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来源:管时讯    发布时间:2017年08月24日 09:16:02    编辑:admin         

The US Supreme Court has thrown out the conviction of a man who posted violent messages about his wife and co-workers on Facebook, in a case that was being closely watched over its potential implications for online speech.美国最高法院(US Supreme Court)推翻了一名在Facebook上对其妻子和同僚发出威胁性言论的男子的罪名。该案由于对网上言论具有的潜在影响,受到了密切的关注。Anthony Elonis was convicted on four counts of transmitting threatening content in 2011 after ranting online about wanting his wife dead and, in one photograph posted on the social media network, holding a toy knife to the neck of a co-worker at an amusement park with the caption “I wish”.2011年,安东尼#8226;埃罗尼斯(Anthony Elonis)因四次传播威胁性内容而被定罪。他在社交媒体网络Facebook上大放厥词,称要杀死自己的妻子——在上传的一张照片中,他手握一把玩具刀指向游乐场一名同僚的脖子,同时配上文字称“我希望”(I wish)。Mr Elonis argued that he was under emotional duress after his wife of nearly seven years left with their two children and that he was merely venting through Facebook.埃罗尼斯辩称,他与妻子结婚近7年,当妻子带着他们的两个孩子离开之后,他感到很郁闷,他只不过是通过Facebook泄愤。The Supreme Court, in a 7-2 decision, threw out his conviction on Monday, ruling that the jury was not properly instructed in the case. The US high court said that it was not enough for the government to establish that a “reasonable” person would have viewed Mr Elonis’s posts as threatening.周一,美国最高法院以7票赞同、2票反对的比例,推翻了他被判的罪名。最高法院认定,陪审团在该案中对案情掌握不当。最高法院表示,美国政府没有足够据明一位“有理性的”人会把埃罗尼斯的发言视为威胁。In a narrow ruling that dodged the First Amendment issues some free speech advocates expected the court to address, the justices found that the government must show that a defendant intended their posts to be threatening, or at least understood there was a possibility they would be viewed as a crime, to be convicted under the federal law barring the transmission of threatening content.在一份避开了美国宪法第一修正案问题(有些倡导言论自由的人希望法庭提到这些问题)的狭义裁决中,法官们认定,政府必须明一名被告人故意用言论来发出威胁,或者起码要明白该言论有可能被视为一项犯罪行为,唯有这样,才能依据阻止传播威胁性内容的联邦法律对其定罪。 /201506/378537。

Of the technical advances transforming the energy business, none is potentially more important than storage. Used on a sufficient scale, it could make heat and light available to those living in subsistence conditions and radically alter the world’s energy mix.在改变能源业的技术进步中,可能没有哪一项比能源存储更重要的了。在应用规模足够大的情况下,这项技术能够为那些勉强维生的人提供光和热,并从根本上改变世界能源结构。But it is important to demolish two myths. First, the technological advances are not about to transform the energy system to the point where a large proportion of consumers defect from existing distribution systems. Second, it does not require a dramatic breakthrough to become economic.但驳倒两个神话很重要。首先,技术进步对能源体系的改变,并不会达到使大部分消费者弃用现有能源输配体系的地步。其次,我们并不需要取得爆炸式的突破就能使能源存储技术具备经济可行性。On the first, by far the most likely next step is the integration of storage mechanisms into existing grids and other distribution systems in ways that manage peak loads and thus contribute to reducing the necessary generating capacity.关于前者,最有可能的下一步发展是使能源存储机制融入现有输配网和其他输配系统,以管理高峰负荷,从而有助于减少必要的能源产能。On the second, the story is one of gradualism. The core technologies are known and are advancing. Some are aly commercially competitive; you are probably ing this on a computer that holds power for much longer than was possible only a decade ago. There could well be developments that would change the entire energy system but a eureka moment is not necessary.关于后者,则要认识到技术进步的渐进性。能源存储的核心技术已经为人所知,也正在取得进展。一些技术已经拥有了商业竞争力;你或许正在用一台电脑阅读这篇文章,这台电脑的续航时间要比十年前可能达到的水平长得多。或许会出现一些改变整个能源体系的技术发展,但爆炸性突破并非必不可少。Moody’s notes battery costs have fallen 50 per cent in the past five years. Lazard reports that industry expects a further significant fall in the next five years; and that, if projections are accurate, “some energy storage technologies may be positioned to displace a significant portion of future gas-fired generation capacity in particular as a replacement for peaking gas turbine facilities”.据穆迪(Moody’s)报告,过去5年电池的成本下降了50%。Lazard报告,行业人士预计接下来5年电池成本还会进一步显著下降;并且,如果相关预测是准确的,“一些能源存储技术可能取代未来相当一部分燃气发电产能,尤其是取代目前急剧增加的燃气轮机设备”。This suggests advances in storage could rapidly overturn established business models. Many of the technologies aly have a strong industrial base, which is helping to reduce production costs. Many more are still at an early stage of commercialisation, building on research in universities worldwide.这表明,能源存储技术的进步可能迅速推翻即成商业模式。许多存储技术已经拥有雄厚的工业基础,这有助于减少生产成本。还有更多存储技术在世界各地大学的研究基础上发展,还处于商业化的初期阶段。There are several storage technologies, each with particular applications. Pumped hydro systems enable us to manage the use of flows of water. Batteries can balance power loads and help manage the challenges of energy supplies that are intermittent. There are also uses at the production and at the consumption end of the supply chain.有几种能源存储技术,每一种都有特定的用途。抽水蓄能系统让我们可以管理对水流的利用。电池能够平衡能源负荷,有助于处理间断式的能源供应。还有用于能源生产和能源供应链消费端的技术。Some techniques, such as pumping water, have been used for centuries. Others, such as lithium ion, are not yet commercially viable, but the pace of improvement in costs is impressive.人们对一些技术的使用长达数个世纪,比如抽水。其他一些技术还不具备商业可行性,但成本改善方面的进展步伐令人印象深刻,比如锂离子。Storage can be used with any form of supply, from coal to wind, and for any purpose from transport to heating. It improves efficiency by allowing consumers to use energy when they want rather than only at the moment of production. Economically, the greatest impact and the most significant benefits will accrue to the renewables sector, where a greater proportion of supply is wasted and where intermittency forces users into substantial back-up costs.能源存储技术可被用于从煤炭到风能的任何形式的能源供应,也可以用于从交通到供暖的任何目的。通过能源存储技术,消费者可以在需要的时候使用能源,而非只在能源生产出来的时候使用能源,从而提高能效。经济上,可再生能源领域受到的影响最大,得到的益处也最多。在该领域,能源供给的浪费比例更大,能源供给的间断性还迫使用户承受高昂的备用能源成本。Technological advances, along with falling costs, promise to make solar the power source of choice in the 21st century. If governments want to decarbonise the economy it is hard to think of a better use for public money and subsidies than researching storage.技术的进步和成本的下降有望使太阳能成为21世纪的能源选择。如果政府希望使经济脱碳,很难想到有什么比能源存储技术研究更适合投入公共资金和补贴了。The vital point is that storage is growing cheaper at a rate likely to challenge at least part of the existing energy system within five years. The conventional alternatives under threat from this sort of competition start with gas turbines but extend to expensive plans to upgrade transmission lines and distribution systems.关键的一点是,能源存储技术的成本正在快速降低,或许能在5年内挑战至少部分现有技术的地位。对于这类竞争,受到威胁的传统替代方案不仅包括燃气轮机,还包括传输线和输配体系升级这样昂贵的方案。When serious and objective financial institutions start saying such things, investors and companies involved in the old energy economy would be foolish not to take notice of the mounting evidence that storage technology is the next big shift in the energy business.严肃和客观的金融机构已经开始谈论这类事情,越来越多的据表明能源存储技术将是能源行业的下一个重大转变,参与旧能源经济的投资者和企业如果不注意这一点将是愚蠢的。 /201601/419409。

As 2014 drew to a close, I became one of the last baby boomers to turn 50. Or possibly, I became one of the first Generation Xers to reach that milestone. Depending where you draw the line, either I am about to enjoy the fruits of half a century of increasing affluence and entitlement, having climbed to the top of the hierarchy I help sustain; or I am entering a period of resentment about my smug elders’ lockhold on the best jobs and homes and the damage they have inflicted on the environment and humankind.到2014年年底,我成为了婴儿潮一代中最后一批步入50岁的人。或者说,我成为了X一代(Generation X)中首批到达50岁的人。根据不同的分界线,我或者是作为维持社会阶层结构并爬上了顶端的人,即将享受半个世纪以来日益增长的财富和福利的果实;或者是,对自命不凡的长者牢牢占据了最好的工作和房子、并对环境和人类造成损害,我开始步入一段愤怒的时期。I am part of Generation Cusp. Businesses that treat me as a boomer will vex me with advertisements for products intended for grumpy pensioners (the oldest members of the postwar birth bulge are now in their late 60s), while those that market to me as a Gen Xer will annoy me by assuming I have something in common with overambitious 30-somethings.我是处于交叉点的一代。把我视为婴儿潮一代的企业,会用针对脾气暴躁的退休老人的产品广告来烦我(战后出生率暴涨时期出生的人中年纪最大的一些人,现在将近70岁),同样让我恼火的是,那些把我当作X一代的企业则假设我和那些过于雄心勃勃的30来岁的人有一些共同之处。Such generational generalisations are only the crudest way companies decide what to sell and how to sell it. But much as I hate the stereotyping, there are good reasons why this will not be the year the personalised product and the personalised pitch come of age.这种对一代人的泛化不过是企业决定销售什么产品、以及用何种方式销售产品的最粗略的方式。尽管我很讨厌这种模式化,但仍有一些很强的原因,解释我们为何今年还不会迎来个性化产品和个性化销售策略的时代。Experts have long heralded the ability of manufacturers to use “mass customisation” to pimp my training shoes or your car. Insurers are eager to tailor their products to my personal driving habits. Personalised diagnostic tools and drug therapies —linked to patients’ DNA sequences — are on the horizon. With scant regard for our own privacy, we are aly volunteering enough information to companies to allow them to launch more precise attacks on our wallets.专家们早就预言制造商将有能力用“大规模定制”向我推销训练鞋,或者向你推销汽车。保险公司迫切地希望根据我的驾驶习惯量身打造产品。与病人的DNA序列相关联的个性化诊断工具和药物疗法在未来也可能出现。我们对自身隐私考虑甚少,已经自愿把足够的信息提供给企业,让他们对我们的钱包发起更精准的攻击。But the promise of personalisation has faded a bit since Chris Anderson got marketers all excited nine years ago with The Long Tail . In the book, he outlined the potential profit lurking in low-volume items at the end of the demand curve and warned that the 80/20 rule — the crude assumption that 20 per cent of products account for 80 per cent of sales — would “lose its bite”. Inspired, I spent some time in the late 2000s deliberately tweaking Amazon’s “recommended for you” lists, rating books I owned in the hope Jeff Bezos would find me the perfect novel — until I realised he did not care. Amazon, then as now, would rather sell me more of what I have just bought, or the latest bestsellers, than algorithmically analyse my taste in media and identify a handful of items at the underpopulated intersection of “Bill Murray movies” and “fiction by Richard Ford”.但自从9年前克里斯#8226;安德森(Chris Anderson)用一部《长尾理论》(The Long Tail)让所有的营销人员兴奋起来以后,个性化的前景就有些黯然失色。在书中,安德森概述了需求曲线末端销量较低的产品潜藏的利润,并警告“二八定律”(80/20 rule),也就是粗略假设20%的产品产生80%的销售额的定律将“部分失效”。受到启发后,我在2000年代晚期特意对我已在亚马逊(Amazon)上购买的书进行评分,好让它更换“相关推荐”清单,期望杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)能帮我找到最好的小说,直到我意识到,他根本不在乎这事。和现在一样,亚马逊更想向我兜售更多我刚刚买到的书,或者最新的畅销书,而不是利用算法分析我对媒体的品味,找出几本同时与“比尔#8226;默里(Bill Murray)的电影”和“理查德#8226;福特(Richard Ford)的小说”相关的小众书推荐给我。Amazon’s attitude makes sense. Most companies stick with mass production and common product configurations, for technical or commercial reasons. Even Google— which commands even more data with which to personalise its services — touts its Android mobile phone operating system under the slogan “Be together. Not the same”. Tilting gently at Apple, the advertising plays to the idea that each Android user is an individual, but also part of a like-minded crowd. In reality, Google has to ensure its software works across the greatest number and range of devices, safe from malfunctions, abuses and piracy. The paradox is neatly summed up in one poster showing a crowd of Android robots, each differently dressed and equipped. Underneath, however, they are all still the same robot.亚马逊的态度有其道理。许多企业出于技术或者商业的原因,坚持按照一般性产品配置进行大规模生产。即使是掌握了更多数据、因此可以据此对产品进行个性化的谷歌(Google),对其Android手机操作系统的宣传语也是“和而不同”(Be together. Not the same)。这条广告温和地对苹果(Apple)进行了抨击,展现的理念是每个Android用户不仅是个体,也是思想相似的群体的一部分。然而事实上,谷歌必须确保它的软件能在数量和款型最多的设备上正常运行,不会出现失灵、滥用和盗版问题。这其中的矛盾在一幅海报上得到了精妙的总结,海报上有一群Android机器人,每一个的穿着和装备都不同。然而,在外表之下,它们依旧是相同的机器人。Anita Elberse underlined in her recent book Blockbusters — which takes issue with the “long tail” thesis — that companies still mine a great deal of money from a few products that everybody wants to buy. “Because people are inherently social,” she wrote, “they generally find value in ing the same books and watching the same television shows and movies that others do.”阿妮塔#8226;埃尔贝斯(Anita Elberse)最近的著作《大片效应》(Blockbusters)对长尾理论提出了异议,认为企业依然能依靠人人都想购买的少数商品赚得盆满钵满。“因为人天生是社会性的,”她写道,“他们通常会从阅读其他人读过的书,观看其他人看过的电视剧和电影中寻找价值。”In fact, research suggests an over-tailored pitch turns customers off. Either they find it too spookily precise, or — as Stanford marketing professor Itamar Simonson has written — they sense that, because it is so bespoke, it will not be a good deal.事实上,研究表明过度定制的销售策略会让消费者望而却步。要么是他们觉得定位过于精确,所以心生畏惧,要么就像斯坦福大学(Stanford)营销学教授伊塔马尔#8226;西蒙森(Itamar Simonson)所写的那样,因为定制度太高,消费者感觉不划算。Generalisation will continue to be a useful business tool. More precise data will allow companies to generalise better. But the capacity for confusion will remain — in part because nobody fits neatly into just one category.泛化以后仍将是一个有用的商业工具。更精确的数据能让企业更好地泛化。但困惑还将继续存在,部分原因是没人能严丝合缝地被归入一种类别。One of my favourite stand-up comedy lines comes from a joke in which God toys with the human race he is creating: “I know! I’ll make seven sexes and tell them there are only two!” Lacking His omniscience, companies, generally speaking, would be wise to continue to rely on humans to do their own personalisation.我最喜欢的单人脱口秀台词来自一个笑话,上帝戏耍他创造的人类:“我知道啦!我会创造7种性别,然后告诉他们只有两种!”没有上帝的全知,通常来说,继续让人们自己进行个性化才是企业的明智之举。 /201504/369985。

Apple has posted a record third quarter as soaring demand for iPhones sent profits higher.The technology giant sold 47.5 million iPhones in the quarter, up 35% on a year ago, with Mac computer sales up 9% to 4.8 million.由于对苹果手机需求升高,苹果公司第三季度盈利创下纪录。本季度,该行业巨头卖出4750万苹果手机,销量比去年增长了35%,苹果电脑销量为480万,增长了9%。The performance resulted in what chief executive Tim Cook called ;an amazing quarter;. Profits rose by 38% to .7bn , while revenue was up 33% to .6bn. Despite the strong results, shares fell 6.7% to 1.89 in after-market trading in New York.因本季度业绩好,苹果首席执行官Tim Cook将其称为“让人吃惊的一季度”。盈利增加了38%,升至107亿美元,收益上升了33%,增加至496亿美元。但是尽管业绩良好,纽约后市股票仍下跌了6.7%,降职121.89美元。Demand for its iPad tablets remained weak, with Apple selling 10.9 million, down 18% from a year earlier. But Mr Cook also said the Apple Watch had had a ;great start;. The Apple boss said last autumn that he did not want to reveal detailed figures for the watch to avoid giving competitors inside information.对苹果平板电脑的需求依然疲软,销量为1090万,与一年前相比,下降了18%。但是Cook先生表示,苹果手表“开端良好”。该总裁去年秋天表示不愿透露过多有关苹果手表的具体数字,以避免竞争者获取内部信息。But Apple said that revenue from ;other products;, which includes the watch as well as products such as the iPod, came to .6bn - about 2m higher than the previous quarter.Sales of the watch in the first nine weeks had exceeded those of both the iPhone and iPad after they were first launched.但是苹果公司表示来自“其他产品”的收益高达26亿美元,比上季度增加了九亿五千二百万美元,其中包括苹果手表、以及诸如iPod等产品。 苹果手机发行的前9周内,其销售额超过了苹果手机和苹果平板电脑。Apple also continued to do well in the China market.Sales doubled year-on-year and accounted for more than a quarter of the company’s total third-quarter sales.The jump should help to reassure investors that demand in China remains robust despite fears the market is close to saturation point.苹果产品在中国的销量年年攀升,占苹果公司第三季度销售额的四分之一。这便消除了一些投资者的疑虑,他们担心中国市场已经接近饱和,但中国市场的需求仍然保持强劲。But Colin Gillis, an analyst, told the B that the firm’s ;complete dependence; on iPhone sales and growth in China was still a concern. ;Look at the PC market. People ask if that could ever happen to smartphones. Of course it could. And there are risks associated with its dependence on China,; he said.但是分析师Colin Gillis接受B采访时表示,苹果手机的销量完全依赖中国市场仍然是个问题。“看看私人电脑市场,人们就会问智能手机市场是否也会这样?是肯定的。完全依赖中国市场就会有很多冒险因素。”However, Mr Gillis said that investors should put the results into perspective.;Overall the results are stunning - it’s made bn in profit. But Apple is an outlier in many metrics, so you need to look at the performance relative to expectations,; he said.Gillis先生表示,投资者应当正确审视所取得的业绩。“总体来说,业绩确实让人震惊,盈利高达100亿美元。但是从很多指标来说,都是异常值,因此应当审视相对于预期的业绩表现。” /201507/389152。