and for grid storage — storing the intermittent output of solar and wind generators for use when needed.研究人员表示,剑桥实验室中展示的电池系统效率达90%,可充电2000次。不过他们表示,可能至少还需10年的工作,才能将该电池变为可用于汽车和电网蓄电的商业电池。电网蓄电装置用于存储太阳能和风能发电站间歇发出的电力,以便在需要的时候使用。“We have patented the technology and the intellectual property is owned by Cambridge Enterprise, the university’s commercialisation arm,” said Prof Grey. “We are working with a number of companies to take it forward.”格雷教授表示:“我们获得了该技术的专利,其知识产权归剑桥大学商业化机构剑桥实业(Cambridge Enterprise)所有。我们正与多家公司合作推进这项技术。” /201511/407175。
  • Ride-hailing company Uber is willing to pay up to billion for HERE, a Nokia-owned mapping service that competes with Google Maps, the New York Times reports.据《纽约时报》报道,租车务公司Uber有意以30亿美元收购诺基亚旗下的地图务HERE,后者与谷歌地图一直在竞争。Nokia, a Finnish company you probably best know for itstrademark and stubbornly infectious ringtone, is undergoing a highly transformative shift. Once a leading smartphone maker, it’s now focusing networking hardware business. The biggest sign of that shift: Nokia sold its handset division to Microsoft for more than billion last year. So it makes sense for Nokia to want to unload its mapping unit, for which it could earn a pretty penny while also increasing the company’s focus.芬兰公司诺基亚留给人们最深的印象,可能是它的商标和熟悉的手机铃声。该公司正在经历大规模的转型,这家曾经的手机巨头如今正专注于网络硬件业务。最大转型标志是,公司在去年以70亿美元的价格将手机部门卖给了微软。所以,诺基亚想要出售地图部门也不难理解,这不仅能给公司带来一大笔资金,还能提高公司的专注度。But why would Uber want a mapping company? Two reasons.不过Uber为何想买一家地图公司?原因有二。Uber’s backend systems are powered by Google Maps. When you load up Uber’s app and drop a pin for a pickup, that’s Google Maps. When your driver is following GPS directions to your destination, that’s Google Maps too. Uber’s recent moves into shipping packages rather than people signal it’s interested in becoming more of a full-on logistics company, akin more to UPS than your local yellow cab service. For Uber, having its own mapping unit would reduce its dependence on another company — Google — while it continues to evolve.Uber的后台系统由谷歌地图持。当你加载Uber应用,并标示搭车地点时,用的就是谷歌地图。当你的司机按照GPS指示前往目的地时,用的也是谷歌地图。Uber最近将重心转向递送包裹而不是乘客,体现出他们有兴趣成为一家全方位的物流公司——类似于UPS那种,而不是一家出租车公司。对Uber而言,拥有自己的地图部门,可以让公司在不断演变发展的同时,减少对谷歌的依赖。There’s another factor at play here, too. Uber executives haven’t been shy about their fondness for driverless cars; the company is partnering with Carnegie Mellon University to work on the technology. After all, robots don’t strike for higher wages, nor do they assault passengers.还有另一个因素是:Uber的高管从不避讳他们对自动驾驶汽车的热爱。公司正与卡耐基梅隆大学合作研发这项技术。毕竟,机器是不会为了索要更高薪水而罢工的,它们也不会殴打乘客。Driverless cars need two things to work. The first is on-car sensors, which constantly monitor for changing road conditions that require an immediate response, like pedestrians and stop signs. The second is maps, which tell the car where to go on a bigger scale. For driverless cars to be feasible, the maps that power them have to be updated constantly. Imagine a driverless car doesn’t know that construction means a bridge is out, for instance: Dead end. Acquiring HERE, then, would help Uber more quickly realize a future where driverless cars get us all from A to B without us batting an eyelash.无人驾驶汽车运行离不开两样东西。一样是车载感应器,它能实时监控行人或停车信号等需要立即反应的路况。另外一样则是地图,它能纵览全局,告诉汽车该走哪条路。要使无人驾驶汽车成为现实,后端持的地图需要不断地更新。设想一下,假如一辆无人驾驶汽车不知道前方有座桥已经不能走了,就会走进死路。收购HERE以后,Uber就能更快地实现自动驾驶汽车的未来,人们不必双眼一眨不眨地盯着路况就能从A地来到B地了。 /201505/375619。
  • The great Chinese road trip is about to begin. In the next fortnight, tens of millions of motorists will shortly join at least 1bn others heading home for that mother of all Chinese holidays: lunar new year[15 feb].一场宏大的公路旅行即将在中国上演。接下来的两周,数千万驾车者将很快加入另外至少10亿返乡者的队伍,赶回家过中国人最重要的节日——春节。My bronchial passages congest at the mere notion of so many pollution producers taking to the roads all at once. So I was delighted to learn that China’s State Grid had finished building quick-charging stations for electric cars along the 1,200km motorway from Shanghai to Beijing — and eager to give the vehicles a test drive. Xinhua, the state news agency, crowed proudly about the completion of 50 stations capable of charging eight cars each in 30 minutes flat.一想到将有那么多辆制造污染的汽车同时上路,我的气管就有点发堵。因此,得知中国国家电网(State Grid)已完成1200公里京沪高速沿线快速充电站的建设,我感到很欣慰,并且很想试驾一下电动汽车。官方通讯社新华社自豪地宣称,这50座已建成的充电站每座能同时为8辆汽车充电,每辆汽车的充电时间只要30分钟。And about time too: China is the world’s second-largest market for electric vehicles, and nouveau riche renminbi have poured into purchases of the Tesla model S, the coolest green motorcar on the block. For at least a decade, Beijing has been decanting subsidies into the creation of a homegrown electric vehicle industry, hoping to leapfrog conventional engines and go straight to world dominance of green car technology. And China’s air pollution problem is so big that it must, like the Great Wall, be visible from space. So selling electric cars here ought to be about as easy as selling protective face masks. But it’s not.也确实应该有公共充电站了:中国是世界第二大电动车辆市场,许多土豪斥巨资购买了市面上最酷的绿色能源汽车——特斯拉S型(Tesla model S)。至少10年来,北京方面一直在投入巨额补贴培育本土电动汽车产业,希望借此跳过传统汽车阶段、一跃成为世界绿色能源汽车技术的主导者。中国的空气污染问题也如此严重,以至于从太空中肯定都可以看到中国的雾霾了,就像可以看到长城一样。因此,在中国卖电动汽车理应像卖防护口罩一样容易。然而事实却并非如此。Potential electric car buyers in China, like those everywhere else on Earth, worry a lot about how to charge their horseless chariots. Last month(Jan) Elon Musk, chief executive of Tesla, said charging angst had hit the company’s fourth-quarter sales in the country. Mr Musk told Bloomberg that Chinese buyers have nothing to worry about.中国的潜在电动汽车买家跟世界其他任何地方的潜在买家一样,也非常担心充电问题。上月,特斯拉首席执行官埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)说,购车者对充电问题的担忧对该公司第四季度在华销量造成了冲击。他向彭社(Bloomberg)表示,中国购车者完全不需要担心这个问题。But Tesla cars can’t use the State Grid’s new charging stations, and a glance at a map of purpose-built Tesla charging stations between Shanghai and Beijing shows that drivers not only have to leave the motorway but often also drive for between 10km and 20km to find one. Small wonder they have what is known in the automotive world as “range anxiety”.但特斯拉汽车无法使用国家电网新建的充电站。大致看一下京沪之间拟建的特斯拉汽车充电站分布图,你会发现,开特斯拉的人不仅得驶离高速公路,而且往往还得再开上10至20公里,才能找到一个特斯拉充电站。难怪他们会有汽车界所说的那种“续航里程焦虑”(range anxiety)。So Tesla models can’t capitalise on the State Grid’s new voltage largesse but the rest of us can, right? With all those new charging stations promising to put cars back on the road in about the time it takes to wolf down some fermented “stinky tofu” or a bowl of noodles at the motorway canteen, what’s to be anxious about, I thought?特斯拉汽车无法利用国家电网新建的充电站,但其他电动汽车还是可以的,对吧?我想,既然有那么多新建的充电站承诺称,在高速公路餐厅吃点“臭豆腐”或吃碗面条的工夫,我们的汽车就能充好电重新上路,那还有什么好担心的?Plenty: the stations aren’t open to the public yet. The State Grid hopes to make them operational in time for the annual insanity known as the chunyun or lunar new year migration — but I’m not betting my holiday on it.实际上,要担心的事儿还真不少:那些新的充电站还没有对公众开放。国家电网希望它们能在一年一度的疯狂场面——即春运——到来之前投入使用,但我不会把我的假期押宝在它们能按时开放上。No problem, I thought, I’ll do a bit of electric car tourism to somewhere not so far away , such as the suburb of Jiading, Shanghai’s own version of the Motor City, which has its own extensive network of charging stations. But quite apart from the fact that not even a Detroit native like me would voluntarily choose this heavily industrialised area for tourism, the rental car company told me that I wouldn’t be allowed to charge on the Jiading network anyway. Charging anywhere other than their own rental locations is forbidden.没关系,我想,我就开电动汽车去不那么远的地方逛逛好了,比如去趟郊区嘉定(上海版的汽车城),那里建有大范围的电动汽车充电站网络。嘉定是个乏味的工业区,哪怕是像我这样的底特律人也不会主动选择去这里旅游;抛开这件事不说,汽车租赁公司还告诉我,我压根儿就不能在嘉定的充电站网络充电。除了租赁公司自己的网点,在其他任何地方充电都是不允许的。So I decided to just zip around my own small corner of Shanghai in a rented Roewe E50, the “pure” electric runabout designed by SAIC, the state-owned Shanghai carmaker. I set off for what I thought would be a blissful weekend of carrying groceries and kids and dogs around town, without the usual hassle of public transport. With pollution about to hit the maximum ing on the air-quality metre that day, at many multiples of the global safety standard, I felt pretty good about my choice. Sure, the car could not manage 80km without being taken back in for a voltage fix. But I figured I could get my nails done while it drank the juice.于是,我决定就开着租来的荣威E50 (Roewe E50)在我住的那一片转悠一下。这款车是国有的上海汽车制造商上汽(SAIC)设计的“纯”电动小汽车。开着它,我出发了,憧憬着将要度过的美好周末:车里装着采购的生活补给,载着孩子们和,在城里兜风,不用去面对公交出行常常遭遇的烦恼。那天上海的空气污染指数几乎爆表,超出国际安全标准好几倍,我为自己的选择感到庆幸。当然了,那辆车开不到80公里就得回站去充电。但我想,我可以利用它充电的时间做个指甲。But after a few trips to Walmart and the school, my little car was telling me it felt rundown. So I turned up at the rental company to request my free top-up, only to be told it would take four hours. Fearful of being stranded in a little car full of kids and dogs and no power I returned the car early, hopping on a bus, which I noted ruefully was an electric one. Now I’m as green as the next guy (I commute by bus, give me a break) but I’ll be guzzling petrol on my holidays for a good while yet. Range anxiety is alive and well, and living in every sensible home in China.然而,跑了几趟沃尔玛(Walmart)和学校之后,我的小车告诉我它快没电了。于是我开到租赁公司门店,要求免费充电,结果被告知充电需要4个小时。因为害怕这辆小车在我载着孩子们和开在路上的时候忽然没电了,我提前把它还给了租赁公司,跳上了一辆公交车回家(我恨恨地发现这居然是辆电动公交车)。这下我跟别人一样环保了(我都改公交出行了,你还想怎样?),不过在未来相当长一段时间内,我在假期都会开汽油车出行。“续航里程焦虑”真实存在,萦绕在每一个理智的中国人心头。 /201502/359176。
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