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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月18日 17:24:57
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A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the universe is so small, it can fit in the palm of your hand. But in another tiny fraction of a second, it expands to the size of the earth. Then moving faster than the speed of light, it grows larger than our solar system, and its still just a raging storm of super-heated energy.大爆炸后的短短一瞬,宇宙还十分渺小,跟你的手掌差不多大。之后又一个短短的瞬间,它却膨胀成地球般大小。接着就以快于光速的速度膨胀。即使扩张得比太阳系还大,大爆炸仍然是一场高热的能量风暴。 Itll be harder, and denser and more violent than anything that we can experience in the universe today. Even the interior of a star is calm and serene by comparison to the violence of the earliest moments of the Big Bang.它比人类现在所感受到的任何事物的温度更高,密度更大,更不稳定。与大爆炸最初相比,即使是炙热的星球内部,也显得平静稳定。Temperatures were so hot that even the atoms of your body would disintegrate, so hot in fact, that the atoms will be ripped apart.温度如此之高,就连体内的原子也会再发生分解。实际上,在如此高的温度下,原子会分崩离析。How hot? Trillions of degrees hot. But as the universe continues to expand, it also begins to cool. Dropping temperatures trigger the next stage in the universes evolution. The raw energy of the explosion transforms into tiny subatomic particles. Its the first matter in the universe. This conversion of energy into matter was predicted by Albert Einstein years before anyone started talking about the Big Bang. Its the one scientific equation every school kid knows.到底有多热呢?温度高达万亿度。由于宇宙持续的扩张,它开始冷却。下降到温度引发宇宙进入第二个进化阶段。爆炸后的原始能量转化为微小的次原子微粒。宇宙中第一种物质产生了。爱因斯坦早在人们开始谈论大爆炸前就预测能量可以转化成物质。这是学校的学生也知道的科学方程。There is one very familiar formula. That is EMC2. It says something about the creation of the universe. It says even if the universe is created just out of pure energy that because energy can be converted to matter and matter to energy. That you can get all of the stuff that we see in the universe from this pure energetic event.EMC2是人们很熟悉的质能方程,它说明了宇宙的诞生。纵使宇宙仅仅是由纯粹的能量爆炸而来,那也是因为物质能量可以相互转换。就是说我们看见的所有事物都诞生于这个能量爆炸事件。Einsteins little equation had a big impact. It led to the first nuclear bombs. In a nuclear explosion, a small amount of matter is converted into an enormous amount of energy. As the universe was forming, the exact opposite happened. Pure energy transformed into particles of matter.爱因斯坦的公式虽短,但影响力巨大。它催生了第一颗核炸弹。在核爆炸发生时,质量很小的物质被转化成了巨大的能量。宇宙的形成却恰恰相反,纯粹的能量转化成物质的分子。You dont need to create matter in the beginning, you just need energy. And energy alone can lead to the creation of an entire universe.最初需要的不是物质,而是能量。只要有能量就能创造出整个宇宙。201205/182678

  

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  On two fronts and two continents,在两条战线上和两个大洲中,the proof of Einsteins theory now hangs in the balance.爱因斯坦的理论明现在依然悬而未决。Its February 1919, at top Mountain Hamilton in California,1919年2月,在加州汉密尔顿的山顶,William Wallace Campbell is examining and re-examining photographic plates which appear to indicate that Einsteins General Theory of Relativity,威廉·华莱士·坎贝尔一遍又一遍的检查并重新审视感光板,而结果似乎表明爱因斯坦的广义相对论。his theory of gravity, is wrong.他的引力理论,是错误的。But Campbell has competition from British astronomer Arthur Eddington,但坎贝尔与来自英国天文学家阿瑟·爱丁顿之间也在进行着竞争,who was on his way to photograph an eclipse in Africa.爱丁顿正在去非洲拍摄日食的路上。Eddington leaves Britain and heads south.爱丁顿离开英国并且向南方进发。He is in his late 30s, traveling in those days was not comfortable.他是在20世纪30年代末,在那些日子里,旅行可不舒。This is the tropics, the height of summer.这是热带地区,而且夏天太阳难耐。It must have been a very unpleasant place to be.要去的一定是一个很不舒的地方。In May of 1919, after 10 weeks at sea,在1919年5月, 在海上的10周后,Eddington and his assistant arrive on the shores of Principe,爱丁顿和他的助手到达圣多美普林西比海岸,a small island off the coast of West Africa.这是西非海岸的一个小岛。注:听力文本来源于普特 201205/183246

  In the four decades since our robot first arrived,这是40多年以来我们的机器人第一次着陆,the once fussy ball at the end of our telescopes has steadily focused into a red planet we can understand.一旦我们的望远镜的挑剔镜头最终将焦点集中在这颗我们理解的红色行星上,And its not a welcoming place. 这显然并不是一个受欢迎的地方。The problem is the atmosphere is so thin and cold that water exists only in solid ice in the ground or vapour in the air,问题是大气又厚又冷,水仅仅存在于固体形式,例如地上的冰或空中的蒸气中,not as liquid on the surface.而不是以地表的液体流动。You might see some fine wispy clouds high in the sky,你可能会看到一些天空中好的很细小的云,but dont bother bringing an umbrella.但是别期望被打扰到而带一把伞。The whole planet is drier than the dustiest desert on earth.整个星球比地球上最干燥的沙漠还要干。And there hasnt been a drop of rain here for millions,perhaps billions, of years.这里已经有数百万年,数亿万年没有下雨了。;The thing that fascinated me was that we could see valleys ,“我着迷的东西是我们可以看到山谷,sneaking across the surface,had clearly been curved by flows of water.在表面上,流动过的水留下了很明显的弯曲。So this is telling us that in the past, it was different.所以这是告诉我们它的过去,它是与众不同的。Not only that, it was different in a way that would make it more suitable for life than it is today.不仅如此,它比现今更适合生命存在,这点也是与众不同的。And that i found truely compelling. ;我发现这真的令人信。“注:听力文本来源于普特201204/177863Business商业Corporate governance in America美国企业治理Heating up代理权争夺战升温Shareholders are ever more willing to vote against management股东们比以前更愿意投管理层的反对票TWENTY years ago Bob Monks bought an ad in the Wall Street Journal declaring members of the board of Sears, to which he hoped (in vain) to be elected, ;non-performing assets;.二十年前,Bob Monks在《华尔街日报》登了一则广告,声称Sears公司董事会成员为;不良资产;,并徒劳希望能被当选为其中一员。Nowadays, shareholder activists just create a website.如今,激进股东们仅需建立一个网站。On April 2nd Dan Loeb, a hedge-fund boss, launched valueyahoo.com, which brims with proposals for reviving the struggling web firm.北京时间4月2日,对冲基金Third Point掌门丹尼尔?勒布(Daniel Loeb)发布了名为ValueYahoo.com的网站,该网站满载着复兴这困境中挣扎的网络公司(Yahoo!)的建议提案。Mr Loeb is trying to get himself elected to Yahoo!s board against the wishes of its managers-a fight that could be the highlight of the annual corporate proxy season that is getting under way.丹尼尔?勒布违背公司高层的意愿正试图让自己当选为雅虎董事会成员。这场冲突可能是当下一年一度公司代理权季节中最精的部分。He may win the shareholder vote, if Yahoo! does not strike a deal with him first.如果雅虎事先不和他达成交易,或许他会赢得股东们的选票。Several hedge funds are urging shareholders to give boards a good kicking.几家对冲基金正使股东给董事会带来一个相当大了挫折打击。Starboard Value has nominated five candidates to the board of AOL, another ailing web firm.股东Starboard Value已提供了5名候选人给美国在线公司董事会,这是另一家境况不佳的网络公司。On April 2nd Pershing Square added a seventh candidate to the alternative slate of directors it has nominated to the board of Canadian Pacific Railway.北京时间4月2日,潘兴广场对冲基金在加拿大太平洋铁路的董事会理事成员提名中增加了第七位候选人。Shareholder activism is ;getting back to normal after the financial crisis of 2008,; says Peter Harkins of D.F. King, a firm that advises participants in proxy contests.D.F. King 公司Peter Harkins说到:股东激进主义在2008年金融危机后正恢复正常。该公司建议参与代理权的争夺。It is not just hedge funds that are flexing their shareholderly muscles.不仅是对冲基金还有养老基金同样显示着股东们的实力。Pension funds are at it, too. On March 27th it was reported that Goldman Sachs had made peace with the pension fund of the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), which had proposed a resolution to split the roles of chief executive and chairman, both of which are held by Lloyd Blankfein.据报道,3月27日高盛投资公司与美国州县市雇员联盟(American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees,简称AFSCME)养老基金达成交易。协议提出了要将高盛的首席执行官和董事长职务分别由两人担任的决议,而这都在高盛首席执行官布兰克费恩掌控之下。The bank convinced AFSCME to withdraw its proposal by agreeing to appoint a ;lead director; to keep Mr Blankfein in check.高盛说美国州县市雇员联盟撤销这个提案,并同意任命一位首席董事来维持布兰克费恩的检查。The union has made similar proposals at several firms, including JPMorgan Chase, whose boss AFSCMEs president calls the ;most dangerous man in America;.该联盟组织已在几家公司给出过类似的提案,包括根大通公司,而其老板被美国州县市雇员联盟董事长称之为;美国最危险的人;。Rupert Murdoch, the embattled chairman and chief executive of News Corporation, will face a motion that he surrender his chairmanship to someone independent.新闻公司处境艰难的主席兼首席执行官鲁伯特?默多克将面对交出他的主席身份给独立人士的意向。Two other issues are expected to attract scrutiny from shareholders this year.今年预计有另外两个议题将吸引股东的审查。One is bosses pay. Investors will show ;a little more backbone; in curbing it, ;having rather fluffed it last year;, predicts Anne Simpson, who oversees the corporate-governance activities of CalPERS, a giant pension fund for Californias public employees.其中一项就是领导的薪资。安妮?辛普森监督着CalPERS(一个巨大的加州公职人员养老基金)公司的管理活动,他预测在去年已搞砸的基础上,投资人将体现出在控制领导薪资方面的骨干作用。Many boards struggled to win 70% support for pay packages last year, the first time such votes were required.去年,在薪酬福利上面许多懂事会成员都竭力得到70%的持,需要这样的选票还是第一次。This year, several could lose the vote (which is not binding) unless they have linked pay more explicitly to performance, reckons Paul Hodgson of GMI Ratings, a firm that measures corporate governance.企业治理咨询公司GMI评级(GMI Ratings) 的研究员哈吉森(Paul Hodgson)认为如果他们的薪酬不与绩效相连的话,今天或许有几位懂事会失去没有约束力的选票。Perhaps the most contentious resolutions will be those demanding that firms be more transparent about their political spending, and requiring boards to ensure that this money is used in the interests of shareholders, not managers.或许最具争议的决议就是需要公司更多地明确他们政治上的出,同时要求董事会确保所使用的资金都是以考虑股东的利益为前提而不是管理人员。This effort is being fiercely resisted. The US Chamber of Commerce argues that these resolutions, which mostly come from shareholders who are also trade unions or social activists, are not in the best interests of the firms concerned.这方面的努力正遭到激烈的抵抗。美国商会认为这样的决议没有考虑到公司利益的最大化,而主要考虑的是股东,但或许他们还是贸易联盟或是社会激进主义分子。Jim Copland of the Manhattan Institute, a think-tank, says that ;some of these proposals may serve primarily to chill corporate political speech broadly, including on issues that most diversified shareholders-as distinguished from the proposals sponsors-might prefer that the corporations views be heard.;智囊团吉姆柯普兰的曼哈顿学院称道,这其中的一些提议或许主要是冷却一下公司广泛政治演讲的热度。包括在一些重要议题上大多数多元化股东有别于建议的赞助商,他们更愿意听到公司的观点。Well, maybe. But, as with the other issues on the proxy this year, that is for shareholders to decide.嗯,也许吧。但是,今年另一个关于代理权的议题是为股东决定的。 /201210/205223

  Hospitals around the world spend billions of dollars each year to maintain sterile environments. Every surface, especially in operating rooms, must be kept bacteria-free to prevent the sp of disease and the risk of infection. Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York have come up with a new approach, instead of constantly cleaning surfaces, that would apply a coat of bacterial-killing paints.全世界的医院每年花费几十亿美元来维护医院的无菌环境。医院的每处表面,尤其是手术室必须保持无菌,这样才能避免传染疾病。纽约伦斯勒理工学院的科学家们最近发现了新方法,与其不断地清洁表面,不如应用一种杀菌涂料。The researchers have developed a coating that combines enzymes with nanoparticles. Enzymes occur naturally in all living organisms to regulate their chemical processes, like digestion or the killing of disease-causing micro-organisms such as bacteria.研究人员发明了一种含有纳米颗粒的酶。酶天然存在与人类器官中以保持器官内的化学反应平衡,如人类的消化过程和机体消灭致病微生物——细菌的过程。;Our focus has been on looking at a technology that allows us to have essentially any surface and make it anti-bacterial or antimicrobial in general, and what we wanna do is essentially use what nature uses.;“我们努力的方向是找到一种常见的,能够消灭大多数细菌的抗菌剂,我们要做的是在自然环境中找到这种药物。”Dordick says that by attaching enzymes to nanoparticles and then adding them to paint, the researchers have been able to create a bacterial-resistant surface, the teams lab test showed that anti-bacterial paint is far more effective in sterilizing a surface than conventional cleaning.Dordick表示,将酶中附上纳米粒子,并把他们加到涂料中,研究人员已经将防菌涂料刷到墙上。这一实验室的研究结果表明,杀菌涂料消灭细菌的效果明显高于传统的消毒水的作用。;Obviously everything has been done in a lab so far. So there is still a translation to commercial side. But in the laboratory, its quite effective so, for example, if you take this enzyme on the nanomaterial and you contact it with a million cells per milliliter, which is a pretty good concentration, within several hours, you are down to zero. I mean it kills them all.;“很明显,能在实验室中尝试的我们都试了。但用于出售的版本还是和我们实验出的样品不尽相同。在实验室中,这种涂料效果极强,举个例子,如果你用高浓缩的细菌液体,每毫升1百万个细菌细胞接触含有纳米粒子的酶,不出几小时,细菌数量就变为0。也就是说,细菌全部被杀死了。”Dordick believes that commercialization of bacteria-resistant paint is a realistic possibility. The enzymes are naturally occurring, so are easily produced. As for attaching the enzymes to nanopartices on a commercial scale, Dordick says that advances in nanotechnology research should make it possible in about five years. Dordick believes the ability to apply these anti-bacterial paints in coatings will have applications far beyond the world of healthcare; he says the food processing industry where hygiene and cleanliness are essential to food safety could also benefit from this technology.Dordick相信用于出售的除菌涂料是最适合实际应用的版本。酶在自然界中广泛存在,所以容易生产。Dordick表示,未来5年,纳米技术的进步将使工业生产附有纳米粒子的酶成为现实。Dordick认为,使用除菌涂料的不仅仅局限于医疗卫生,他说对于食品业来说,清洁卫生的环境同样重要。Ben Gruber, Reuters.Ben Gruber报道,路透社消息。enzyme 酶nanoparticle 纳米粒子hygiene 卫生注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/190304

  

  Submission? A proposal for an orderly EuroZone exit; The prize £390,000 dollars. And today turns out we have a winner.The Wolfson Economics Prize has been awarded to Roger Bootle and his team fromCapital Economics, thats a UK research consultancy, for their submission. 提交书?一份井然有序退出欧盟的提议;奖金为390,000美元。今天公布了赢家。沃尔芬森经济奖号授予了罗杰;布托尔及其团队凯投宏观所提交的研究报告,这是一家英国经济咨询机构。Now after the Nobel Prize for Economics,what all we might hear is the second biggest cash prize awarded for this field.Roger Bootles proposal is called ;Leaving the Euro: A Practical Guide.;He told us how it might work and why he thinks that a real Euro Zone exit ismore likely now than its ever been.目前,在大家所听说的经济学家奖项中,沃尔芬森经济学奖号称是奖金额仅次于诺贝尔奖的经济学家奖项。罗杰;布托尔的提议名为《离开欧盟:一份实用手册》。他告诉我们,退出欧盟的方法,并且他认为此时,以往任何时候都更可能发生退出欧盟的情况。Well, I think the crisis has been buildingup gradually but continually, every so often you get an attempt to fix it orsomething, thats for traders, of fixing of it. And then it proves to beinadequate, which is just another one of those faces. I think the backgroundcrisis is actually intensifying, probably a breakup I would have mentioned: Isit anything more likely now than it was a few months ago? 我认为这一危机是逐渐累积的,但是也是连续的。经常地,你尝试地做一些修改或者为贸易者来说的一些修改。不过,这样的修修补补最后被明是不够的,只不是同一修改的不同表现而已。我认为这一危机的背景确实业已强化,或者是我提到过的另一个词,已被破坏:难道此时不比几个月前更可能发生些什么吗?Our plan envisages a country preparing insecret, a small group of officials. And then, enacting that plan very quickly,essentially overnight, announcing to the populous that domestic monetaryamounts have beenredenominated into a new currency,lets call it the drachma, at one for one. So a given amount in Euros becomesthe same amount in drachmas. Meanwhile, on the exchanges, on the foreignexchanges, the drachma depreciates sharply. Perhaps it would be one up to 1.7,2 to 1, we dont know. Thats not a problem. That is the essence of thesolution.我们预想:一个国家的一小组官员悄然着手准备,然后,极其快速地实施这一退出计划,比较理想的是在一夜之间,向公众宣布,国内货币额已经开始采取一种新的货币形式,让我们先举例称之为德国克马。因此给定的欧元货币额,此时为相同数量的德国克马货币额。同时,兑换时,及进行外汇兑换时,德国克马急剧贬值。可能会是1至1.7,2比1,我们无法得知。不过,那不是问题,反而是问题解决的根本之所在。The country then redenominates all itsdebts, its domestic debt, into this currency. It establishes a newpolicyregime, bans wageindexation, establishes tightcontrols on fiscal policy. And then lies back and hopes, I think correctly,that before very long, that much lower exchange rate will bring renewedeconomic growth.这个国家然后以这一货币形式重新表现了所有负债,国内负债。此时,它建立一种新的政策体制,禁止工资指数化,并对财政政策建立严格控制。到那时,该国可以休息一下,展开期待,我认为很可能地,经历很长的一段时间,极低的外汇汇率将重新带来经济增长。201209/201819。

  

  

  

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