2018年09月25日 03:08:25|来源:国际在线|编辑:养心频道
So here is a question for our listeners:那么,我想问问我们的听众:If there were apotion that would allow you to stay young forever, would youtake it?如果有长生不老药,有人愿意吃吗?Thats obvious, Yael?这个问题显而易见,Who wouldnt want to recapture their youth?有谁不愿返老孩童?Im not so sure the answer is obvious.我倒不这么认为。Because the researcher has shown that the olderyou get, the calmer and happier you tend to be.研究人员已经发现人越老越平静、快乐。Wait a second, old age is hard.等等,人老了可不轻松,There is disease, loneliness, and depression.比如:疾病、孤独、抑郁。True, Im not saying that being old age is easy, but social scientists at the University of Texashave found that overall,你说得对,我并不是说人老了轻松,但是德克萨斯州大学的社会科学家发现:aging is associated more with positive, passive emotions instead ofnegative, active emotions.大体而言,老年人情绪更加乐观而被动,并非消极而主动。Passive emotions?被动情绪?Yes, emotions can be passive and active as well as positive and negative. 没错,情绪可分为主动和被动;乐观和消极。So, for example,feeling calm is a passive emotion.比如,淡定就是被动情绪,And its also usually seen as positive.也被看作是乐观情绪。Anxiety and anger, on theother hand, are clearly negative emotions.反之,焦虑和生气很显然是消极情绪。And at least in many cases theyre also active.很多时候,还是主动情绪。Can anger be passive when someone is passive aggressive?因为他人而好斗时,生气就是被动情绪吗?Sure, but the point is that in general, aging seems to make us more emotionally passive.没错,关键是随着人变老普遍的情绪会被动。And being passive seems to correlate more with positive emotions like calm and contentment.而被动情绪和很多乐观情绪相关。Its not clear why aging has this effect, but maybe its because when youre older youre no longer trying to prove yourself, no longer as anxious about getting ahead.比如平静或知足。原因不详,但可能是因为人老了,再也不会试着表现自我,也不会争先恐后。Although, to be fair, the researchers found that the richer and more educated you are, the more you experience positive emotions.公正地说,研究人员还发现越富裕和有文化的人,乐观情绪会更多。 201407/314863Israel and Palestine巴以The new normal新常态No matter what Israels prime minister says, the conflict with the Palestinians cannot simply be “managed”无论以色列总理说什么,巴以冲突都不可能简单的“处理好”。THE prime minister of Israel, Binyamin Netanyahu, has sought to make life normal. While the Middle East has gone up in flames, Israels economy has thrived. Cafés emptied a decade ago by Palestinian suicide-bombers are once again teeming with customers. Demonstrators in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv have protested not just about war and peace, but even more vociferously about the price of cottage cheese.以色列总理本雅明内塔尼亚胡正在设法使以色列回归正常生活。虽然中东地区陷入火海,以色列的经济却蓬勃发展。十年前被巴勒斯坦人自杀式炸弹袭击的咖啡馆由门可罗雀恢复成如今的顾客满盈。聚集在耶路撒冷和特拉维夫(以色列港市)的人民不再仅仅为了和平而示威,如今更多的却是由于白干酪的物价过高而抗议。This unreal normality is now under threat. After a two-year lull, rockets fired from Gaza have rained down on Israel. The Israel Defence Forces have struck hundreds of sites in Gaza. The army is y to mobilise up to 40,000 reserves. The talk is of a ground offensive against Hamas, which governs Gaza (see article). Palestinians, 70 of whom have aly been killed, are sliding towards a third uprising, or intifada.然而这种不真实的正常生活如今已受到威胁。才过两年平静的生活,巴勒斯坦便从加沙发射火箭弹炮轰以色列;以色列国防军随即攻占加沙地区数百个地区,并欲召集达40,000人的预备队对抗哈马斯集团,如今他们已经控制住加沙地区(另见文)。巴勒斯坦死亡人数已达70人,尽管如此,他们仍将发动第三次起义,或者说是暴动。Mr Netanyahus mistake—compounded by the actions of Mahmoud Abbas, leader of the Palestinians on the West Bank—is to think that their versions of normality can be sustained simply by managing the conflict. A stand-off is always liable to tip into violence. Lasting peace will come about only when the two sides reach a comprehensive settlement.内塔尼亚胡的失误,再加上西岸(1967年被以色列占领的巴勒斯坦的约旦河西岸的部分)的巴勒斯坦领袖马哈茂德·阿巴斯的行动,这似乎表明唯有平息两国冲突才能维护他们想要的正常生活。两军对峙常常会演变成暴力冲突。也唯有达成全面和解,两国才能拥有持久和平。More than maintenance不仅是维持Todays violence was triggered by the murder of three Israeli teenagers, snatched on their way back from study at ayeshiva in an Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Mr Netanyahu blamed Hamas—on evidence that remains unclear—leading to the arrest of hundreds of Palestinians, including some prisoners who had recently been released under an American-sponsored scheme designed to boost peace talks with Mr Abbas. In retaliation, and outraged at the murder of a young Palestinian, militants fired rockets into Israel. The IDF responded with lethal force. In a few short days, the original offence was superseded by the logic of escalating action and reaction.这次暴力行动的导火索是三名以色列青年被杀,他们在西岸的以色列殖民地ayeshiya上学,在放学路上被抓并杀害。内塔尼亚胡认为这是哈马斯集团所为,尽管据不足,但仍然逮捕了数百名巴勒斯坦人,其中包括近期由美国发起的同阿巴斯和平谈判计划中释放的犯人。一名年轻的巴勒斯坦人被杀害激怒了激进分子,为了报复以色列便向其发射火箭弹。以色列国防军(IDF)则施致命武力还以颜色。短短几天,两军行动不断升级。Such fragility is a symptom of the influence of extremists on both sides. Some on the Israeli right see a chance to smash Hamas, which has been weakened in Gaza, both by its own incompetence and by Egypts new government closing the tunnels leading from Sinai into Gaza. But Israeli force is more likely to revive Hamas than break it. The Islamists would once again rally support as the main resistance to the hated occupiers, whilst leaving Mr Abbas looking more like the stooge.双方激进分子的影响力很大,同时也很脆弱。持以色列的激进分子看到了粉碎哈马斯的希望,但由于自身无能和埃及新政府关闭了从西奈到加沙的隧道,导致在加沙的粉碎力量被削弱。但是以色列的武力貌似更可能复燃哈马斯,而不是将其粉碎。伊斯兰教徒可能会再次凝聚力量反对侵略者,阿巴斯则沦为配角。Centrist Israelis would settle for periodic missions designed to tamp down Hamas—“mowing the lawn” they call it. The idea is that the occasional brutal show of force can buy a few more years of normality. Yet doing so is becoming harder. Even if Hamass rockets remain inaccurate and are rarely lethal, the latest have reached parts of northern Israel 125 kilometres (80 miles) from Gaza. People in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem will, understandably, refuse to live under constant threat. Israel could of course smite its enemies with ever-bloodier fervour. But to the watching world, its overwhelming use of force, which always leaves many more Palestinians than Israelis dead, has often looked excessive—and its international standing, which moderate Israelis care about, tumbles further.以色列中间派则认为阶段性镇压哈马斯即可,即所谓的“割草行动”。他们认为偶尔派军队进行残酷镇压就可以换取数年的平静生活。然而这种状态也越来越难满足。虽然哈马斯的火箭弹从来不准,也鲜有致命,但是近期这次已经击中离加沙仅125千米(80米)的以色列北部地区。特拉维夫市和耶路撒冷的人们不愿意生活在威胁之下也是情理之中。以色列当然也可以用更加血腥的方式还击。但看看世界就会明白,压倒式军事行动通常只会使巴勒斯坦的死伤比以色列更加惨重;而温和的以色列中间派所重视的国际声望也会越跌越低。In any case, the status quo on the Palestinian side looks untenable. Mr Abbas is tired and ineffectual. Under him, normality for the West Banks Palestinians has come to mean accepting Israeli occupation while Israeli settlers gobble up ever more territory. Without even the prospect of statehood, Palestinians are impatient.无论如何,巴勒斯坦都无法维持现状。阿巴斯疲倦无能。在他的领导下,西岸的巴勒斯坦人要想过上正常生活就得接受被以色列占领,而同时,以色列就会贪婪地占领更多地方。国家地位堪忧,巴勒斯坦人民坐立不安。For all these reasons, the failure of Mr Netanyahu to make peace a priority is dangerous. He did not make the most of the recent plan put forward by John Kerry, Americas secretary of state. Both he and Mr Abbas recklessly pursued short-term advantage during the talks, leaving their countries vulnerable to those who argue that, with the hopes of peace exhausted, conflict is all that remains. That is wrong. Two states, one for Israelis and one for Palestinians, remains by far the greatest hope for peace. The parameters of an agreement are well-rehearsed. What is lacking is the conviction among reasonable people that such a settlement is needed now. Without that belief, Israels normality will always have an air of unreality.因此,出于所有这些原因,内塔尼亚胡促和平之举的失败会遭致危险。他并没有充分重视美国国务卿约翰·克里近期提出的计划。谈判时,他和阿巴斯贪图短期利益,欠缺考虑,置国家安危于不顾,一旦和平之梦破碎,冲突将无法避免。他们这种考虑是错误的。虽然两国双方,以色列和巴勒斯坦,都怀着至今为止最大的和平之梦;协议内容也经过精心安排。但是明理人士并不确信他们现在需要这样一份协议。缺少信心,以色列回归常态之梦总显得虚幻。 /201409/327175Corporate political donations Lighten our darkness公司政治献金拨云见日There are big differences in what firms reveal about their political donations政治献金信息披露因公司而异IT IS not just the incestuous make-up of News Corporations board that annoys its shareholders.不仅仅是新闻集团董事会排外的组织结构让其股东感到懊恼,Activist investors such as the Nathan Cummings Foundation also complain about the firms lack of transparency about its political donations.就连诸如内森·卡明斯基基金会这样的投资积极分子也抱怨该公司在其政治献金项目上缺乏透明度。Although News Corp opened up a bit this year,尽管,今年新闻集团对该项目透露了稍许信息,it is still more opaque than its peers in the Samp;P 100, as a new index of corporate political disclosure shows.但是根据一项新的旨在披露公司政治捐赠行为的指数显示,新闻集团较其在标准普尔500指数上市的同行们显得更加不透明。The index, launched by the Robert Zicklin Centre for Corporate Integrity at Baruch College on September 15th,9月15日,由纽约市立大学巴鲁克学院的罗伯特金科林企业诚信中心发布了该指数。does not argue that corporate political donations are good or bad.该指数并未表明赞同抑或否定公司政治捐赠行为的意见。But its compilers believe that the public and shareholders have a right to know what firms are up to.但是该指数的众多编者相信公众和股东有权利知道公司做出捐赠决议的理由。It looks at 57 measures of transparency, including how many clicks it takes to get from the firms website to information about political donations and how detailed that information is.指数考察了57项透明度指标,其中包括为获得公司政治捐赠信息而产生的公司网页点击量及信息的详细程度。News Corp is one of 28 companies rated “opaque”,新闻集团是28家被评为不透明的公司之一,along with popular bogeymen such as Halliburton and Walmart—and fashionable firms such as Amazon, Berkshire Hathaway, Google, Nike and Walt Disney.这些公司还包括诸如哈利伯顿和沃尔玛这样受人欢迎的怪物公司,以及亚马逊、伯克希尔·哈撒韦公司、谷歌、耐克和迪斯尼这样的新贵公司。Only a handful of firms were deemed “transparent”, including Colgate-Palmolive, IBM, Pfizer and Goldman Sachs.仅有部分公司被该指数认为是透明的,这包括高露洁、国际商业机器有限公司,瑞辉制药有限公司和高盛。Finance is, surprisingly, the third-most-transparent industry, behind drugs and oil.令人惊奇的是,金融业位列透明度第三的产业,居于制药业和石油行业之后。Mining, manufacturing and utilities are the most opaque.采矿业、制造业及公用事业是最不透明的行业。As firms donate more to politicians, they tend to disclose more.鉴于公司对政客的捐赠行为越来越多,他们倾向于披露更多的信息。Yet the very biggest donors are not the most transparent,作为该指数创始人之一唐纳德·施皮尔斯说,尽管最大的献主是那些最不透明的公司,says Donald Schepers, one of the creators of the index, which they aim to expand next year to cover the entire Samp;P 500.但他们打算明年将该指数拓展到囊括所有的标准普尔500公司。That said, several firms have “made big improvements in their disclosure since we wrote to tell them that we were doing the index,” says Mr Schepers. That alone suggests that measuring transparency is worthwhile.施皮尔斯说,由于被告知他们正在编排该指数,一些公司改善了政治捐赠项目的信息披露状况。仅此就表明对透明度的衡量是值得的。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/234081

Remember that hit song from the 80’s that featured thechorus:还记得80年代那首红极一时歌曲吗?它的合声部分极有特色:And I would walk five hundred miles/and I would walk five hundred more/Just to bethe man who walks a thousand miles/to fall down at your door?我愿步行500里/我愿再行500里/成为行完千里路程,倒在你门前的男人。What sounds romantic in popsong fantasy would be painful in reality.流行歌曲里诠释的歌词传达给我们的感觉非常浪漫美好,但实际情况则是痛苦不堪。Anyone who walks a thousand miles would indeed fall down, thanks to the large blisters that wouldmost likely form on the heels and soles of weary feet.因为经过一千里的跋涉,疲惫的脚底和脚跟都极有可能会长出大水泡,所以任何人都会跌倒。Whether from playing too much basketball or jogging in ill-fitting sneakers, we’ve all had blisters.打篮球的时间太长或是穿着不合脚的运动鞋慢跑都会产生水泡。But what are blisters, and how do they form?但什么是水泡?它们是怎样形成的呢?Blisters come in all shapes and sizes, and some are more serious than others.水泡形状大小不一,有些水泡的症状比其它水泡要严重。The typical, jogging-related blister is a round patch of elevated skin containing a clear fluid.由于慢跑引起的典型水泡呈圆形,一小块皮肤会凸起并且里面含有透明液体。Blistering occurs when anupper layer of skin rubs against the underlying layer.当表皮与皮下层相互擦时,就会产生水泡。As a space opens between the skin layers, chemicals cause the blood vessels in the area to leakand allow a clear fluid to seep out and fill the space between layers of skin.当皮层之间形成隔离空间以后,化学物质造成此区域血管渗透,从而会有透明液体渗出,填充在皮层之间的部位。This fluid is a sort of clear plasma, or blood without the red blood cells.这种液体是一种透明的血浆,或者可以说是没有红细胞的血液。Blisters usually occur in the uppermost layers of skin, and are normally harmless.水泡通常出现在皮肤表层,对人体无害。Because the blood vessels are only made more porous but not actually damaged, red blood cells do not fill the blister.血管仅多了一些空隙而已,并没有实际遭到破坏,红细胞也不会出现在水泡里面。But if a blister does fill with red blood, it means the damage is more serious, and should becarefully treated.如果水泡里面出现红色血液,这意味着血管损伤比较严重,需慎重进行处理。 201402/276625

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