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2019年09月22日 04:09:04
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After John F Kennedy was murdered on November 22 1963, Dallas became known as “the city of hate”. Its citizens were charged with creating a fervid rightist atmosphere in which Lee Harvey Oswald felt moved to shoot the president. Mike Rawlings, the city#39;s current mayor, told me: “There are stories of people going to places and almost being embarrassed to be from Dallas back in the 1960s, early 1970s.” 1963年11月22日,美国总统约翰#8226;肯尼迪(John F.Kennedy)遇刺身亡后,达拉斯就背上了“仇恨之城”的名声。人们指责达拉斯市民制造了一种狂热的右翼氛围,从而促使李#8226;哈维#8226;奥斯瓦尔德(Lee Harvey Oswald)杀了总统。达拉斯现任市长迈克#8226;罗林斯(Mike Rawlings)告诉我:“有报道称,在20世纪60年代和70年代初,达拉斯人去外地时,会因为自己是达拉斯人而感到尴尬。” I found Rawlings sneaking a catnap at the New Cities Summit in Sao Paulo in June. The man who came to Dallas in 1976 with 0 in his pocket and made it to president of Pizza Hut was taking the briefest break from his usual activity: plugging Dallas. But how does any city incorporate a global trauma into its image? It#39;s taken Dallas 50 years to learn to deal with the murder. 今年6月,在圣保罗的新城市峰会(New Cities Summit)上,我趁罗林斯偷偷打盹时找到了他。这位1976年揣着200美元来到达拉斯、后来当过必胜客(Pizza Hut)总裁的达拉斯市长正在小憩,暂时把他的日常活动——宣传达拉斯——放在了一边。但一个城市在经历一场闻名全球的创伤之后,如何在世人面前构建自己的形象?达拉斯花了50年的时间,才学会坦然接受那起刺杀事件。 Many Americans in 1963 couldn#39;t accept that a lone loser like Oswald had changed history. Consequently, they blamed larger entities. Conspiracy theorists accused the Central Intelligence Agency or Cuban exiles. Others blamed Dallas itself. 1963年,让许多美国人无法接受的是,历史居然被奥斯瓦尔德这么个孤独的失败者改写了。因此,他们怪罪于一些更大的组织和群体。阴谋论者指责美国中央情报局(CIA)或古巴流亡者策划了刺杀事件。其他人则谴责达拉斯这个城市。 To e Texas Monthly magazine: “The tragedy seemed to seal the perception of our state as being populated by a bunch of trigger-happy yeehaws who were beyond forgiveness.” Because few outsiders knew anything else about Dallas, the assassination branded the city. In truth, Dallas in 1963 did house some noisy rightist Kennedy-haters. Days before he arrived, “Wanted for Treason” leaflets featuring him appeared around town. And on the day, the Dallas Morning News published an ominously black-bordered full-page ad portraying him as a communist fellow-traveller. Reading it, Kennedy told his wife: “We#39;re heading into nut country today.” 《德克萨斯月刊》(Texas Monthly)写道:“那起悲剧似乎把世人对本州的印象固定了下来,即一个充斥着牛仔的州,那些牛仔动辄开、根本不值得原谅。”因为外面的人对达拉斯的其他方面知之甚少,于是刺杀事件成了这座城市的标签。事实上,1963年的达拉斯确实有一些讨厌肯尼迪、吵吵嚷嚷的右翼分子。在肯尼迪抵达达拉斯之前的几天,印着他的肖像、写有“通缉叛国者”(Wanted for Treason)的传单在城里随处可见。就在肯尼迪遇刺当天,《达拉斯晨报》(Dallas Morning News)整版刊出了一则颇不吉利的黑边广告,将他描绘为“共产主义的同路人”。看到广告,肯尼迪对妻子说:“我们今天要去一个疯子国了。” After the murder, many diagnosed city-wide hate. Bill Minutaglio, co-author of the new book Dallas 1963, says: “Nothing like this could have happened, but in Dallas.” 肯尼迪遇刺后,许多人称达拉斯充斥着仇恨。新书《达拉斯1963》(Dallas 1963)的合著者比尔#8226;米努塔利奥(Bill Minutaglio)说:“除了达拉斯,这种事不可能在其他任何地方发生。” Yet blaming Dallas is illogical. Oswald was a Marxist nut, not a rightwing nut. And as Rawlings says, “Dallas loves its presidents.” Nearly one in three Dallasites turned out to see Kennedy, with barely an unfriendly sign on display. In the motorcade, the Texan governor#39;s wife, Nellie Connally, gushed, “Mr President, you can#39;t say Dallas doesn#39;t love you.” She was mostly right. Assassinations, Americans soon learnt, can happen anywhere. Cities don#39;t kill people. People kill people. 但谴责达拉斯是没有道理的。奥斯瓦尔德是马克思主义疯子,而不是右翼疯子。正如罗林斯所说:“达拉斯人爱戴总统。”近三分之一的达拉斯人为了亲眼一睹肯尼迪尊容而走出家门,现场几乎没有不友好的迹象。在车队中,德克萨斯州州长夫人内莉#8226;康纳利(Nellie Connally)充满感情地说:“总统先生,您不能说达拉斯人不爱戴您。”她的话几乎没错儿。美国人很快明白,刺杀事件可能发生在任何地方。凶手不是城市,而是人。 After 1963, says Rawlings, many Dallasites “wanted to move on as quickly as possible”. They rarely discussed the murder. Gradually, though, the mood changed. Rawlings says: “In the 1980s, people started to think: we are the home of a very important moment in history. Not only because of the assassination, but that seemed to be the dawning of a new era. After that came the Vietnam war, civil rights came to its fruition, women#39;s liberation. There was a new world, a door that somehow people walked through. Citizens said, #39;We#39;ve got to make sure we capture the truth of this history.“” 罗林斯说,1963年以后,许多达拉斯人“希望尽快走出这件事的阴影”。他们很少谈及刺杀事件。但民众的情绪渐渐变了。罗林斯说:“20世纪80年代,人们开始认为,达拉斯见了一个非常重要的历史时刻。这不仅是因为那一刻发生了刺杀事件,更是因为那一刻似乎标志着一个新时代的到来。在那之后,越战升级、民权运动开花结果、第二波女权运动兴起。世界焕然一新,人类历史不知怎么的翻开了新的篇章。当时的达拉斯人说,‘我们必须确保准确地理解这段历史。’” Oswald had shot from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Plans to tear the building down were dropped. In 1989 it became a museum. Rawlings says, “For many years it was the one site that if someone visited you and said, #39;What do you want to do in the afternoon?” you would say, #39;Want to go down to the Sixth Floor Museum?“” 奥斯瓦尔德开的地方,位于达拉斯的德克萨斯州教科书仓库大楼(Texas School Book Depository)六层。达拉斯有过种种拆除那座大楼的计划,但后来都未执行。1989年,那座大楼变成了一座物馆。罗林斯说:“多年以来,那座物馆一直是来达拉斯的人必须造访的景点。如果有人来达拉斯拜访你,问你下午想干嘛?你会回答说,想不想去六楼物馆(Sixth Floor Museum)?” He adds: “I don#39;t think we should be defensive or try to remove anything. It is what it is. That part of history will always be in Dallas.” Even Oswald, says Rawlings, belongs in the city#39;s history. He attended elementary school in Dallas, and returned in 1962 after his Soviet jaunt. 他补充道:“我觉得我们不应该戒备心太强,或抹掉过去的任何痕迹。事实就是事实。那段历史将永远留在达拉斯身上。”罗林斯说,即便是奥斯瓦尔德,也将永远在达拉斯的历史占有一席之地。他曾在达拉斯上小学,短暂游历苏联后于1962年又回到该市。 The city can face these facts today largely because the assassination#39;s stigma has faded. Rawlings says: “With time that changed, with the arrival of the Dallas Cowboys [football team] and different things that Dallas started to become known for. It became a secondary branding for the city.” 达拉斯如今能够直面这些现实,很大程度上是因为刺杀事件带来的耻辱感已经褪去。罗林斯说:“随着时间的推移,人们开始因达拉斯牛仔队(Dallas Cowboys,美式橄榄球队)等各种其他的东西知道达拉斯。刺杀事件成为了达拉斯众多标志中比较不显著的一个。” On Friday, the world will be watching Dallas. Rawlings says: “Before I became mayor, I realised that the one moment people were going to pay more attention to Dallas while I was mayor was November 22 2013. People look to 50th anniversaries. They remember where they were, and you retell the story.” Friday#39;s commemoration will be sober and “very untouristy”, he adds. “I#39;m very shy about trying to do too much on this day. If I can stand up straight, salute the president and move on, I think Dallas has done what#39;s right. Our brand won#39;t be made because of this.” 本周五(11月22日),达拉斯将汇聚世界的目光。罗林斯说:“我在当上市长之前就意识到,我任期内人们最关注达拉斯的时刻将是2013年11月22日。人们关注50周年。他们回忆过去,而你要重新讲述那段历史。”他补充道,周五的纪念活动将是庄重的,也“尽量不会带有吸引游客的色”。“我很担心这一天的纪念活动过于大张旗鼓。如果我能笔直地站起身,向肯尼迪总统致敬,然后把历史的这一页翻过去,我觉得达拉斯就做对了。我们无法凭借纪念活动树立我们的形象。” Where was Rawlings on November 22 1963? “In elementary school in Leawood, Kansas. They moved us to the gymnasium, and I remember sitting Indian-style on the floor when the principal told us, and we were sent home. My mother was a teacher, and before she passed away she gave me a stack of letters that she had had her elementary-school grade write about their reflections on that weekend. It was marvellous. Just a bunch of kids in a random school in Kansas talking about this shows the depth and bth of this moment in people#39;s lives.” 1963年11月22日那天,罗林斯在哪儿?“那天我在堪萨斯州利伍德(Leawood)的一所小学里。校方将我们转移到体育馆,我记得大家盘腿坐在地板上,校长向我们介绍了事件的经过,然后学校就宣布放学了。我母亲是小学教师,她曾让自己教的小学生写作文,叙述他们对周末那起事件的感想,后来她在去世前将那一叠作文交给了我。看到那一叠作文,我感觉很奇妙。堪萨斯州一所普通的小学里的孩子们都在作文里谈论此事,仅此就能表明,这一历史瞬间对人们的生活产生了多么广泛而深刻的影响。” /201311/265569抚顺男科疾病需要多少费用Let#39;s say you recently turned someone down for a raise or a promotion, and he has now retaliated -- for instance, by quitting in a huff and taking a valuable client list with him。假设你最近拒绝给某人涨工资或者升职,现在他开始实施报复——比如,愤然辞职并且带走了一份重要的客户名单。According to a new study of the role of testosterone in business negotiations, you might have foreseen that, and maybe even prevented it, if you had checked out his right hand before making (or refusing) an offer. Specifically, if someone#39;s ring finger and his index finger are the same length, look out。一项关于睾丸激素在商业谈判中所起作用的最新研究表明,如果你在提出(或者拒绝)一项提议之前,能够检查一下对方的右手,你就有可能预料到会发生上述事件,甚至还有可能避免出现这种事。具体说来就是,如果某人右手的无名指和食指一样长的话,那你就得小心了。Little or no difference in the size of those digits is an indicator of high prenatal testosterone, which tells you two things. First, this is a person who is preoccupied with preserving his status and saving face. Unless you handle his ego with kid gloves, he will be quick to take offense. And second, if you cross him, he will get even。如果这两只手指的长度一样或者非常接近,则说明手的主人出生前体内睾丸激素含量就很高,这又进一步说明两点。首先,此人会不惜一切保全自己的地位,维护自己的面子。除非你时时照顾他的自尊,否则他很容易怀恨在心。其次,你跟他作对,他就会实施报复。That#39;s the conclusion of an intriguing study called ;Lex talionis: Testosterone and the law of retaliation,; to be published in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology。上述是一项名为《Lex talionis:睾丸激素与报复定律》的研究得出的结论。该研究将会发布在下一期的《实验社会心理学杂志》上。Lex talionis is Latin for ;retributive justice,; and here#39;s how the experiment went down: Researchers from Columbia Business School and the Kellogg School at Northwestern put 48 randomly selected volunteers through two rounds of negotiations. Lex talionis是拉丁文,意为“因果应报”。该项实验是这样进行的:哥伦比亚商学院[微]和西北大学[微]凯洛格商学院的研究人员从志愿者中随机抽取48人,让其参加两轮议价。The first bargaining session was rigged so that the test subjects were, in effect, cheated out of they had thought they could win. In the second round, which the subjects were not told about ahead of time, the researchers turned the tables so that, this time, the volunteers controlled the bidding process for a second pot。首轮谈判阶段的设计,目的在于要让测试对象完全上当,拿不到他们以为自己能赢得的40美元。研究对象事先未被告知有第二轮谈判;这一轮,局面被设计成与第一轮相反,志愿者得以控制竞价过程,以赢取第二份40美元奖励。Some people played fair during the second round, swallowing their disappointment at ;losing; the first time and making reasonable efforts to reach an evenhanded outcome. Other subjects, however, responded quite differently. They aggressively lowballed the researchers, clearly determined to get payback。有些人在第二轮中能够光明磊落,行事公允,他们忍气吞声,将“输掉”首轮的扫兴咽到肚子里,凭着自己的努力,赢得公平的结果。但是,其他的研究对象反应则完全不同。他们胆大包天,向研究人员虚报低价,很明显是要借此挽回首轮失利的损失。After it was all over, the researchers used a flatbed scanner to measure everyone#39;s right-hand index and ring fingers (;from the ventral proximal crease of the digit to the tip of the finger;). In every case, they found a direct correlation between ;digit ratio; and vengefulness: The less of a difference between the two fingers, the greater the urge to get even。试验结束之后,研究人员用平板扫描仪测量每个研究对象的右手食指和无名指(从手指内侧掌指关节到指尖)。他们发现,“手指比例”与报复心之间存在直接关系,无一例外:上述两只手指长度差别越小,报复心越强。Many other studies have established ;digit ratio; as an indicator of prenatal testosterone -- that is, how much testosterone someone was exposed to before birth, often as a result of birth order (older children in a family tend to have more than younger ones) or a mother#39;s genes。其他许多研究也发现,“手指比例”能显示出生前睾丸激素含量。出生前睾丸激素含量指的是某人出生前从父母处接受的睾丸激素的多少,往往与出生顺序(家庭中年长的孩子的睾丸激素含量通常高于年幼的孩子)或者母亲的基因有关。But until now, the behavioral implications for negotiation strategy have not been clear。但是,迄今,对谈判策略的行为解释尚未明朗化。;Testosterone is a hormone associated with status-seeking and a need to save face,; notes Adam Galinsky, the Kellogg professor who co-wrote the study. ;It makes a powerful difference in how people respond to situations.[/en]“睾丸激素是与追求地位和挽回面子的需求有关的荷尔蒙。”该研究报告的联合作者、凯洛格商学院的教授亚当-加林斯基指出。“人们对各种处境的反应方式也因而有天壤之别。”;People with low testosterone -- that is, with a noticeable difference in the length of their second and fourth digits -- may perceive that they#39;re being treated unfairly, but they#39;re likely to go sulk in a corner.;“睾丸激素少的人,也就是其食指与无名指长度有明显差异的那些人,虽然也会认识到自己遭受了不公平待遇,但他们很可能只会生闷气,而不会采取报复行为。”However, Galinsky says, ;If you#39;re looking across a bargaining table at someone who has a slight difference, or no difference, between the second and fourth digits, be careful.; Make an extra effort to mollify that person and stroke his ego, because doing otherwise is ;like slapping a sleeping tiger.;但是,加林斯基表示:“如果你放眼望去,看到谈判桌对面的人食指与无名指长短差不多或者根本就一样长,那你就得当心了。”你得多花点心思安抚他,并迎合其自尊心,因为如果不这样的话,就“等于去摸老虎的屁股”。 /201307/248326抚顺妇幼医院专家预约After hearing customers complain about the quality of office coffee, brothers David, Adam, and Noah Belanich decided to shut down their Manhattan coffee truck and start a new business.在听到客户抱怨办公室咖啡的质量后,大卫、亚当、Noah Belanich三兄弟决定关闭他们的曼哈顿咖啡车,开始一项新业务。Joyride relaunched in 2011 as a business that provides cafe-quality equipment to offices and delivers freshly roasted coffee every day.在2011年Joyride起步,作为每一天向办公室和咖啡馆提供新鲜烘焙咖啡的质量提升设备。Although brewing their coffee takes a little more work, the quality is clearly better. The brothers claim that their coffee is also cheaper per cup than Keurig.尽管酿造他们的咖啡需要更多一点的工作,品质显然是更好的。弟兄们声称他们的每杯咖啡比Keurig的也更便宜。The company is growing fast, with clients including Foursquare, Twitter, Buzzfeed, and Gilt. They also introduced a ;cold brew kegerator; just in time for summer.公司正在快速增长,客户包括Foursquare、Twitter、Buzzfeed和Gilt。他们也为夏天推出了一个“冷酿造设备”。After Business Insider talked with the Belanich brothers to learn about their business, Joyride shows us what a week in the life of the company is like.在Business Insider与Belanich兄弟交流了解他们的业务后,Joyride向我们展示了该公司一周的生活。 /201307/249636辽宁省抚顺医院看男科医院

抚顺市第二医院龟头炎症抚顺市东洲医院网上预约Informal Language 美语中的非正式用语 Ever go jogging in a business suit? What about going to a job interview in pajamas? Dressing appropriately is a lot like using a foreign language in the right way. It all depends on the situation. People in America use formal English for making speeches and writing business letters. But they prefer informal language when they talk to friends. Americans are fairly laid-back, both in styles of dress and in language. So to understand their culture, it pays to know something about informal language-in other words, English in blue jeans and a T-shirt. 你曾经穿著办公的西装慢跑吗?或者穿著睡衣去应征工作?得体的穿著很像正确地使用外国语言,都得视情境而变化。美国人使用正式的英文作演说和写商务信件;但是当他们和朋友谈话的时候,则较喜欢使用非正式的语言。美国人不论是在穿著的风格或是语言上,都是非常轻松自在的。所以要了解他们的文化,就得认识他们的非正式用语,换句话说,就像穿著牛仔裤和T恤的英文。 English, like every language, is always changing. New slang terms are created all the time. Often they're here today, gone tomorrow. For instance, if you wanted to call something exciting in the 1960s, you would say it was groovy or far out. Today you might describe it as cool or even bad. Each sub-group of American society-from teenagers to soldiers to thieves to ethnic groups-has its own slang. People who aren't a part of the "in-group" can't understand the meaning, even though the words are "English." So it's not easy for outsiders to use slang correctly. 英语就像每一种语言一样是一直在变。新的俚语不断地出现,常常今天还在使用的,明天就被淘汰了。例如,在一九六O年代你若要形容一件很兴奋的事,你会说很「groovy」美好的,或是「far out」走在时代尖端的。而今天会形容为「cool」很酷,甚至「bad」好菜喔。从青少年、军人、小偷、到少数民族,美国社会中每一种附属团体都有自己的俚语。即使它们确实是英语,但是不属于那个团体的人就不会明白它的意思。因此局外人要正确地使用俚语实在不容易。 Like many languages, American English has numerous idioms that paint word pictures. These colorful expressions come from everyday life and add spice to language. When Americans want to make a good first impression on someone, they try to put their best foot forward. That way, they won't get off on the wrong foot in their relationship. Learning about idioms in a language and culture can be difficult, but don't get cold feet. Just be careful when using these expressions. Otherwise, you might put your foot in your mouth. 就像许多的语言一样,美语中也有许多的成语,刻画出文字的图像。这些多样化的表达方式来自于每天的生活,并为语言增添了许多风味。当美国人想要给某人良好的第一印象时,他们会先「伸出最好的那一只脚」(表现较好的一面);如此,在他们的关系上就不会「下错脚」(搞砸)了。学习一个语言和文化中的成语可能相当困难,但是也不要「让脚发寒了」(恐惧、受挫),只要在用的时候小心一点就是了。否则你可能会「把脚放进嘴巴里去了」(说错话)。 Americans enjoy making things easy on themselves. Even their pronunciation is relaxed. Sounds or syllables that are not stressed are shortened or combined with other sounds. As a result, "What do you want to do?" becomes "Whaddaya wanna do?" And "I don't know" sounds like "I dunno." See if you can understand the following conversation: Gene: Jeet yet? Tim: No, ju? Gene: Skoeet! Now let's translate it into regular English: Gene: Did you eat yet? Tim: No, did you? Gene: Let's go eat! School teachers probably cringe at this kind of pronunciation. But the fact is, that's how Americans often talk in real-life situations. /200803/32555抚顺市职业病防治医院包皮手术怎么样To conduct an experiment, 20/20 hired actors——some great looking, some not——and put them in situations to gauge how often the "lookers" would get preferential treatment.In the first test, we put two women next to cars without gas in Atlanta. The women wore the same outfit.Both Michelle and Tracey stood helplessly by cars with their hoods up. For the average-looking Michelle, a few pedestrians stopped but only made suggestions as where she could walk to get gasoline. But for the beautiful Tracey, cars came screeching to a halt. More than a dozen cars stopped and six people went to get Tracey gas.The two actresses helped with our second test, at an Atlanta shopping mall where both women set up a table and sold calendars and teddy bears to raise money for charity. Overall, it looked as if both women were doing well with their sales. Then we counted the money and found Tracey collected 50 percent more.What if we tested something requiring qualifications, like getting a job? Looks shouldn't matter then but would they?20/20 hired two women to apply for jobs. The clearest difference between them was looks while they shared similar education and work experience backgrounds. To match them up more closely, we rewrote their résumés to match.Donia, our more attractive female applicant, and her counterpart, Amy, both had been secretaries and saleswomen. A consultant trained them so their behavior matched.Hidden cameras captured interviewers being warmer and friendlier to the better looking applicants and being less friendly to the other applicants. With Amy and Donia, for example, one job interviewer told Amy employees got a 45-minute lunch break but with Donia the interviewer said there was a flexible policy about lunch. Who got the job offer? Donia. Amy never even got a call back."It's a non-conscious process," said Tom Cash, a psychologist at Old Dominion University. "They assume that more attractive people have an array of valued characteristics."We should add the bias of "lookism" to sexism and racism. It's just as bad but we don't need a federal program. 为了做一个试验,"20/20"节目雇用了演员。有些人容貌出众,有些人却不是。但把演员们放在特定环境下,看看“漂亮人”是如何常常得到优待的。在第一次试验中,在亚特兰大,我们让两位女演员穿戴一样,分别站在没有汽油的车旁。Michelle和Tracey引擎罩打开着,绝望无助地站在车旁。相貌平平的Michelle只能让几位行人驻足,但他们也只是为她指出如何加油的路,而美貌Tracey的待遇却大不相同。许多车子为她猛然刹车,一打以上的车主停车,6个人要为Tracey加油。两位女演员又帮助我们做了第二个试验。在一家亚特兰大购物中心,两人都设摊慈善义卖日历和玩具熊。从表面上看,她们卖得一样好,可是数钱时却发现,Tracey的收入要高出50%.如果我们实验某些需要资格的事情,比如应聘,结果会如何呢?容貌会起到什么作用呢?"20/20"节目组雇用了两位女人参加应聘,她们有相似的教育和工作经验背景,但容貌却大不相同。为了使她们更接近,我们改写了她们的履历。Donia是我们非常迷人的女求职者,与她搭档的Amy,两人都曾当过秘书和销售人员。一位顾问专门对她们进行了训练,使她们的举止相同。暗藏的摄像机捕获了主聘人员对相貌好看的应聘者十分热情和友好,而对其它应征者则不友好。例如,招聘人员对Amy说,雇员只有45分钟午饭休息时间,而却对Donia说,午饭时间是有弹性的。谁得到工作了?当然是Donia.Amy则再也没有接到回复电话。Old Dominion大学的心理学家Tom Cash说:“这是一个无意识的过程,他们推测漂亮的人有更多富有价值的品质。”我们应该在性别歧视和种族歧视之后再添一个“容貌歧视”,尽管它与前两者一样可恶,但对此并不需要联邦立法。 /200807/43150抚顺市妇幼保健院治疗前列腺炎多少钱

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