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富阳微管无痛人流富阳治疗肛门异物多少钱里山镇做流产哪家医院最好的 There are many wines that are much beloved -- and a few that are notoriously reviled. Silver Oak Cellars Cabernet happens to be both. It#39;s incredibly popular, especially among patrons of American steakhouses. It#39;s also a running joke among certain oenophiles who regard it as the choice of vinous rubes. 有很多葡萄酒深受人们喜爱——也有些酒饱受非议。Silver Oak Cellars的解百纳(Cabernet)碰巧都是。这款酒非常受欢迎,特别是在美国牛排餐厅。在有些葡萄酒爱好者看来,这款酒却一直是个笑话,他们认为嗜酒的乡巴佬才会选择。I first experienced this peculiar dichotomy a dozen years ago at the late Veritas restaurant in New York. I#39;d spent the better part of a week following the Veritas wine team -- Tim Kopec, Eric Zillier and Joshua Nadel -- around for a magazine story. The crew was one of the best in New York, as was their wine list, which was deep in selections from Bordeaux, Burgundy and the Rhone, and also featured lots of expensive California Cabernets. It was Silver Oak alone that provoked Scott Bryan, the restaurant#39;s chef at the time, to make a sort of mocking salute whenever the sommelier carried it through the kitchen and into the dining room (which was fairly often). 我最早体验到这种奇怪的矛盾现象是十几年前在如今已经关闭的纽约Veritas餐厅。那周大部分时间我都跟着Veritas的葡萄酒团队——蒂姆·科佩茨(Tim Kopec)、埃里克·齐利亚(Eric Zillier)和乔舒亚·纳德尔(Joshua Nadel)——到处跑,为的是给杂志写一篇稿子。这个团队是纽约最棒的,他们的酒单也一样,都是从波尔多(Bordeaux)、勃艮第(Burgundy)和罗纳河谷(Rhone Valley)精心挑选的酒,还有很多昂贵的加州解百纳。单单Silver Oak惹着了当时餐厅的主厨斯科特·布莱恩(Scott Bryan),每次品酒师拿着酒穿过厨房去餐厅时,他就会做出某种嘲笑的手势。The gesture was certainly tame compared with some of the less than flattering names I#39;ve heard applied to Silver Oak over the years. (#39;Silver Joke#39; is one of the more printable ones.) I can#39;t think of another wine that has elicited such vitriol, even though there are plenty of other ubiquitous and rich California Cabernets that would seem to be equally fair game: Jordan, Caymus and Opus One, to name a few. Why was Silver Oak singled out? 和我多年来听过的对Silver Oak不那么讨喜的某些评价(“Silver Joke”是其中能上台面的评价之一)相比,这个手势肯定是无伤大雅。我想不出还有哪款葡萄酒遭到过如此恶毒的评价,即便还有大量随处可见的昂贵加州解百纳似乎也差不多:比如Jordan、Caymus和Opus One。为什么偏偏Silver Oak被拎出来了?I posed the question to Mr. Zillier, who left Veritas almost 10 years ago. He is now the customer-relations manager of SevenFifty Technologies, a New York-based online wine buying resource for retailers and restaurateurs. One of the reasons that Silver Oak Cabernets (the winery produces one from Napa and one from Sonoma) are reviled, said Mr. Zillier, has to do with the upfront oak and fruit. He said it#39;s an unchallenging, obvious wine #39;for people who think they know a lot about wine.#39; How did he envision a Silver Oak-loving type? #39;It#39;s generally someone who is confident and conservatively dressed,#39; Mr. Zillier said. 我向10年前离开Veritas的齐利亚提出了这个问题。他现在是纽约SevenFifty Technologies的客户关系经理,该公司专门为零售商和餐厅提供葡萄酒网上购买资源。齐利亚说,Silver Oak的这两款解百纳(一款产自纳帕谷(Napa),一款产自索诺玛(Sonoma))之所以评价不好,一个原因和用的橡木和葡萄有关系。他说这是一款“对自以为很了解葡萄酒的人”来说毫无挑战性、平淡无奇的葡萄酒。那他是怎么看喜欢Silver Oak 葡萄酒的人的?齐利亚说:“一般是自信而且穿着保守的人。”I#39;ve been in wine shops across the country that won#39;t sell Silver Oak, the same way that a cool indie bookstore might shun Danielle Steel. One such retailer in suburban Dallas, who didn#39;t want to be identified for fear of alienating his Silver Oak-drinking friends, explained that he stocked many more interesting wines. Gary Fisch, owner of Gary#39;s Wine shops in New Jersey, which sells a good amount of Silver Oak Cabernet, said he thought that dislike of the wine was a bit of a bandwagon phenomenon. #39;Silver Oak is the wine that#39;s sexy to hate.#39; 我去过全美各地不愿意卖Silver Oak的葡萄酒行,这些酒行不卖Silver Oak就跟一家很酷的独立书店不会卖丹尼尔·斯蒂尔(Danielle Steel)的书一样。达拉斯郊区就有一个零售商解释说他存了很多更有意思的葡萄酒。他不愿意透露姓名,怕疏远喜欢喝Silver Oak的朋友。新泽西州的Gary#39;s Wine葡萄酒行有很多Silver Oak解百纳出售,老板加里·菲什(Gary Fisch)说,他觉得对这款葡萄酒的厌恶有点像是从众效应。他说:“不喜欢Silver Oak是很酷的一件事情。”The winery#39;s aging process is a possible factor in the Silver Oak controversy. Unlike just about every other Cabernet made in Napa Valley, Silver Oak is aged in American oak, which adds sweet notes of vanilla and, some even say, coconut. (Silver Oak makes its own barrels.) The more commonly used French oak is far more subtle, with spicy aromas. Silver Oak的陈酿过程可能是该酒遭到争议的一个因素。与其他所有产自纳帕谷的解百纳不同的是,Silver Oak是在美国橡木桶里陈酿的,从而增加了香草的甜味,有些人甚至会说有椰子味。(Silver Oak自己生产木桶。)更常用的法国橡木桶更精致些,有辛辣香气。And yet Silver Oak also has a large, and very passionate, following. The winery produces just under 100,000 cases of their two Cabernets annually, and their tasting room has won raves from amateur drinkers and wine professionals alike. 不过Silver Oak也有一大群非常热情的粉丝。Silver Oak的两款解百纳每年产量不到10万箱,而酒庄的品酒室赢得了包括业余和专业人士在内的葡萄酒爱好者的盛赞。Silver Oak Cellars, founded in 1972 by Ray Duncan and Justin Meyer, was one of the few serious wineries in Napa 40 years ago. Its earliest Cabernets bore a #39;North Coast#39; appellation, suggesting the grapes had been sourced from all over the northern part of the state. It wasn#39;t until 1979 that the winery produced a Napa Cabernet. (A 1977 Silver Oak Alexander Valley Cabernet came out before.) Silver Oak Cellars于1972年由雷·邓肯(Ray Duncan)和贾斯汀·梅耶(Justin Meyer)创立,在40年前的纳帕谷是少数几家正经的酒庄之一。其最早的解百纳标着“北海岸”产区的标签,表明葡萄来自加州北部各个地区。直到1979年才生产纳帕谷解百纳。(1977年出过一款Silver Oak亚历山大谷解百纳( Alexander Valley Cabernet)。)Silver Oak Cabernet sells well all over the country, but thanks to its big, ripe flavor profile, it#39;s particularly successful in steakhouses. It#39;s a regular top-seller at Empire Steak House in New York and at Del Frisco#39;s steakhouses across the country. Jessica Certo, sommelier of Del Frisco#39;s in New York, said that she couldn#39;t keep Silver Oak in stock. #39;We sell out of every vintage,#39; she said. Silver Oak解百纳在全美各地销量不错,但由于其浓郁成熟的口味,在牛排馆里尤其畅销。它在纽约帝国牛排餐厅(Empire Steak House)和全美各地的Del Frisco#39;s牛排店经常是最畅销的葡萄酒。纽约Del Frisco#39;s牛排店的品酒师杰西卡·塞尔托(Jessica Certo)说,店里存不了Silver Oak。她说:“每款年份酒都卖光了。”It was as if the wine simultaneously existed in two different worlds. I wondered if the winery#39;s owners were aware that their Cabernet was such a lightning rod. I called David Duncan, Silver Oak#39;s CEO and president, to ask his thoughts on the chatter his wine inspired. #39;I know there were a couple of somms in Texas who were saying some things,#39; said Mr. Duncan, sounding unfazed. 就好像这款酒同时存在于两个世界里。我在想酒庄的老板们是否意识到他们的解百纳成了这样一个众矢之的。我致电Silver Oak首席执行长兼总裁大卫·邓肯(David Duncan),询问他对自己的葡萄酒引起的争议有何看法。他说:“我知道在得克萨斯州有几个品酒师在说三道四。” 他听起来泰然自若。I was surprised to learn that an anti-Silver Oak sommelier could get a job, let alone rise to a position of influence, in the steakhouse-centric Lone Star state. Mr. Duncan said that Texas was one of the winery#39;s most important markets, along with California and Florida. In any case, he said, #39;We#39;re not interested in what a few people say. I really don#39;t see it as that big of a deal. We have tens of thousands of customers who like our wines.#39; Could the oak#39;s sweetness be too much for some people? #39;We produce wines that people like,#39; he said. 得知在以牛排馆为主的得克萨斯州,反感Silver Oak的品酒师竟然能找到工作,我感到很意外,更意外的是他们竟然还能升到有影响力的职位。邓肯说,得州是酒庄最重要的市场之一,还有加州和佛罗里达。他说,无论如何,“我们都对少数人说什么不感兴趣。我真的觉得没什么大不了。我们有成千上万喜欢我们葡萄酒的客户。”橡木的甜味对有些人来说是不是太重了?他说:“我们生产人们喜欢的葡萄酒。”Older vintages of Silver Oak Cabernet, which tend to show less overt oak, also have a few of their own fans, and foes. The winery#39;s production was much smaller back in the 1980s -- it made about 30,000 cases per year of both Cabernets, less than a third of today#39;s output. 较早年份的Silver Oak解百纳往往橡木味没那么重,这些酒也有一些自己的粉丝,当然也有人不喜欢。1980年代,酒庄的生产规模比现在小得多,这两款解百纳每年的产量约3万箱,不到现今产量的三分之一。Ariana Rolich, an American- and Spanish-wine buyer at Chambers Street Wines in New York, is an aficionado of the old Silver Oak, and has several like-minded customers who, she notes, are quite different from lovers of the new wines (which Chambers Street does not stock). 纽约Chambers Street Wines 酒行负责采购美国和西班牙葡萄酒的阿里安娜·罗利克(Ariana Rolich)是传统Silver Oak葡萄酒的拥趸,她说有很多跟她志同道合的客户,他们跟喜欢新式酒的人很不一样。Chambers Street不卖新式Silver Oak葡萄酒。#39;People are surprised when they see the bottles in our store,#39; Ms. Rolich said when I mentioned my own shock at seeing them during a recent visit. #39;Sometimes I have to gently take the bottles out of customers#39; hands when I realize they expect them to taste like the Silver Oaks they know.#39; Right now the store has a selection of Silver Oak Cabernets from the 1970s and #39;80s, and one 1998 wine, all of which the store purchased from individuals. 最近去Chambers Street时我看到了以前的酒。看我表示震惊,罗利克说:“人们在我们店里看到这些酒都很惊讶。有时我不得不轻轻地把酒从顾客手里拿过来,因为我意识到他们期望这些酒的味道和他们所知道的Silver Oaks一样。”目前店里有70年代和80年代的Silver Oak解百纳,还有一瓶1998年的酒,都是从个人手里收购而来。What does Ms. Rolich recommend the new Silver Oak lover buy instead? #39;Probably the White Cottage Cuvee or a Matthiasson red,#39; she said, naming two small, cultish California producers. Although White Cottage winery has since closed, the makers of Matthiasson would probably be surprised to hear their wine was considered to be a Silver Oak alternate. #39;I might also suggest a younger Rioja, since they use American oak in Rioja, too,#39; Ms. Rolich added. #39;Essentially you have to give them the most luscious wine that you have.#39; 那么对于喜欢新式Silver Oak葡萄酒的人,罗利克推荐买什么呢?她说:“White Cottage Cuvee或者Matthiasson红葡萄酒吧。”她提到的是两家小规模的小众加州生产商。虽然White Cottage酒庄已经关了,但听到自己的酒被认为是Silver Oak 的替代品,Matthiasson的酿酒师应该会感到惊讶吧。罗利克说:“我可能还会推荐比较年轻的里奥哈(Rioja),因为他们在里奥哈也用美国橡木。起码应该把你手里最香甜美味的葡萄酒给他们。”Although I#39;m a fan of wines that are luscious, I#39;ve never been fond of an overt use of oak. I last tasted Silver Oak many, many years ago. In fact, it was the first wine I was able to identify blind -- I was given a glass at a Vermont resort and told to guess its identity. I got it on my first try. I wanted to see what I thought of it today. 尽管我喜欢香甜美味的葡萄酒,但我向来不喜欢橡木味太重。我上次尝Silver Oak是好多年前。事实上,这是第一款我能够盲品出来的酒——我在佛蒙特州(Vermont)的一个度假村时,有人让我尝了一杯,让我猜是什么酒。我一口就猜中了。我想知道现在我怎么看这款酒。So I bought a bottle of 1982 Silver Oak Alexander Valley (6) and the 2008 and 2009 vintages of both the Napa and Alexander Valley wines (0 and , respectively). (Silver Oak releases its wines much later than most California Cabernet producers, who are on their 2010 and 2011 vintages.) 于是我买了一瓶1982年的Silver Oak Alexander Valley(106美元),还有2008年和2009年产自纳帕谷和亚历山大谷的年份酒(分别为110美元和60美元)。(Silver Oak比大多数加州解百纳生产商推出葡萄酒的时间都晚,他们现在都在推2010 和2011年的年份酒。)For my tasting, I invited a couple I know to join me. The husband was a Silver Oak-loving fellow who had even visited the label#39;s property long ago. I offered them dinner, too -- steak, of course. 我邀请了一对认识的夫妇和我一起品酒。丈夫喜欢喝Silver Oak,很久以前甚至参观过酒庄。我还请他们吃了晚餐——当然是牛排。The results could be summed up by that word that frustrates all wine drinkers: inconclusive. While I#39;d been impressed by how well the 32-year-old 1982 Alexander Valley Cabernet was holding up, with a still-firm acidity, soft tannins and a brown-sugared apple sort of fruit, my Silver Oak-loving friend was of a different opinion. He#39;s used to lots of young, luscious fruit, and thought it was #39;too old.#39; The fruit was faded and the notes were more earthy. 结果可以用那个让所有葡萄酒爱好者沮丧的词来总结:没有结论。我惊讶于32年陈酿的1982年Alexander Valley Cabernet能够保持得如此之好,酸度依然稳固,单宁柔和,红糖煎苹果般的果香,但我那位喜欢Silver Oak的朋友看法不同。他习惯浓郁的未成熟葡萄的甘甜果味,觉得这个“太老了”。这款酒的果味淡了,更具泥土芳香。We were all pleased by both of the 2008 Cabernets -- the wife#39;s and my favorite was the more restrained Alexander Valley, while the husband liked the Napa, which was a bit richer and more full-bodied than the Alexander Valley bottling. None of us much cared for the 2009 wines, which were both much oakier, the fruit sweeter and more overt. The 2009 Napa bottling in particular was decidedly young, but also tiring to drink -- it was sweet, with over- the-top ripeness. #39;And it#39;s certainly not cheap,#39; the wife said of the 0 price tag. 我们对两款2008年的解百纳都很满意——我和那位妻子最喜欢比较内敛的亚历山大谷,而那位丈夫喜欢纳帕,味道比亚历山大谷浓郁,酒体更饱满。我们都不太喜欢2009年的酒,橡木味都比较浓重,果味更甜也更明显。2009年的纳帕毫无疑问很年轻,但喝起来也很无聊——很甜,成熟的过头了。那位妻子评价这款110美元的葡萄酒说:“肯定也不便宜。”However sexy it might be to hate Silver Oak, I simply found that I couldn#39;t. Maybe it was because I was surprised by how well the 1982 wine showed at such an advanced age, or maybe it#39;s because I#39;ve had much worse wines. Or maybe just because it went so well with the steak. 无论对Silver Oak表示反感显得多酷,我发现我还是做不到。也许是因为我对那瓶1982年的酒过了这么多年仍然保持得这么好感到惊讶,也许是因为我尝过更糟糕的酒。又或许只是因为它和牛排是绝配。 /201404/285501If you’re middle-aged and miserable, don’t despair: Give it a decade or two and you’ll be feeling like a carefree young person again.如果你现在身处中年,迷惘痛苦,千万不要绝望:再等一二十年,你就又会像年轻人一样无忧无虑了。Researchers have revealed that life satisfaction peaks at 23 and 69. People in their early twenties overestimate their future life satisfaction by an average of around 10 per cent, before the disappointments of life kick in.研究人员发现,人在23岁和69岁时的生活满意数值达到最高点。在令人失望的生活到来之前,平均大约有10%的人会在二十出头时对未来生活的满意程度过于乐观。They face decades of declining expectation before hitting their lowest point in their mid-fifties, when regrets over unrealised dreams are at their greatest. Satisfaction levels finally start to rise again after 55 and peak once more at 69, according to a study by the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics.伦敦政经学院经济表现研究中心的调查表明,此后几十年中,人们对生活的期望会越来越低,直至五十五岁左右时满意度降到最低点。这时,他们会后悔没有在自己状态最好的时候实现曾经的梦想。但过了55岁,满意度曲线又会重新上升,在69岁时重回巅峰状态。Those aged 68 underestimate their future happiness by 4.5 per cent, meaning they no longer face disappointment, the researchers found. The findings suggest that actresses Emma Watson and Kristen Stewart, both 23, should relish this year.研究发现,只有4.5%的人到68岁时会低估他们的幸福程度,这意味着他们不再感到失望。根据这个研究,两位23岁的女演员艾玛·沃森和克里斯汀·斯图尔特都应该好好享受这一年。If the research is borne out they will be optimistic but are likely to face disappointment in the next four decades. Previous studies have found that human contentment follows a U-shaped pattern, with those in their early twenties and the retired ranking highest.如果该研究正确,那接下来40年里即使她们保持乐观心态,也更有可能遇到令人沮丧的事情。之前有研究显示,人们的幸福程度呈U形曲线状,刚刚二十几岁的年轻人和退休老人的幸福程度最高。The pattern has been observed in more than 50 nations and across class and financial divides. And a study by the National Academy of Sciences in the US found evidence that even great apes can suffer a mid-life crisis.这一曲线在50多个国家都适用,而且不分阶级、不分经济情况。美国国家科学院甚至发现就连高等类人猿也会受到“中年危机”的影响。The CEP paper, to be published this week, is the first to examine how our expectations compare to reality at different life stages. Researcher Hannes Schwandt, 30, analysed happiness levels for 23,161 Germans aged 17 to 85.经济表现研究中心的论文将于本周发表,这是第一份以人类现实年龄和理想生活预期作对比的研究报告。为此,30岁的研究者汉内斯·施瓦德调查了23161名17至85岁的德国人的幸福程度。Dr Schwandt, who is based at Princeton University in the US but is a visiting researcher at the London centre, said: ‘One theory is that the U-shape is driven by unmet aspirations which are painfully felt in midlife but beneficially abandoned later in life.施瓦德士本在美国普林斯顿大学工作,现在在伦敦客座研究员。他说:“有一种理论称,无法满足的欲望催生了U形曲线,这种痛苦在中年时期尤为强烈,但随着人慢慢变老,放弃一些追求,便又重新快乐起来了。”‘People in their fifties could learn from the elderly, who generally feel less regret. They should try not to be frustrated by their unmet expectations because they are probably not feeling much worse than their peers.’“五十多岁的人应该向比他们更老的人学习,大部分老人都不会后悔太多事情。不要因为没有达到预期而沮丧不安,因为他们的同龄人大概也处于相同状态。” /201408/317621浙江杭州在富阳市妇幼保健院体检收费标准

富阳做人流的费用需要多少里山镇妇女儿童医院地址 A New York man sitting in a car that had a loaded rifle, machete and a container of gasoline was charged on Friday with threatening to kill George W. Bush after professing a romantic interest in the former president#39;s oldest daughter, prosecutors said.Benjamin Smith, 44, of Pittsford in upstate New York was arrested in Manhattan by the U.S. Secret Service, according to a criminal complaint filed in federal court.一名男子因痴迷于美国前总统小布什的女儿芭芭拉·布什(Barbara Bush)对小布什加以恐吓、威胁,目前遭到警方指控和逮捕。;Bush will get his,; Smith screamed as he was taken into custody, according to the complaint. Later, when asked about his marital status, he told agents he was divorced and ;working on a relationship with Barbara Bush.;At a preliminary hearing, Assistant U.S. Attorney Andrea Griswold told U.S. Magistrate Judge Henry Pitman the government believes Smith was referring to the former president#39;s daughter and not Bush#39;s mother, who shares the same name.It is a crime under federal law to threaten a current or former president.On Thursday, the man#39;s mother called police to report she had found a threatening note in the home she shares with her son and that a rifle was also missing, the complaint said.该男子名为本杰明·史密斯(Benjamin Smith),他在车内放置了来福、弯刀和汽油,行至曼哈顿市中心并大喊:“布什会得到报应的”,随后被警方逮捕。史密斯的母亲承认,在其纽约州北部的家中找到了一张恐吓信,信中写道:“我将为布什工作并效命于五角大楼。我将成为屠龙勇士并抱得芭芭拉·布什归来。”史密斯在被问及婚姻状况时称:“我离过婚,目前并没有和任何人约会,但是我在努力追求芭芭拉·布什。”;I#39;m going to work for George W. Bush and the Pentagon,; the note said, according to the government. ;I have to slay a dragon and then Barbara Bush is mine.;The Secret Service tracked him using his cell phone to Manhattan, where they arrested him early Friday morning. It was not clear why Smith went to New York City or where the former president and his family were at the time.Smith#39;s defense lawyer, Peggy Cross-Goldenberg, said the note and Smith#39;s outbursts did not constitute a ;true threat.;The judge also conceded it was ;unclear; a jury would find Smith guilty.;Admittedly, there is some inconsistency in the notion that the way to win Barbara Bush#39;s affections is to kill her father,; Pitman said.对任何现任和前总统进行威胁都违反联邦法律,但是1月31日出席初次听会上的一位法官表示,并不确定陪审团是否会认定史密斯有罪。美国地方法官亨利·皮特曼(Henry Pitman)表示:“坦白来讲,为了赢得女儿的青睐而试图杀害人父的,这在情理上有些说不通。” /201402/274940鹿山街道妇女儿童医院预约挂号平台

鹿山街道妇女儿童医院治疗效果如何If an exercise wheel sits in a forest, will mice run on it?如果把跑轮放在森林里,小鼠会上去跑步吗?Every once in a while, science asks a simple question and gets a straightforward answer.科学时常会提出一个简单的问题,然后得到一个直截了当的。In this case, yes, they will. And not only mice, but also rats, shrews, frogs and slugs.这个问题的是,会。不仅小鼠会,大鼠、鼩鼱、青蛙和蛞蝓都会。True, the frogs did not exactly run, and the slugs probably ended up on the wheel by accident, but the mice clearly enjoyed it. That, scientists said, means that wheel-running is not a neurotic behavior found only in caged mice.当然,青蛙算不上在跑,蛞蝓可能也是偶然来到跑轮上的,但是小鼠明显是真的喜欢跑轮。科学家表示,这说明在跑轮上跑步并不是关在笼子里的老鼠才有的神经性举动。They like the wheel.它们喜欢跑轮。Two researchers in the Netherlands did an experiment that it seems nobody had tried before. They placed exercise wheels outdoors in a yard garden and in an area of dunes, and monitored the wheels with motion detectors and automatic cameras.荷兰的两名研究员做了一项似乎从来没人做过的实验。他们在室外的院子和一块沙地里放置了一些跑轮,并通过运动检测器和自动相机对这些跑轮进行监测。They were inspired by questions from animal welfare committees at universities about whether mice were really enjoying wheel-running, an activity used in all sorts of studies, or were instead like bears pacing in a cage, stressed and neurotic. Would they run on a wheel if they were free?他们的灵感来自一些大学的动物福利委员会所提出的问题。这些委员会质疑小鼠是否真的喜欢在轮子上跑步——所有研究都会用到这个活动,或者还是像在笼子里踱步的熊那样,出于压力和紧张。如果处于自由状态,它们还会在轮子上跑步吗?Now there is no doubt. Mice came to the wheels like human beings to a health club holding a spring membership sale. They made the wheels spin. They hopped on, hopped off and hopped back on.目前,这一点毫无疑问。到跑轮上跑步的小鼠,就像来到正在举行春季促销的健身俱乐部的人类一样。他们开始让轮子转动。它们跳上去、跳下来,然后再跳上去。;When I saw the first mice, I was extremely happy,; said Johanna H. Meijer at Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands. ;I had to laugh about the results, but at the same time, I take it very seriously. It#39;s funny, and it#39;s important at the same time.;“当我看见第一只小鼠时,我非常高兴,”荷兰莱顿大学医学中心(Leiden University Medical Center)的约翰娜·H·梅杰(Johanna H. Meijer)说。“这些结果不能不让我觉得可笑,但同时,我也会认真对待它。这很有趣,同时也很重要。”Dr. Meijer#39;s day job is as a ;brain electrophysiologist; studying biological rhythms in mice. She relished the chance to get out of the laboratory and study wild animals, and in a way that no one else had.梅杰的正职工作是研究小鼠生物节律的“脑电生理学家”。她非常享受走出实验室,以前所未有的方式研究野生动物的机会。She said Konrad Lorenz, the great-grandfather of animal behavior studies, once mentioned in a letter that some of his caged rats had escaped and then returned to his garden to use running wheels placed there.她说,动物行为研究的鼻祖康拉德·洛伦茨(Konrad Lorenz)曾在一封信中提到,有些被他关在笼子里的大鼠逃走后,又回到他的花园,到放在那里的跑轮上跑步。But, Dr. Meijer said, the Lorenz observation ;was one sentence.;但是,梅杰说,洛伦茨的观察“只是一句话”。For the experiment, the wheels were enclosed so that small animals could come and go but so that larger animals could not knock them over. Dr. Meijer set up motion sensors and automatic cameras. Several years and 12,000 snippets of later, she and Yuri Robbers, also a Leiden researcher, reported the results. They were released online Tuesday in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.为了进行试验,跑轮被围了起来,这样小动物就能来去自由,大动物则无法把它们撞翻。梅杰安放了运动传感器和自动摄影机。她和同为莱顿研究人员的尤里·罗伯斯(Yuri Robbers)报告称,几年后,他们获得了1.2万个视频片段。周二,这些结果被公布在了《英国皇家学报B》(Proceedings of the Royal Society B.)的网站上。Gene D. Block, chancellor of the University of California, Los Angeles, was not involved with the paper but knows Dr. Meijer and had seen the wheel set up in her garden. He said the study made it clear that wheel-running is ;some type of rewarding behavior; and ;probably not driven by stress or anxiety.;加州大学洛杉矶分校校长吉恩·D·布洛克(Gene D. Block)与这篇论文无关,但是他认识梅杰,而且还见过她在花园里放置的跑轮。他说,研究表明在跑轮上跑步是“一种有益的行为”,“可能不是出于压力或焦虑”。Mice accounted for 88 percent of the wheel-running events, and spent one minute to 18 on the wheel. The other animals each accounted for less than 1 percent. Frogs, though there were very few, were seen to get on the wheel, get off and get back on.在所有在跑轮上跑步的动物中,小鼠占了88%,在跑轮上花费的时间为1到18分钟。其他每种动物所占的比例不到1%。虽然数量不多,但是我们也看到青蛙爬上跑轮,爬下来,然后又爬回去。Russell Foster, a circadian rhythm researcher at Oxford University, said he the paper and sent it out to other scientists on behalf of the Proceedings and was delighted when peer reviews from other scientists were positive.罗素·福斯特(Russell Foster)是牛津大学(Oxford University)的一名生理节律研究员。他说他读过这篇论文,并代表《英国皇家学报B》把它发给了其他科学家。其他科学家都对此持肯定态度,这让他感到高兴。Marc Bekoff, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Colorado who is active in the animal welfare movement, said in an email that he thought the paper did show that wheel-running could be a ;voluntary activity,; but that mice in labs may be doing more of it because of the stress of confinement.马克·贝科夫(Marc Bekoff)是科罗拉多大学(University of Colorado)的一名生态学和进化生物学教授,积极参与动物福利运动。他在电子邮件中说,他认为这篇论文的确表明跑轮运动可能是一种“自愿活动”,但是实验室的老鼠可能会因为禁闭的压力而进行更多跑轮运动。;Wild bears will often pace back and forth,; he wrote, ;but in captivity, the rate of doing it seems to be greatly heightened.;“野熊经常会来回踱步,”他写道,“但是如果被关起来,他们踱步的频率似乎就会大幅度增加。”As to why the mice, frogs or perhaps even slugs run, or move, on the wheel, Dr. Meijer said she thought that ;there is an intrinsic motivation for animals, or should I say organisms, to be active.;至于为什么小鼠、青蛙或者甚至连蛞蝓都会在跑轮上跑步或移动,梅杰说她认为“动物天生具有行动的欲望,或者说保持活跃的机制”。Huda Akil, co-director of the Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute at the University of Michigan, who has studied reward systems, said: ;It#39;s not a surprise. All you have to do is watch a bunch of little kids in a playground or a park. They run and run and run.;研究过奖励机制的密歇根大学(University of Michigan)分子和行为神经研究中心(Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute)主任胡达·阿基勒(Huda Akil)说:“这并不意外。你需要做的就是看一群小孩在操场或公园里玩耍。他们会一直跑,一直跑,一直跑。”Dr. Akil said that in humans, running activates reward pathways in the brain, although she pointed out that there are innate differences in temperament in all sorts of animals, including humans. Rats that do not like to run can be bred. And plenty of people do all they can to avoid jogging, cycling and elliptical machines.阿基勒说,在人类身上,跑步运动可以激活大脑里的奖励回路,虽然她指出所有动物的秉性都存在固有的不同,人类也是如此。可以培育出不爱跑的大鼠。而极尽可能地避免慢跑、骑车和玩椭圆机的人类也多得是。Presumably, the same is true of wild mice. While some were setting the wheel on fire with their exertions, others, out of camera range, may have been sprawled out on the mouse equivalent of a lounge chair, shaking their whiskers in dismay and disbelief.大概对于野鼠而言也是如此。虽然有些老鼠正在跑轮上奋力奔跑,但是那些不在摄像机覆盖范围内的老鼠,可能正慵懒地躺在老鼠版的休闲椅上,在惊恐或犹疑中抖着胡须。 /201409/326501 富阳市第二人民医院妇科体检富阳一般人流多少钱啊

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