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2019年05月26日 09:21:27 | 作者:康泰优惠 | 来源:新华社
Business this week本周经济要闻HewlettPackard decided to hive off its PCandprinter business and create a new company, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, to focus on servers, cloud computing and big data. It will be run by Meg Whitman, HPs boss. When she became chief executive three years ago Ms Whitman jettisoned the idea of spinning off the PC business. But with the rise of tablets HPs computer sales have suffered, falling 7% last year, according to Gartner, a consulting firm.惠普决定分出的个人电脑和打印机业务,创建一个专注于务器、云计算和处理大数据的新公司。这将由惠普的老板梅格·惠特曼亲自操刀,早在三年前惠特曼女士成为首席执行长的时候就有剥离个人电脑业务的想法。但据高德纳咨询公司的数据显示,随着平板电脑的兴起,惠普的电脑销量遭受重创,去年下降了7%。Samsungs announcement that profit in the third quarter had halved from the same period last year, its fourth consecutive quarterly drop, got some wondering how it would respond to the challenge of an increasingly saturated smartphone market. Squeezed between lowcost competitors and Apple, the South Korean companys share of that market has fallen further this year.三星宣布第三季度利润从去年同期减少了一半,这是它利润连续下降的第四个季度,众人都很疑惑它将如何应对智能手机市场日益饱和的挑战。低成本的竞争对手和苹果公司的夹缝中生存,这家韩国公司今年的市场份额再次下降。Back down to earth神话的破灭Rocket Internets stock continued to slide. The German company, which backs ecommerce startups, made a disappointing stockmarket debut on October 2nd, with its share price closing 13% down on the day after being priced at the top of the IPOs range. Still, Rocket raised 1.4 billion and said investors would be more interested in its long-term prospects.火箭网股价继续下滑。这家持电子商务的德国创业公司,在10月2日的首次上市就令人失望,在达到IPO价格区间的上限之后其股价在收盘时下跌13%。不过,火箭网依然筹资到了14亿欧元(约合18亿美元),并表示投资者对其长期前景更感兴趣。Facebook completed its takeover of WhatsApp. The deal is now valued at .8 billion, almost billion more than when it was announced in February, as the price of Facebooks shares, which are being paid out to WhatsApps investors, has risen since then. So has the number of people using WhatsApp, to 600m monthly active users.脸书现在完成对WhatsApp的收购工作。这次的交易金额估价218亿美元,脸书股票的价格比它在2月宣布时增长了将近30亿美元,股票收益将被付给WhatsApp的投资者。这也难怪WhatsApp的使用人数不断增加,每月的活跃用户达到了6亿。The slow-growth movement增速缓慢The IMFs latest assessment of the world economy weighed heavily on stockmarkets. Although the downward revision to overall world output for this year was small, estimates for Germany, Japan and Brazil were reduced considerably. The debt hangover and recession “still cast a shadow”, the IMF said, and investment after the recovery has been weaker than expected. Underscoring this, new figures for August recorded the biggest drop in German exports and industrial production since January .国际货币基金组织的最新评估显示,世界经济主要依赖于股票市场。虽然今年全球总体产出的下调幅度很小,但德国、日本和巴西等国的产出都大大减少。国际货币基金组织认为,全球经济依然停留在遗留的债务问题和经济衰退“造成的阴影”之中,经济复苏后的投资力度也弱于预期。值得强调的是,8月份新数据记录了年1月以来最大的降幅发生在德国出口和工业生产。The Bank of England gave British banks less than three months to submit plans on how they will ringfence their retail operations from riskier parts of their business, which the Vickers commission recommended in 2011. But the banks will have to present their proposals without knowing how much capital they will be expected to hold, details that the central bank will provide later next year.根据2011年维克斯委员会的建议,英国央行要求英国在不到三个月的时间里,提交关于如何在业务风险较高的地区限制其零售业务的计划。不得不在不知晓其资金数量的情况下提交他们的计划,央行也将在明年晚些时候提供详细资料。Responding to speculation in the markets Rio Tinto confirmed that it had been approached by Glencore during the summer about a takeover, but had turned it down. A merger would create the worlds biggest mining group. Ivan Glasenberg, Glencores chief executive, submitted the proposal personally to Rio Tinto; he is not known to be one for giving up so easily.为了应对市场的投机行为,力拓矿业集团实它已在夏季与嘉能可国际集团接洽收购事宜,但被拒绝了。这次的合并将创建世界上最大的矿业集团。嘉能可的首席执行官伊万·格拉森格亲自向力拓矿业集团提交提案,他并不是一个会轻言放弃的人。No magic kingdom没有魔法的王国The operator of Disneyland Paris was thrown a 1 billion lifeline by Walt Disney Company, its biggest shareholder. The theme park, which opened in 1992, is burdened by debt and has not made a profit for years, as attendance and hoteloccupancy rates have tumbled after the financial crisis.巴黎迪斯尼乐园的运营商抓住了一根救命稻草,其最大的股东华特迪士尼公司提供了10亿欧元(约合13亿美元)的赞助。这个于1992年开业的主题公园,负债累累而多年未曾盈利,金融危机之后游客的到访率和酒店入住率持续下跌。The Waldorf Astoria hotel in Manhattan was sold to a Chinese insurance company for .95 billion, or nearly .4m a room. The hotel, which opened its doors to visitors in 1931, is to undergo a big renovation to restore it to its former glory. Some of its 1,413 rooms could possibly be turned into apartments.在曼哈顿的华尔道夫酒店以19.5亿美元的价格(每个房间的售价约140万美元)被卖给一家中国保险公司。酒店于1931年对游客开放,它正在进行一场大改造,以恢复它昔日的光。其中1413个房间可能会变成公寓。译者:徐牧之 校对:董思琪 译文属译生译世201410/336880听力参考文本:Still less than a year out of its historic bankruptcy, Detroits successes and failures continue to make headlines.The city may have shed most of its debt, but it continues to lose population – down more than 60% of its 1950 population of 1.8 million.Take that shrinking population and couple it with Mayor Mike Duggans ongoing push to tear down blighted buildings, and you get a lot of empty land.Bill McGraws latest story for Bridge Magazine looks at Mayor Duggans blueprint for redesigning Detroit.McGraw tells us that the citys rise in vacant land is directly linked to its drastically shrinking population.;Even in the last census period from 2000 to 2010 the city lost a quarter of its population,; he says, adding that we wont really know how things have changed in the last five years until the next census is completed.According to McGraw, 23 of Detroits 140 square miles are now vacant land.The vacant land is scattered throughout the city, but when combined, thats as much as the land surface area of Manhattan, ;and theres more all the time.;;One of the things Mayor Duggan is doing is hes tearing down houses at a faster rate than any previous mayor,; McGraw tells us.City planners and mayors have historically seen vacant land as a bad sign, but Detroits looking at it differently.Under the citys new planning director Maurice Cox, ;They have decided that vacant land can be productive, and it can be used in a number of different ways,; McGraw says.Those include using vacant land for parks and other recreation spaces, as well as developing ;so-called blue and green infrastructure,; according to McGraw.As an example of the latter, he tells us that its much cheaper to turn the vacant land into receptacles for storm water, rather than deal with the effects of letting it run into the sewer system and causing it to overflow into the Detroit River.He adds that simply taking the vacant land and making it look nice and rural can go a long way toward improving the quality of life for residents.Further, McGraw tells us theres an increasing movement by both the city and its citizens to convert vacant lots into productive agricultural zones.It all boils down to the citys acceptance of the fact that with its smaller population, it cant afford to put more buildings on that land.Instead of seeing so much vacant land as a symbol of failure, theyre moving forward and finding constructive and productive ways to make use of it.Bill McGraws story, Redesigning Detroit: Mayor Mike Duggans blueprint unveiled can be found at bridgemi.com and also at MLive.com.201508/394029Corporate taxation企业税务Death of the Double Irish计划夭折The Irish government plans to alter one of its more controversial tax policies爱尔兰政府计划改变其一项颇具争议的税收政策BONO may front one of the worlds most popular rock bands, but the U2 singer did not earn many new fans when he recently defended Irelands controversial tax policies, which are widely seen as helping multinationals to avoid paying their fair share. Even Irelands government seems to be having doubts. On October 14th it announced plans to close the countrys biggest loophole, the “Double Irish”.BONO 也许面对的是世界上最流行的摇滚乐队之一,但是U2最近并没有因为爱尔兰有争议的税收政策做辩护而增加新的粉丝,而这一税收政策被广泛认为是在帮助跨国公司避税,而这些税本是公平份额。甚至爱尔兰政府似乎也有些疑虑。10月14日,其宣布了用以弥补国家最大漏洞的“Double Irish”计划。The Double Irish allows companies to shift their profits from high-tax countries to havens. This is typically done by transferring royalty payments for intellectual property to a firm inIreland, then on to another Irish-registered subsidiary that is tax-resident in a country with no corporate-income tax, such as Bermuda. Users can thereby cut their effective tax rate—perfectly legally—far below Irelands aly low 12.5% rate, in some cases down to less than 2%. The ruse is popular with American computing and pharmaceutical firms.“Double Irish”计划可以使公司收益更多,把高税收国家变成了天堂。这通常是通过将知识产权特许使用金转入一家位于爱尔兰的公司,而后转入另一家在爱尔兰注册的子公司,该子公司为某一国家没有企业所得税纳税居民,如百慕大。用户因此可以缩减其有效税率,使其远远低于爱尔兰已经很低12.5%的税率,在某些情况下,甚至可以低于2%,且完全合法。这一策略在美国计算机公司及制药公司中被普遍使用。From January all new companies domiciled inIrelandwill also have to be tax-residents there, making the Double Irish impossible.Irelandis acting under pressure from America, the European Commission and the OECD, which are working on multilateral reform of international tax rules to curb avoidance. This is not the first time it has buckled. Last year it made it illegal for firms registered inIrelandto declare themselves stateless for tax purposes.从一月起,所有在爱尔兰注册的新公司将不得不成为这里纳税居民,这使得“Double Irish”计划不可能再有后续进展。爱尔兰在行动的同时还要要考虑来着美国,欧盟委员会和经济合作与发展组织的压力,它们正致力于多边国际税法改革以遏制避税行为。这已经不是第一次改革了。去年其使得在爱尔兰注册的公司为避税而宣布其无国籍的行为变得非法。The retreat has kindled fears that foreign firms, many of which moved to Ireland largely for its tax policies, will leave for more accommodating climes. (As it is, a clampdown on avoidance in America seems to have deterred AbbVie, a drugs firm, from taking over Shire, a rival based inIreland.) Yet the government is giving with one hand even as it takes with the other. On the same day it did away with the Double Irish, it created a “knowledge development box”, which will allow firms to pay a lower tax rate on profits from intellectual property booked inIreland. The OECD has tried, unsuccessfully, to limit this type of tax benefit, which is also known as a “patent box”. Moreover, the Double Irish wont die overnight. Companies aly registered in Ireland are being given six years to alter their accounting structures.“Double Irish”计划的衰落引发了外国公司的担心,许多外国公司是由于爱尔兰的税收政策才迁入爱尔兰的,他们将离开爱尔兰去寻找政策更好的地方。(实际上,打压美国公司的避税行为似乎是在阻止AbbVie制药公司取代其竞争对手——源于爱尔兰的Shire。)然而,政府一只手在奉献,另一只手却在掠夺。摒弃了“Double Irish”计划的同一天,政府又创建了一个“知识发展盒子”计划,该计划使得公司利用登记在爱尔兰的知识产权盈利时所应缴纳的所得税税率更低。经济合作与发展组织尝试过去限制此类被称为“专利盒子”税收优惠,但失败了。此外,“Double Irish”计划不会在一夜之间魂飞魄散。已经在爱尔兰注册的公司会被给予6年的时间以改变其会计结构。Irelands move will raise pressure on other countries that are seen as enablers of rampant tax avoidance, even if they are not themselves havens, thanks to their business-friendly networks of tax treaties. Chief among them are Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Bono knows all about the fiscal delights of the Low Countries: in 2006, U2 moved the firm that houses its publishing royalties from Ireland to the Netherlands, largely for tax reasons.爱尔兰的举动会给那些被视为猖獗的避税行为推动者的国家带来压力,即使他们也不是避税天堂,多亏了他们的亲商税收条约网络。这其中最主要的国家是卢森堡和荷兰。Bono很清楚低税收国家的财政喜悦:在2006年,U2将其出版公司从爱尔兰迁到荷兰,很大程度上是出于税收的原因。译者:川端 译文属译生译世 /201410/336586

Corporate tax in America美国的公司税How to stop the inversion perversion如何阻止歪曲的误解Restricting companies from moving abroad is no substitute for corporate-tax reform限制公司出境并不能成为公司税改革的替代品ECONOMIC refugees have traditionally lined up to get into America. Lately, they have been lining up to leave. In the past few months, half a dozen biggish companies have announced plans to merge with foreign partners and in the process move their corporate homes abroad. The motive is simple: corporate taxes are lower in Ireland, Britain and, for that matter, almost everywhere else than they are in America.经济难民历来都是排着队进美国的。然而 最近他们却开始排队离开。在过去的几个月里,许多较大的公司已经宣布计划与外国合作伙伴合并,并在这个过程中把他们的企业转移到国外。它们的动机很简单:从企业税的角度考虑,不管是爱尔兰、英国还是机会其他的任何国家都比美国的要低。In Washington, DC, policymakers have reacted with indignation. Jack Lew, the treasury secretary, has questioned the companiespatriotism and called on Congress to outlaw such transactions. His fellow Democrats are eager to oblige, and some Republicans are willing to listen.在华盛顿特区,政策制定者们表现的愤懑不已。财政部长杰克·卢表示质疑这些公司是否爱国并呼吁国会取缔此类交易。他的民主党同僚们也表示认同,而一些共和党人也原意听取意见。The proposals are misguided. Tightening the rules on corporate “inversions”, as these moves are called, does nothing to deal with the reason why so many firms want to leave: America has the rich worlds most dysfunctional corporate-tax system. It needs fundamental reform, not new complications.这些提议有着误导性。加强对企业的这些所谓的“转位”规则,却不能解释为什么这么多的企业想要离开:在富裕国家里,美国拥有最不正常的企业税制。它需要的是根本性的改革,而不是新的并发症。Americas corporate tax has two horrible flaws. The first is the tax rate, which at 35% is the highest among the 34 mostly rich-country members of the OECD. Yet it raises less revenue than the OECD average thanks to myriad loopholes and tax breaks aimed at everything from machinery investment to NASCAR race tracks. Last year these breaks cost 0 billion in forgone revenue, more than half of what America collected in total corporate taxes.美国的企业税有两个可怕的漏洞。首先是税率,35%的税率是经合组织34个最富裕成员国中最高的。然而,它的收益却比经合组织的平均水平要低,这是由无数准备投入到 NASCAR赛道机械投资带来的漏洞和税收减免造成的。在去年损失的收入中,减免的税收就占了1500亿美元,超过美国征得的公司税总额的一半。The second flaw is that America levies tax on a companys income no matter where in the world it is earned. In contrast, every other large rich country taxes only income earned within its borders. Here, too, Americas system is absurdly ineffective at collecting money. Firms do not have to pay tax on foreign profits until they bring them back home. Not surprisingly, many do not: American multinationals have some trillion sitting on their foreign unitsbalance-sheets, and growing.第二个漏洞就是不管公司在哪里获得的收入,美国都会对它征税。相反,在其它任意一个发达国家,只会对公司在境内获得的收入征税。在这方面,美国的制度对征集税费所取得的效果甚微。只有当公司把境外收益带回国内时,它们才不得不交税。毫不奇怪,很多公司都没有交税:美国跨国公司把2万亿美元的资产都划到它们国外公司的资产负债表中,而且越来越多。All this imposes big costs on the economy. The high rate discourages investment and loopholes distort it, because decisions are driven by tax considerations rather than a projects economic merits. The tax rate companies actually pay varies wildly, depending on their type of business and the creativity of their lawyers: some pay close to zero, others the full 35%.所有这些都会加大经济成本。由于作出的决定是从税收角度出发,而非一个项目的经济利益角度,高税率和税率漏洞都不利于投资。公司被征得的税率取决于它们的业务种类和律师的创造力:一些几乎不需交税,而有些则高达35%。Twenty years ago inversions were rare. But as other countries chopped their rates and Americas stayed the same, the incentive to flee grew. Until a decade ago Bermuda and other tax havens were the destination of choice, until Congress banned inversions where less than 20% of the company changed hands. Democrats have proposed expanding that prohibition to any transaction where less than 50% of the company changes hands—so an American company that bought a smaller foreign firm could not reincorporate abroad if its original shareholders remained in charge. Such a ban would be at best a temporary palliative. An American company paying higher taxes than its foreign competitors has a powerful incentive to find a way around the rules. Consultants are aly coming up with dodges in case this proposal becomes law.由于二十年前,税收倒置不常见。但是随着其它国家削减它们的税收,美国保持不变,越来越多的公司逃税。直到十天前,百慕达等避税天堂成为首选的目的地,直到国会取消少于公司现金转手20%的税收倒置。民主党提议,将禁止公司现金转手扩大到少于50%—所以一个收购了国外小公司的美国公司,如果原股东仍对公司负责,那么该公司不能在国外重新组合。这种禁令暂时是很好的,但是却不能治本。一个比国外竞争者要上缴更多税收的美国公司,有更大的动力去发现身边的规则。如果这个建议变成法律条文,顾问已经想出了逃避的方法。Home, sweeter home家,更甜蜜的家The real solution is to lower the corporate rate, eliminate tax breaks and move America from a worldwide system to a territorial one. Barack Obama has proposed a reform that cuts the rate to 28% but keeps the worldwide reach. Dave Camp, a Republican congressman, has plumped for 25%, the OECD average, and a shift to a territorial system, instead.真正的解决办法是降低企业税率,取消税收减免,将美国从一个世界范围的体系转移到局部地区。奥巴马提议将税率降低到28,但要在全球范围进行改革。相反,共和党国会议员大卫·卡普坚决持25%,达到经合组织的平均水平,并转移到一个局部系统。It should be possible to bridge the differences. But both sides have tied the subject to other issues. Mr Obama insists that corporate-tax reform must also raise more money to spend on things like public infrastructure, which the Republicans oppose; they, in turn, want to package it with cuts in personal tax rates, which Mr Obama is loth to accept. Thus, nothing happens.它应该可以弥补差异。但是双方都将这一主题牵涉到其它问题上。奥巴马坚持认为,企业税改革也必须筹集更多的钱用在类的东西的公共基础设施,其中共和党人反对; 反过来,他们,想把它用在个人所得税税率削减包,奥巴马却很不情愿接受。因此,没有取得进展。The two sides should drop their conditions and hammer out a stand-alone corporate-tax reform that reduces the rate and broadens the base. Until then, expect the line-up of corporate migrants to grow.双方应放弃他们的条件,并制定出一个独立的法人税改革,降低税率,扩大基地。在此之前,期待企业移民的快速增长。译者:李聪 译文属译生译世 /201506/379670

These footprints belong to one of the biggest land animals in Australia.这些脚印属于澳大利亚最大的陆地动物之一。The cassowary, a flightless bird thats almost as tall as a person.食火鸟,一种不会飞的有一人高的鸟。Its claws wouldnt look put of place on a dinosaur.它的爪子和恐龙很像。And its kick is so violent that the cassowary is said to be the worlds most dangerous bird.它的腿上功夫极为了得,以致于食火鸟被认为是世界上最危险的鸟类。A parent is particularly dangerous when rearing a chick.育雏时期的父母尤其可怕。In fact, the cassowary is shy and is rarely seen in the wild, but its a key animal here.事实上,食火鸟很害羞,很难在野外发现它们,但它是这里的关键物种。It feeds on the fruits of rain forest trees and shrubs.它以雨林的树木和灌木的果实为食。Its one of the few animals that sp their seeds.是少数几种传播植物种子的动物之一。The seeds of many forest trees cant germinate without the animals life, the cassowary.许多树木的种子不能自己发芽,需要像食火鸡这样的动物帮忙。As the forest is directly link to the reef by regulating sediments entering the lagoon, the cassowary contributes to the health of the reef itself.雨林通过调节进入环礁湖的沉积物,使森林和礁石直接相连,食火鸡也为礁石的健康做出了贡献。 201505/373584

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