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盐城/协和医院在那儿大河资讯

2020年02月18日 23:30:20 | 作者:58共享 | 来源:新华社
Strictly speaking, air is mostly nitrogen–about seventy-eightpercent, and about twenty-one percent oxygen, which leavesabout one percent of other stuff, like water vapor and carbondioxide.严格地说,空气主要由大约78%的氮气和21%的氧气组成,另外还有1%的其他气体,像水蒸气和二氧化碳。So air is mostly empty space?所以,空气大部分都是真空吗?Yep, in fact, if you ever condensed a gallon of air into a solid,youd end up with a little over one tenth of one percent of the airs original volume.是的。实际上,如果你将一加仑的空气凝结成固体,这个固体的体积只比空气原本体积的千分之一多一点。And the reasonwe dont notice all this emptiness is because air molecules are constantly moving around at thespeed of sound, and bouncing against any surface that happens to fall in their path.我们没有注意到这一点的原因是空气分子以音速在不停地移动,而当它们碰到任何表面时都会反弹回去。So were constantly bombarded by air molecules.那么,我们一直被空气分子撞击着,So how come we dont feel that?可是为什么我们感觉不到呢?Well, actually we do.其实我们能感觉到的。The force these air molecules exert is what we measure when we measureair pressure.空气分子施加的压力就是我们平时测量的气压。 201411/340599Just as the police bang down the door, the bad guys flush theincriminating drugs down the toilet.Surely, a scenario weve allseen on TV and in the movies.我们在电视上或电影里总会看到这样的场景,警察破门而入时,坏人正将罪毒品倒入厕所冲走。But, you might be surprised tofind out how many drugs innocently wind up in our lakes and rivers every day.但是,你可能会惊奇地发现每天将有多少药品流入我们的河流湖泊里。Household drugs like painkillers, antibiotics and hormones enter the water system through manychannels.像去疼片,抗生素,激素等家庭用药会以多种渠道进入水系统。For example, some animal feeds contain antibiotics and flood into rivers with run-offwater.比如,一些动物饲料中包含抗生素,会随水流一起流入河中。Antibiotics are regularly flushed or dumped down sinks and toilets.通常,抗生素会被冲进或倒入水池和厕纸中。Since many sewagetreatment plants dont effectively remove drugs or hormones, these compounds enter ourwaterways and wind up in our tap water.许多污水处理厂并不能有效的去除药品或激素,这些化合物就进入我们的水管中,最终成为我们的自来水。Are flushed drugs a health concern?该不该担心那些被冲走的药品会影响我们的健康?Once in a river, antibiotics might affect wildlife by killing off thenormal microbes that are naturally found in the water and soil and that form the basis of the local ecosystem.药品一旦进入河流,抗生素会杀死水中,土壤中正常的微生物, 而它们是形成当地生态系统的基础,所以抗生素可能会影响野生动物。Or, perhaps more dangerously, the microbes may learn to adapt and reproduce in thepresence of antibiotics, developing antibiotic resistance.或者可能更具危险性,微生物也许会学着适应,并在有抗生素存在的情况下繁衍,衍生出抗药性。At present, common household drugs are found in many lakes and rivers in relatively smallconcentrations, but we can do something to help.目前,家庭常用药物在河流湖泊中的浓度还不高,但是我们可以改善这种情况。We can avoid throwing drugs down the drainand, instead, take them to a hospital, pharmacy or hazardous waste center for safe disposal.我们可以不往下水道里扔药品,将药品带去医院,药房或者危险废弃物中心进行安全处置。201412/348903If youve ever seen movies about World War I, you know thatthe soldiers in the trenches often wore bulbous gas masks that made them look like human insects.如果你看过关于一战的电影的话,你肯定知道冲在一线的士兵们通常会配戴着球茎形状的防毒面罩,看起来很像人形昆虫。The masks were necessary to protect them from chemical weapons such as chlorine gas, a noxious substance that could almost instantly suffocate unprotected victims.这种面具可以保护士兵不被化学武器攻击,如氯气-一种可以快速使人窒息的有毒气体。If chlorine is so dangerous, why the do we dump it in swimming pools?如果氯算危险物质的话,那么为什么我们要把它倒进游泳池里呢?As you probably aly know, chlorine is used to disinfect swimming pools.你可能已经知道,氯可以用于消毒游泳池。It also gives mostpools their distinctive odor.同时,大多数加氯的游泳池也会有一种独特的味道。Chlorine comes in pellet, liquid, and gas forms, and when it reacts withpool water it immediately breaks down into different chemicals, including hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion.氯可以以固、液、气三种形式存在。氯遇到水会立刻分解成不同的化学物质,如:次氯酸和次氯酸盐离子。Both chemicals attack micro organisms in the water by breaking through their cellwalls and scrambling the inner workings of the cells, rendering them harmless.这两种化学物质都可以通过破坏水中微生物的细胞壁、扰乱细胞内部正常运转而使微生物变的无害。So why dont these killer chemicals destroy human cells as well?那这些致命的化学物质不会破坏人体细胞呢?They would, if not for the verysmall amounts of chlorine needed to cleanse the typical pool.如果用于清理泳池的氯使用量过大的话是会对人体造成伤害的。For example, the concentration of chlorine used to sanitize an Olympic-size pool is three parts per million, meaning that for everythree molecules of chlorine there are one million water molecules.比如,用于奥运会的泳池消毒的氯浓度是3比100万,也就是说每一百万个水分子里有三个氯分子。Such low concentrations may cause slight irritation to the eyes and skin, but theres not enough chlorine to cause any real harm to swimmers.这样的低浓度可能只会对眼睛和皮肤产生轻微刺激,但对游泳的人来说不会产生真正的伤害。Chlorine is not the only chemical used to keep pools clean—bromine and ozone are becoming increasingly popular in pool maintenance facilities.氯不是唯一能够保持泳池清洁的化学物质-溴和臭氧在泳池的日常维护中也越加频繁。But chlorine is still the pool cleaners mainstay.但泳池清洁人员主要还是用氯来消毒。 201412/350267

Psychologists have found that people who believe in a just world are more likely to worship celebrities, whereas people more critical of society are less likely to obsess over a celebrity.心理学家发现,信仰公平世界的人更有可能崇拜名人,然而对社会越挑剔的人则不太可能对明星着迷。People who strongly believe in a just world believe that life is fair,that good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people.信仰公平世界的人们认为生活是公平的,好人有好报,坏人也会得到应有的惩罚。People who believe in a just world are expressing acceptance of society and its institutions.信仰公平的人接受这个社会以及其所有的制度。Since the celebrity system is one of these institutions, researchers suggest that it makes sensethat those believing in a just world would be satisfied with how celebrities are made and thus morelikely to admire and even obsess over them.因为明星也是这个社会体系的一个组成部分,研究人员表明那些信仰公平世界的人对名人感到满意,因此更有可能钦佩甚至对他们痴迷。Vice versa, people who do not believe in a fair worldmight resist worshipping celebrities, and in fact question or criticize the system that produces themand decides who gets to be a celebrity.反之亦然,不相信这个世界是公平的人也许不会崇拜名人,并且其实他们会质疑或者批判产生这种制度和决定谁可以成为名人的社会。201409/328460

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