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来源:度时讯    发布时间:2019年09月21日 12:56:34    编辑:admin         

The ordinary chicken egg is one the world#39;s most perfect foods. Eggs are a cheap, abundant, delicious source of protein. They#39;re also extremely flexible, capable of performing as many as 22 different culinary functions in a wide array of foods.貌不惊人的鸡蛋是世界上最完美的食品之一。鸡蛋不仅是便宜、丰富且美味的蛋白质来源,而且可以变化多端,能够在大量的食品中发挥多达22种不同的烹饪功能。In cakes, eggs trap gasses in the batter, creating a light, airy texture. In mayonnaise, egg yolks stabilize an emulsion of oil and an acid. In a meatloaf, they bind disparate ingredients together. In a custard, they thicken liquids to form a gel.在制作蛋糕时,鸡蛋能锁住面糊中的空气,制造出轻盈而蓬松的质地。在做蛋黄酱时,蛋黄能稳定油酸乳状液。在做肉饼时,鸡蛋将不同的原料黏合在一起。在制作奶黄时,鸡蛋能使液体凝固成胶状。There#39;s only one problem with eggs. #39;They are fantastically inefficient, #39; said Josh Tetrick, the founder of a San Francisco food-technology startup called Hampton Creek Foods, only he uses an F-word other than #39;fantastically.#39;鸡蛋只有一个缺点。旧金山食品科技初创企业Hampton Creek Foods的创始人蒂特里克(Josh Tetrick)说,它们的效率极为低下。Egg production is the fastest-growing segment of intensive agriculture as demand skyrockets in emerging economies. Mr. Tetrick points out that 1.8 trillion eggs are laid globally each year, and chicken feed--much of it soy and corn, which require vast amounts of land, water, and fossil fuels to grow--accounts for 70% of the cost of an egg.随着新兴经济体鸡蛋需求的飙升,生产鸡蛋成了集约农业中增长最快的领域。蒂特里克指出,全球每年生产的鸡蛋为1.8万亿个,而其中鸡饲料就占到鸡蛋成本的70%。鸡饲料大多为大豆和玉米,生长过程中需要大量土地、水和矿物燃料。Mr. Tetrick thinks he can do better. He has secured financing from some of the tech industry#39;s largest venture backers to do what most egg-loving foodies, myself included, consider both sacrilegious and impossible: He wants to replace the chicken egg with plant-based protein sources.蒂特里克认为他能制造出比鸡蛋更好的食品。他已从科技行业规模最大的几家风投公司那里获得了融资,打算将这些资金用来做一件在大多数爱好鸡蛋的美食家(包括我自己在内)看来是亵渎神明也是不可能的事情,那就是用来自植物的蛋白质取代鸡蛋。Actually, that#39;s underselling the goal: Hampton Creek wants to #39;surpass#39; the egg, to make eggless foods that taste better, are free of cholesterol, last longer on the shelf, are more ecologically sustainable and humane, and are far cheaper than their eggy counterparts.实际上,说取代还是低估了Hampton Creek的目标。该公司希望“超越”鸡蛋,不用鸡蛋做出口感更好、没有胆固醇、保存时间更长、从生态方面更加可持续和更人道的食品,而且这些食品的价格要比用鸡蛋做出来的食品便宜得多。This is a gargantuan goal, and Mr. Tetrick concedes that the company isn#39;t close to achieving it. But Hampton Creek is far enough along to illustrate the power of what you might call #39;food engineering.#39;这是一个宏伟的目标,蒂特里克也承认,他的公司还没有接近实现这一目标。不过,Hampton Creek已经做足了功课,充分展示了你可以称之为“食品工程”的力量。To create its eggless products, the company#39;s battalion of biochemists, food scientists, and software engineers are modeling their efforts on processes first used in drug companies and the tech industry. If their plan works--and my taste buds suggest it might--Hampton Creek may show how the software and biotech industries#39; innovation techniques might alter sectors far beyond.为了制造出不含鸡蛋的产品,该公司由生物化学家、食品科学家和软件工程师组成的团队正在模仿最初用于制药公司和科技行业的研发程序。如果他们的计划能成功(我的味蕾暗示他们或许会成功),Hampton Creek或许将向世人展示软件和生物科技行业的创新科技将如何改变众多其他行业。Take Hampton Creek#39;s cookie dough, which will go on sale in February. In a blind test, I was able to tell the difference between Mr. Tetrick#39;s cookies and those containing eggs.说说Hampton Creek将在2月份推向市场的曲奇饼吧。我在一次盲试中能够尝出蒂特里克做的曲奇和用鸡蛋做的曲奇之间的不同之处。The eggy ones were slightly browner. Yet I preferred the eggless cookie#39;s taste and texture. They weren#39;t too sweet, were slightly salty, and achieved just the right balance between crunchy and chewy.加入了鸡蛋的曲奇略为粗糙一些。不过,我更喜欢不加鸡蛋的曲奇的味道和质感。这些曲奇不是太甜,略带咸味,而且咀嚼起来的脆软程度正好合适。And the cookies are almost a side-benefit of the dough. Because the dough has no eggs, you don#39;t even have to bother baking it. Indeed, Hampton Creek#39;s product is called Eat the Dough. It comes in a carton with a spoon set in the lid, like something you#39;d buy from the ice-cream man.而且曲奇可以说是面团的附带产品。由于面团中不含鸡蛋,你甚至都没必要去烘焙面团。实际上,Hampton Creek的产品叫做“吃面团”( Eat the Dough)。这种产品装在纸盒中,盒盖上附有勺子,和你从冰淇淋店买的冰淇淋类似。Mr. Tetrick grew up in Birmingham, Ala., on a diet of #39;chicken wings and gristle.#39; He#39;s now a vegan and, while animal welfare was part of his motivation for founding Hampton Creek, he has been careful to play down that goal for his company . #39;That#39;s a losing proposition in the marketplace,#39; he said.蒂特里克在亚拉巴马州伯明翰长大,经常吃“鸡翅和脆骨”。他现在是素食主义者。虽然动物福利是他创办Hampton Creek的动力之一,但他为了公司谨慎地淡化这一目标。他说,动物福利在市场上是个日薄西山的主题。For Mr. Tetrick there are many more hard-nosed reasons for creating a better egg substitute. To borrow a favorite tech-industry slight, eggs can#39;t scale.对于蒂特里克来说,创造更好的鸡蛋替代品还有众多实际的理由。借用科技行业常说的一句话,鸡蛋无法规模化。He argues that they require too many resources for their production to grow indefinitely. And he has persuaded several tech luminaries to join his mission. Hampton Creek#39;s investors include Khosla Ventures, Bill Gates, and Peter Thiel#39;s Founders Fund.他说,鸡蛋的生产需要太多的资源才能无限增长。他已经说了几位科技行业明星加入他的使命。Hampton Creek的投资者包括科斯拉创投(Khosla Ventures)、比尔?盖茨(Bill Gates)和彼得?蒂尔(Peter Thiel)的创达基金(Founders Fund)。Altogether, Hampton Creek has raised million, with which Mr. Tetrick believes it can eventually render eggs #39;obsolete#39; across every dimension, including price. At the moment, Hampton Creek#39;s egg replacement costs about 39 cents a pound, about half the price of a pound of liquid eggs.Hampton Creek总计已经筹资600万美元,蒂特里克相信其最终能凭借这笔资金在各方面淘汰鸡蛋,包括价格。目前,Hampton Creek的鸡蛋替代品价格约为每磅39美分,约为一磅去壳蛋价格的一半。#39;We want to drive the price through the floor so radically that it would be silly to consider anything else,#39; he said.他说,我们希望将价格压到极低,以至考虑其他任何产品都是愚蠢的。How can Hampton Creek do that? Josh Klein, its director of biochemistry Ramp;D, likens the company#39;s egg-replacing strategy to the process a drug company might use to fight disease. Every day, the lab screens dozens of new plant species in search of applications that might be similar to those of eggs. Armed with the database, they mix and match plants to create new, eggless foods. Then, they prototype, taste, and repeat.Hampton Creek怎样才能实现这一点?该公司生化研发主任约什?克莱恩(Josh Klein)将其取代鸡蛋的策略比作药品公司可能用于对抗疾病的过程。实验室每天筛选数十种新的植物种类,寻找可能与鸡蛋相似的用途。他们利用数据库,将不同植物混合配对,创造新的不含鸡蛋的食品。然后他们制造出原型、品尝并重复这个过程。In a way, Hampton Creek is treating food like software, borrowing various bits of code from different kinds of plants.在某种程度上,Hampton Creek是将食品当成了软件,从不同种类的植物那里借用了不同的代码。It#39;s a novel, mathematical way to think about food--one that confounds the sensibilities of those who reject #39;processed foods#39; but may ultimately realize the dream of providing sustainable, tasty, healthy and affordable food for the entire planet.这是一种思考食物的新奇数学方式――它令那些拒绝“加工食品”的人感到挫败,但或许最终会实现为地球上的所有人提供可持续、美味、健康、负担得起的食品的梦想。So far the results are quite good. Hampton Creek discovered a specific kind of yellow pea that has fantastic powers of emulsion, leading to a mayonnaise that the firm claims beats leading brands in taste tests.到目前为止,实验结果很不错。Hampton Creek发现了一种特殊的具有极强乳化效力的黄色豆子,该公司声称,用这种豆子制造的蛋黄酱在品尝测试中打败了领先品牌的产品。I found the texture exquisitely creamy and, compared with eggy store-bought mayo, Hampton Creek#39;s mayo had a cleaner, less aggressive flavor profile.我发现这种酱的口感极为柔滑,而且比起带有蛋腥味的市售蛋黄酱,Hampton Creek制造的蛋黄酱的口味较为清淡,不那么冲。Mr. Tetrick says that, in large quantities, he can make eggless mayo 10% cheaper than conventional egg mayo. Driven by price, many Whole Foods stores across the country have switched to Hampton Creek#39;s mayo in their store-prepared foods (like the potato salad). But at retail, Hampton Creek#39;s mayo isn#39;t very cheap: It sells for .50 or .49 a jar at most Whole Foods stores. That#39;s about the same price as egg-based mayo, but Mr. Tetrick says that Hampton Creek has room to cut its prices substantially.蒂特里克说,如果大批生产的话,不含蛋的蛋黄酱可以比传统蛋黄酱便宜10%。在价格驱动下,美国各地很多Whole Foods门店都在自制食品(比如土豆沙拉)中改用了Hampton Creek的蛋黄酱。但Hampton Creek的蛋黄酱零售价格不算便宜:在大多数Whole Foods门店的售价为每罐3.5或4.49美元。这与用鸡蛋制作的蛋黄酱差不多,但蒂特里克说,Hampton Creek还有大幅降价的空间。The company#39;s next goal is to make an eggless liquid that, when fried, turns into scrambled eggs. Right now, the product is in the prototype stage. One of Hampton Creek#39;s scientists cooked up a plate for me, and I found the fake scramble slightly rubbery and grainy, more like a spongy crepe than an egg.该公司的下一个目标是制造一种可以做成炒鸡蛋的不含蛋液体。目前,这一产品尚处于原型阶段。Hampton Creek的一位科学家为我炒了一盘,我觉得这种仿制的炒鸡蛋有点韧性,吃起来疙疙瘩瘩的,更像是蓬松的可丽饼,而不像鸡蛋。But Mr. Tetrick says he believes that it won#39;t be long till the company creates the perfect eggless scramble. #39;The chicken is great, but it isn#39;t getting any better,#39; he said. In other words, it#39;s a sitting duck.但蒂特里克说,他认为公司用不了多久就能创造出完美的无蛋炒鸡蛋。他说,鸡蛋很不错,但已经没有改进余地。换句话说,要胜过它是轻而易举的。 /201311/266178。

Chinese stockpiles of agricultural commodities have hit historically high levels, complicating efforts to phase out a policy of state buying without causing a steep fall in prices, according to Beijing’s most senior agricultural adviser.按照中国政府最资深农业顾问的说法,中国农业大宗商品库存达到历史高位,这让政府很难做到在不导致价格大幅下跌的前提下逐步取消国家收购政策。Government buying of cotton, wheat, corn, soya, sugar and rice at above market prices has encouraged farmers to grow strategic crops. But the practice has led to bloated warehouses, smuggling and an increase in cheaper imports.近年政府以高于市场的价格买入棉花、小麦、玉米、大豆、糖和大米,这种做法鼓励农民种植具有战略重要地位的农作物。然而,这也导致了库存过高、走私行为、以及相对廉价的进口商品的增长。China has amassed 60 per cent of the world’s cotton stocks, prompting an announcement by Beijing last year that it would release its cotton holdings.目前,中国的棉花库存占全球60%。这一局面促使中国政府在去年宣布,它将释放其棉花库存。The bigger the stockpiles grow, the harder it is for the government to extricate itself. Dumping the glut into the market would reverberate through the international sector because China has become a large buyer of agricultural commodities.库存增长得越高,政府脱身的难度就越大。由于中国已经成为农业大宗商品的大买家,将过剩商品投入市场,会在国际市场引发震荡。Policy makers fear that releasing inventories would depress prices and push farmers towards more lucrative cash crops, increasing reliance on imports.中国政策制定者担心,释放库存会抑制作物价格,促使农民转向更有利可图的经济作物,从而增加对进口的依赖。China’s grain harvest has risen every year for more than a decade, as high prices have encouraged farmers to grow strategic crops. But costs have remained high and the agricultural sector is uncompetitive compared with other countries.由于高价格鼓励了战略性作物的种植,10多年来中国谷物收成年年增长。然而,中国的农作物种植成本居高不下,农业部门的竞争力弱于其他国家。“Since last year we haven’t raised the minimum price [for wheat and rice]. That sends a signal to the farmers,” said Chen Xiwen, director of the office of the central rural work leading group, at a press conference to explain rural policies for the year.在解释今年农村政策的记者会上,中央农村工作领导小组办公室主任陈锡文表示,中国政府自去年以来没有提高小麦和稻谷的最低收购价,此举向农民发出了信号。By capping the state-set minimum purchase price as costs rise, the government hoped to bring it into line with market prices, Mr Chen said. But the steep drop in oil prices meant growers should still have comfortable margins this year, he added. “We just want it to stabilise — that’s all.”陈锡文表示,通过在成本攀升的同时封顶政府设定的最低收购价,中国政府希望让收购价靠拢市场价格。不过,他补充说,油价的暴跌意味着今年农民们仍可达到较高的利润率。“我们只是希望价格稳定下来——这就是我们的目的。” /201502/358436。

HONG KONG — American allies in Asia on Wednesday welcomed a ed States Senate vote that appeared to clear the way for a final round of negotiations over a sweeping trans-Pacific trade pact and may have made it easier for governments to make politically risky concessions.香港——周三,美国的亚洲盟友对联邦参议院的表决结果表示欢迎。这一结果看来为一项广泛的跨太平洋贸易协定开展最后一轮谈判扫清了障碍,而且可能会令各国政府更易于做出带有政治风险的让步。Japan’s minister responsible for trade negotiations, Akira Amari, said a congressional victory for President Obama could open the way for a deal as soon as next month.日本负责贸易谈判的大臣甘利明(Akira Amari)表示,奥巴马总统在国会获取的胜利或许会为最快于下月达成协议铺平道路。“It’s possible we could have a ministerial-level meeting in July and conclude a broad agreement,” he told reporters. Any agreement would then require putting legislation in each country into effect, followed by approval there, which could take months.“我们有可能在7月举行部长级会议,达成一项广泛的协议,”他告诉记者。无论内容如何,协议均需各个国家的立法机构批准并实施,而这个过程可能需要好几个月的时间。China, which is not among the 12 nations negotiating the deal and had proposed a competing agreement, refrained from criticizing the vote.中国并未包含在参与这项协定谈判的12个国家中,并已提出了一个与之竞争的协议。它没有对参议院的此次表决提出批评。For Mr. Obama, the deal, which appeared headed toward passage on Wednesday, represents an important element of the so-called pivot to Asia to help maintain ed States influence as countries grow increasingly dependent on trade with China. For American allies, it offers the political cover to commit to trade concessions, removing the risk that Congress might reject the negotiated deal.看起来,该协定在本周三离获得通过更进一步。对于奥巴马来说,它是“重返亚洲”战略的重要一环。就在各国日益依靠对华贸易的时候,美国实施了“重返亚洲”战略,以维持自身在该地区的影响力。对于美国的盟友来说,它为承诺做出贸易让步提供了政治掩护,消除了美国国会拒绝接受谈判协议的风险。China was initially wary of the trade measure, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, seeing it several years ago as potentially giving an advantage to American allies’ business over Chinese companies in ed States markets. But those objections have faded as China has begun energetically pursuing its own regional trade agreements with East Asian neighbors.中国起初对这项名为“跨太平洋伙伴关系”(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的贸易协定持警惕态度,头几年的时候认为它可能会使来自美国盟友的公司在美国市场上比中国公司更占优势。然而,随着中国开始积极与东亚邻国达成区域性的贸易协议,这种反对的声音逐渐消退。“Even if T.P.P. is done, I don’t think it will pose any threat to China — we follow our own efforts,” said He Weiwen, a former Chinese commerce ministry official who is now a director of the influential China-ed States-European Union Study Center at the China Association of International Trade in Beijing.曾担任商务部官员的中国国际贸易学会中美欧研究中心主任何伟文表示,“即便达成了TPP协定,我觉得也不会对中国构成威胁——我们要走自己的道路。”The Senate voted on Tuesday to end debate on legislation that would give Mr. Obama and his successor the authority for the next six years to negotiate trade agreements and submit them to Congress with no amendments or filibusters allowed.参议院周二的表决是为了结束围绕授予奥巴马总统及其继任者贸易谈判权的立法所展开的辩论。这项授权将允许总统在接下来的六年时间里就贸易协定开展谈判,并将协议提交给国会,而国会无权修订最后的协定,也无法再实施冗长演说拖延战术。Ending debate required 60 votes, which the Senate’s Republican leadership barely mustered with limited support from Democrats. Passage of the actual legislation requires only 51 votes and would send the bill to the president, as the House of Representatives has aly approved it.参议院的共和党领导层获得了民主党人的有限持,勉强凑够了结束辩论所需的60票。实际的授权只要51票便能获得通过,然后就可以提交给总统签署,因为众议院已经批准同样的提案。Like previous presidents, who have had similar trade negotiating authority, Mr. Obama contended that the authorization was necessary so other countries would make all available concessions in talks with American trade negotiators, instead of reserving some in case Congress rewrote a deal.前几任总统也拥有类似的贸易谈判权。与他们一样,奥巴马提出,这种授权是必要的,如此一来,其他国家才会在与美国贸易谈判代表进行协商的时候做出所有可能的让步,而不是有所保留,以防美国国会改写协议。But American labor unions, environmental activists and other critics bitterly opposed passage of the negotiating authority, contending that it undermined the ability of Congress to stop administration negotiators from working with large corporations to craft deals that might not be advantageous to workers or the environment.不过,美国国内的工会组织、环保人士及其他一些持批评态度的人士强烈反对通过授予总统谈判权的法案,认为这会削弱国会阻止政府谈判代表与大企业携手达成可能会对劳动者或环境不利的协议的能力。Final congressional approval of the legislation would clear the way for a difficult final round of talks on the details of the trade agreement, which would remove trade barriers from Canada and Chile to Australia, Singapore and Japan.国会最终通过这项授权会为开启最后一轮有关TPP细节的艰难谈判扫清障碍。该协议将会移除从加拿大、智利到澳大利亚、新加坡和日本的贸易壁垒。Japan has been an especially difficult negotiating partner for the ed States because it wants to preserve trade barriers on rice, pork and other agricultural products. Tokyo has indicated that it is prepared to compromise but, fearful of Japan’s restive farm lobby, it has refused to discuss details in public as long as it was unclear whether Mr. Obama had the power to conclude a deal.对于美国来说,日本是一个特别难对付的洽谈伙伴,因为日本希望保留大米、猪肉及其他一些农产品的贸易壁垒。东京方面已经表明,日本准备做出让步,但由于担心强硬的本国农业游说团体,只要尚不确定奥巴马是否有权达成协议,日本就拒绝公开探讨细节。Another difficult question, which comes up for practically every free trade agreement, lies in so-called rules of origin: how to determine which goods are really made predominantly within the free-trade region and therefore qualify for tariff removal and other preferential trade access.另一个难题几乎每项自由贸易协议都会遇到,那就是所谓的“原产地规则”:如何确定哪些商品真的是在自由贸易区制造的,因此有资格免除关税,并获得其他优惠贸易待遇。Under the North American Free Trade Agreement, for example, garments do not just need to be sewn in North America to cross borders without being subject to tariffs; the garments generally need to be made from fabric that was woven in North America, and the fabric itself must be woven from yarn that was made in North America. That rule was written to prevent Mexican manufacturers from buying lots of precut, cheaper fabric from China and elsewhere and assembling it into inexpensive shirts for duty-free shipment to the ed States.例如,根据北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)的规定,要想免除关税,装类产品不仅需要在北美缝制,通常还需要由北美的布料制成,而这些布料本身必须由北美生产的纱线制成。制定这项规定是为了防止墨西哥生产商从中国等地方购买大量预先裁剪的便宜布料,再利用这些织物缝制成便宜的成衣,运往美国,而不用交税。The Trans-Pacific Partnership includes Vietnam, a large garment-manufacturing nation that relies heavily on fabric imported from China. The negotiations pose the next battleground in a decades-long fight. The American textile industry consistently lobbies for the trade status of garments to be determined by where the material was made, not just where garments were sewn.TPP谈判国中包括越南。这个装生产大国严重依赖从中国进口的布料。相关谈判为这场长达几十年的争斗开辟了另一个战场。美国纺织业一直在开展游说活动,希望装的贸易地位由原材料的产地决定,而不仅仅是缝制成衣的地点。But large retailers and fashion brands want to link the trade status only to where garments are sewn, making it easier to use low-cost Chinese fabrics.不过,大型零售商和时尚品牌希望这种贸易地位只由成衣产地决定,更易于它们使用成本较低的中国布料。China’s trade policy analysts are eager to scrutinize the language of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership pact as soon as it is completed and released, to determine how it might actually affect Chinese exporters, Mr. He said.何伟文表示,这12个国家一达成并公布TPP协定,中国的贸易政策分析人士就会马上细读协定条文,从而判断实际上它会如何影响中国出口商。 /201506/383097。

China will create three new free trade zones modelled on one established a year ago in Shanghai as the government tries to support lacklustre trade and boost slowing growth in the world’s second-largest economy.中国将新增三个自贸区,仿照一年前成立的上海自贸区。政府正试图在世界第二大经济体撑低迷的贸易,提振不断放缓的经济增长。The three new zones will be established in the southern and eastern provinces of Guangdong and Fujian and in the northern port city of Tianjin, China’s state council said.中国国务院表示,新自贸区将设在南方的广东省、东部的福建省,以及北方港口城市天津。Shanghai’s free trade zone, or FTZ, which opened in September 2013, was heralded as a laboratory for ambitious free market reforms that would lift everything from financial and currency restrictions to administrative controls on foreign investment.上海自由贸易区于2013年9月挂牌成立,它曾被誉为一场雄心勃勃的自由市场改革实验,将解除各种管制,从金融和外汇管制,到针对外商投资的行政控制。But investors have been mostly disappointed by the zone, saying it provides almost no advantages for foreign or domestic companies operating there.但投资者大多对这个自贸区感到失望,称其对在里面运营的国内外公司几乎没提供任何优势。There are virtually no business or investment activities permitted in the Shanghai zone that are not also allowed in the rest of China, and the reforms that have been announced so far have been tiny and incremental.在上海自贸区内获准进行的商业或投资活动,基本上在中国境内其他地方也可进行,而且已经宣布的改革迄今是小打小闹和循序渐进的。The zone has also faced opposition from local officials, as well as some ministries in charge of financial and economic oversight, and an alleged corruption scandal saw the removal of one of its most senior officials.除了一些负责金融和经济控管的部委反对之外,上海自贸区还面临着地方官员的反对,而自贸区的一位高官因涉嫌卷入一场腐败丑闻已被撤职。 /201412/348822。

South Korean military divers worked into darkness Wednesday to search for close to 300 people missing after a ferry sank near the country#39;s southwest coast, in what many fear will become one of the nation#39;s worst passenger-ship disasters.为了寻找在客轮事故中失踪的近300人,韩国潜水兵周三一直工作至天黑。此前这艘客轮在韩国西南海岸附近沉没,许多人担心这起事件将成为韩国最严重的客轮事故之一。Most of those missing are 16- and 17-year-old students from a high school near Seoul who were headed for a spring vacation, officials said. Murky waters and fast currents hampered the search for people as ships and aircraft scoured the area during the day.官员们说,大部分失踪者是首尔附近一所中学16、17岁的学生,当时这些学生正在赶赴春假活动。当天船只和飞机在相关区域展开搜索,而浑浊的海水和急流却妨碍了搜救活动。As the day unfolded, a drama that played out on national television took on increasingly nightmarish proportions. Parents of the students on the trip said they were initially informed by the coast guard that all had been rescued. Later, local media reports said most of them were safe, but by evening it became clear that just 75 of the 325 students who were on board were among the rescued.随着时间的推移,国家电视台的相关报道越来越悲观。船上学生的家长们说,最初海岸警卫队告诉他们所有学生都已获救,随后地方媒体报道称多数学生安全,但到了晚上,情况才变的清楚――船上325名学生中只有75人获救。There were 462 passengers and crew on board. Four people were confirmed dead, coast guard officials said, and at least 174 were rescued.这艘客轮载有462名乘客和船员。海岸警卫队官员说,目前有四人确认死亡,至少有174人获救。The passenger ferry was traveling to the resort island of Jeju from a port near Seoul when it flipped over and sank in just two hours. The cause of the disaster wasn#39;t clear.这艘船是在从首尔附近的一个港口驶向济州岛途中发生倾覆,并在两小时内沉没。目前还不清楚事故原因。The ship sent out a distress signal around 9 a.m. local time close to the island of Jindo, off the southwest coast of the peninsula, where it capsized.当地时间上午9点前后,客轮在朝鲜半岛西南海域的珍岛附近(发生倾覆的地点)发出求救信号。Survivors spoke of a loud thumping sound and then a sudden lurch by the boat to one side. #39;Students were tumbling in all directions,#39; survivor Kim Hong-kyong, 58, told South Korea#39;s Yonhap News.幸存者说在一声巨响后,船突然向一侧倾斜。58岁的幸存者Kim Hong-kyong对韩国联合通讯社说,学生朝着各个方向摔倒。Teams of divers searched the ship in relays as concerns rose that many of the passengers and crew may have been caught in the vessel as it rolled over. Only a small part of the bow of the ship remained above the waterline.潜水队轮换对这艘船进行搜救,人们愈发担忧客轮倾覆时许多乘客和船员可能被困在船内。目前这艘客轮只有船头的一小部分还露在水面上方。In the initial rescue effort, from local TV stations showed South Korean navy forces clambering across the walls of the ship as it lay on its side, pulling passengers through hatches and windows. Helicopters lifted survivors away.当地电视台播放的画面显示,在最初的救援过程中,韩国海军在客轮一侧沉入水中时爬过船舷将乘客从舱口和窗内拽出来,并用直升机将他们救走。Other passengers emerged from the ship after it had almost fully rolled over near the waterline and scrambled onto small boats. Air escaping from the sinking ship created a huge spray.其他乘客在客轮几乎完全倾覆后出现在客轮吃水线附近,仓促爬上救生小船。客轮沉没时从船体内冒出的气体引发巨大水花。The USS Bonhomme Richard, which had been on patrol in the Yellow Sea, joined the rescue effort.在黄海巡逻的“好人理查德号”( USS Bonhomme Richard)也加入到救援中。Most of the passengers were students from Danwon High School near Seoul, traveling to Jeju for a brief vacation. Students from their level at the school take a spring excursion before the pressure of college entrance examinations takes over a year later.船上多数乘客是首尔附近檀园高中(Danwon High School)的学生,他们当时正乘船前往济州岛度假。该校这个年纪的学生通常在面临高考压力前的一年举行一次春游。#39;Other kids tripped over and hit themselves against the compartments of the cabin,#39; a 16-year-old survivor identified only by her family name, Jeong, told Yonhap.一名姓Jeong的16岁幸存者对韩国联合通讯社说,其他学生都摔倒了,撞上穿舱内的物体。Mr. Kim said he and other passengers made a rope out of curtain cloth to pull kids up from lower levels of the boat. Other kids remained behind because they were advised by the ship#39;s crew to wear life vests and wait for the right time for their rescue, he said.Kim说,他和其他乘客用窗帘做了一根绳子将下层的孩子拽上来。他说,其他孩子呆在原地,因为船员建议他们穿上救生衣,等待救援。Parents quickly gathered at the high school seeking news about the sinking. In chaotic scenes at the school auditorium, some yelled at school officials and frantically tried to make phone calls to their children.学生父母很快聚集在这所高中寻求沉船事件的有关消息。学校礼堂场面十分混乱,有人对校方人员叫嚷,并疯狂地给自己的孩子拨打电话。One woman shouted: #39;they [the teachers] should hold responsibility if anything happens to my son.#39; Another burst into tears upon hearing the news of one student#39;s death.一名女子喊道,如果儿子出什么事,他们(教师)应该负责。另一个人在听到一名学生遇难的消息后哭了起来。Kang Eun-gyung, the aunt of one of the students on the trip, said she was worried about the possibility of people being trapped inside the hull of the ship. #39;I called my nephew#39;s mobile phone time and time again but I couldn#39;t talk to him. Maybe he dropped his phone in the sea. I just hope he#39;s OK,#39; she said.一名学生的姑姑Kang Eun-gyung说,她担心人们有可能被困在船舱内。她说,她一次次拨打侄子的电话,但无法拨通,也许他的手机掉到海里了。她说,只希望他安然无恙。With details about survivors haphazard, about 200 family members took buses provided by the school to Jindo, where many of the survivors were taken. The high school became the site of a makeshift vigil as family members, school staff, journalists and other students mingled in the brightly lit hallways.由于幸存者的相关细节不明朗,大约200名船上人员家属乘坐校方提供的大巴前往珍岛,许多幸存者都已被送到那里。这所高中已成为一个临时蹲守点,灯火通明的大厅里有家属、校方人员、记者以及其他学生。On a white board in the faculty office, someone was keeping a running chronology of the traumatic day in scribbled black marker.有人在教研室的白板上用黑色记号笔潦草地写下了沉船事故当天的事件过程时间表。At 10:32 a.m., less than two hours after the ship sent out its distress signal, the handwritten note : #39;As long as the kids aren#39;t in shock, we can rescue 100% of them!#39;上午10:32,也就是在轮船发出求救信号不到两个小时之后,一条手书信息的内容是:只要孩子们不发生恐慌,他们就能100%获救。Authorities said that changes in the number of passengers and crew that had been rescued were due to repeat counting of some figures. Of the four confirmed deaths, one body was of a female crew member and one male high-school student. The others hadn#39;t been identified.韩国当局表示,乘客和船员获救人数的变化是因为有时出现了重复计数。在已确认的四名遇难者中有一名女性船员和一名高中男生。另外两名尚未辨明身份。Survivors with broken bones and other injuries were taken to nearby hospitals. Two Filipinos working on the ship were confirmed as rescued, the Philippines Foreign Ministry said.出现骨折和其他损伤的幸存者被送往附近医院。菲律宾外交部表示,两名在船上工作的菲律宾人已确认获救。The 425-kilometer route of the ferry from Incheon to Jeju is one of the most common in South Korea. The ship, a 6,825-ton vessel named Sewol--meaning #39;time and tide#39; in Korean--could carry up to 921 passengers and was operated by Chonghaejin Marine Co. The company plies the route twice a week.这艘航行在从仁川到济州425公里航线上的渡轮是韩国最普通的渡轮。这艘6,825吨级名为“岁月”号的渡轮最多可容纳921名乘客,由Chonghaejin Marine Co.公司运营。该客轮每周航行两次。The coast guard said weather conditions were clear and calm in the area where the ship sank, with visibility also good. An official at Cheonghaejin Marine said he didn#39;t think the ferry had deviated from its usual route.海岸警卫队说,客轮失事地区的天气条件良好,能见度也很高。Cheonghaejin Marine的一位管理人员说,他认为客轮并没有偏离通常的航线。Company officials said the captain of the sunken ferry, who was rescued, is a 69-year-old veteran skipper with a career of over 20 years in operating ferries. Identified only by his family name, Lee, the captain has been on the Incheon-Jeju ferry service for eight years since joining the company in 2006.公司管理人员说,失事客轮的船长69岁,是一位经验丰富的老船长,驾驶客轮超过20年。船长已获救。自2006年加入该公司以来,这位姓Lee的船长驾驶仁川和济州岛之间的渡船已经有八年时间。The sinking marks a second accident for Chonghaejin in less than a month. Another smaller ferry operated by the company collided with a small fishing boat on March 28 on its way from Incheon to the island of Baengnyong in the Yellow Sea. The firm attributed the accident to dense fog, and no casualties were reported.此次客轮失事标志着Chonghaejin在不到一个月时间出现第二起事故。3月28日,该公司另外一艘较小的渡船在从仁川驶往黄海Baengnyong岛时撞上了一艘小渔船。该公司把事故原因归于浓雾,事故中未报告有人员伤亡。The worst passenger ship incident in South Korean history was in December 1970, when a ferry carrying nearly 340 people capsized near Busan, South Korea#39;s second-largest city--killing more than 320 people. Investigators found that ferry, the Namyeong, which was traveling from Jeju, had been overloaded with cargo and passengers.韩国最严重的客轮事故发生在1970年12月,当时一艘搭乘了近340人的渡轮在韩国第二大城市釜山附近倾覆,导致超过320人死亡。调查人员发现,这艘从济州岛驶出的Namyeong号渡船货物和乘客超载。In October 1993, another ferry, the Seohae, sank in the Yellow Sea off the coast of Busan with 362 people on board--more than 100 over the ship#39;s maximum capacity. The incident left 292 people dead.1993年10月,另一艘渡船Seohae号在釜山附近的黄海海域沉没,船上搭乘了362人,比该船允许搭乘的最多人数超出了100多人。那次事故造成292人死亡。 /201404/288629。