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成都/百变妆颜学院韩式半永久纹眉多少钱安优惠

2019年09月23日 04:23:30|来源:国际在线|编辑:妙手分享
Science and technology科学技术Athletic performance运动员的表现Faster, higher, no longer更快,更高已成往事Is it time to update the Olympic credo?是时候更改奥运会信条了?ON AUGUST 5th millions of people will watch the 100-metre final at the London Olympics.数百万人将在8月5日观看伦敦奥运会的一百米决赛。Many will wonder if anyone can repeat Usain Bolts feat in Berlin in , when the Jamaican clocked 9.58 seconds, lopping 0.11 seconds—aeons in a sprint—off the previous world record, which he set at the 2008 Beijing games.许多人都想知道谁能重现尔特奇迹,09年的柏林世界田径锦标赛上,尔特以9秒58的成绩刷新了自己在08年北京奥运会创下的记录,这缩短的0.11秒在短跑界已经算是巨大的超越了。One person who thinks this unlikely is Mark Denny.有人认为没人能做到,他就是马克丹尼。Another 0.11 seconds would take the time below what Dr Denny, from Stanford University, reckons is the absolute limit of human athletic performance in the 100-metre dash.在斯坦福大学的丹尼士看来,再缩短0.11秒就超过了运动员在百米冲刺表现中的极限。In 2008 Dr Denny published a paper in which he crunched through the highest speeds achieved each year in running events from sprints to the marathon, some dating back to 1900.2008年丹尼曾经发表了一篇论文,他在其中收集了从短跑到马拉松等每年的赛跑项目的最佳成绩,有的甚至可以追溯到1900年。A statistical technique called extreme-value analysis discerned trends and the maximum possible deviations from them.利用一种叫极限价值分析法的统计技术可以看到数据走向,并由此计算出最大可能性。For the 100 metres, the human speed limit is 10.55 metres per second.就100米而言,人类的速度极限是每秒10.55米。This translates to 9.48 seconds.所以人类一百米最好成绩应该是9.48秒。Predicting the limits of human athletic prowess has been a popular parlour game among number crunchers.估算运动员的能力极限是数据分析家们最热衷的室内游戏。One study from 1992 had female marathon runners drawing level with men by 1998, to complete the 42.195km course in just under two hours and two minutes.有一项研究在1992年到1998年间以统一标准要求男女马拉松运动员,即在2小时2分以内跑完42.195。A more recent analysis from 2004 suggested that male and female 100-metre times will converge in 2156, at 8.08 seconds.2004年的一项研究分析曾预示,到2156年,男女一百米运动员的成绩都将达到8.08秒。Nowadays sport statisticians view such calculations as flawed because they relied on linear extrapolations.现在的体育统计员们认为,这些计算还不尽完善,因为它们是以线性推断为基础的。They prefer to fit data to variants of a “logistic” curve.它们倾向于用数据去迎合“逻辑”曲线上的变量。This produces an S-shaped plot more in line with the intuition that performance starts off relatively flat.由此绘制出的S型图表更符合最初阶段相对平庸的表现。It then goes through a period of rapid improvement as more people take part and more systematic approaches to training and nutrition get more out of them.随着参与人数的不断增多和培养训练方式的更加系统化,这个图表会在一段时间内快速上升。It finally levels off as athletes inch towards the most a body can manage.但随着运动员逐渐接近生理极限,图表会慢慢趋于平缓。This aly seems to be happening.现在的情况似乎正是如此。According to Dr Denny female marathon runners have, in effect, reached their peak.丹尼士表示马拉松女运动员实际上已经达到顶峰。In a 2010 study Geoffroy Berthelot, of Frances National Institute of Sport, showed that performance in 23 out of 36 track-and-field events has stagnated since 1993.法国国家体育协会的杰弗罗伊贝森罗特在2010年的一项调查中指出,在36项田径赛事中,有23项的运动员表现自1993年以后就一直停滞不前。The remaining 13 have seen only small increments.而剩下的13项就算有所提高也是微乎其微。Pool performance表现欠佳In swimming, Dr Berthelot found that all 34 events have seen improvements since 2000, though this may have been aided by the now banned slick, full-body swimsuits which helped competitors in Beijing smash 22 world records.而在游泳界,贝森罗特士发现34项比赛自2000年起都有一定进步,虽然这可能要归功于现在禁止穿光滑的套身泳衣的规定,该规定曾帮助运动员在北京奥运会上打破了22项世界纪录。Before 2000, performance in 16 events had been becalmed, though not in the 400-metres individual medley, which may explain why Chinas 16-year-old Ye Shiwen shaved a second off the world record and in the final leg stoked controversy by being quicker than the mens medley champion.2000年之前,在16项游泳比赛中,运动员的表现已经出现瓶颈,但是400米混合泳除外,这也许解释了为什么中国的16岁小将叶诗文落后世界记录一秒并在最后一圈的速度甚至超过了男子混合泳冠军的表现会引发争议。But Alan Nevill, of Wolverhampton University in Britain, reckons this is within the bounds of possibility for the 400-metres womens freestyle: a proxy, albeit an imperfect one, for the last leg of the medley.但是英国伍尔夫汉普顿大学的艾伦奈维尔确认为,这在女子四百米自由泳中是可能出现的:虽然不太可能实现,但仍算混合泳最后一圈的一个指标Drugs and technological tricks aside, ensuring that future Olympics live up to their motto of “faster, higher, stronger” may thus require some other performance-boosting tricks.抛开兴奋剂使用和技术作假不说,要保以后的奥运会不辜负“更高,更快,更强”的信条,可能要采取一切其他的技巧来促进运动员的表现。Steve Haake, of Sheffield Hallam University in Britain, points to a notable blip in the figures for the 100-metre dash.英国谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学的史蒂芬哈基指出了一百米数据中一个明显的尖峰信号。In 1968 the average of the best times of the top 25 athletes was much better than trend.1968年世界排名前25的运动员的最佳成绩要比整体趋势好得多。This, Dr Haake explains, is because those Olympic games were held in Mexico City.哈基士认为这是因为当时的奥运会实在墨西哥城举办的。At an altitude of 2,240 metres the air there is a fifth thinner than at sea level, providing 20% less drag—a boon to sprinters who, unlike their endurance counterparts, run anaerobically, and so need not worry about the diminished supply of oxygen.在海拔高达2,240的地方,空气要比海平面稀薄五倍,因此阻力也下降了20%,这是短跑选手的福利,和耐力型长跑运动员不同,他们进行的是无氧跑步,所以也不必担心供氧不足的问题。Eight of the 25 best times that year were recorded at the games, and most of the remaining 17 were at higher-than-usual altitudes where athletes prepared for the main event.当年的25个最佳成绩中,有8个打破了世界纪录,剩下的17个中的大多数都出自海拔较高的地方,那儿的运动员都在为主赛事做准备。The reduced drag may have helped Bob Beamons 8.9-metre long jump, in which the American added 55cm to the world record.也许下降的空气阻力还帮助鲍勃比蒙取得了跳远8.9米的好成绩,由此美国又为世界纪录增加了55厘米。Of that, 31cm was down to a tail wind combined with the altitude.高海拔加上顺风让鲍勃多跳了31米。Statistics suggest that feats like those of Messrs Bolt and Beamon are increasingly improbable.统计数据表明,像尔特和比蒙这样的好成绩越来越难以出现。But are they impossible?但是绝无可能吗?Peter Weyand, of Southern Methodist University in Texas, has shown that whereas the peak force which elite sprinters apply to the track is more than four times their body weight, they can squeeze even more out of their muscles.德克萨斯州南卫理公会教大学的彼得韦安德表示鉴于顶尖的短跑选手所爆发出来的最大力量是其体重的4倍,他们的肌肉还是可以挤出更多力量的。Dr Weyand found that the forces generated while athletes hopped on one leg as fast as they could on a high-speed tmill were roughly twice as high as during running at top speed.韦安德还发现,运动员在一座高速运转的跑步机上尽可能快的单脚跳跃时所迸发出的力量大约是他们在以最快速度奔跑时所迸发出来的两倍。This translated into 30% more ground force.这就是说运动员在地面奔跑还能爆发出30%的力量。Since ground force is the main determinant of sprinting speed, Dr Weyands results imply that human muscles are capable of producing enough oomph to propel sprinters one-third faster than Mr Bolts record.既然地面力量是冲刺速度的主要决定因素,韦安德士的研究结果表示,人类肌肉还能释放出足够的力量,可以帮助运动员跑得比尔特年创下的世界纪录还要快三分之一。The reason they have not is that in the normal, two-legged gait the foot is in contact with the ground for only around one-tenth of a second, 0.05 seconds less than when hopping.之所以没有出现这样的情况是因为在正常情况下,双腿跑动时,脚和地面的接触时间仅有十分之一秒,比跳跃时少0.05秒。As a consequence, muscle fibres do not have enough time to contract to their full potential.所以肌肉组织没有足够时间释放它们的潜力。Although tapping all this force while sprinting seems biomechanically inconceivable, there may be scope for slight alterations in training and gait, focused on increasing the peak power available to sprinters.虽然从生物医学的角度来看,在短跑时发挥出全部力量似乎是难以置信的,但也许在训练和步伐上还有改进的余地,可以关注如何提高运动员所能调动出的最大力量。For his part, Dr Denny would be thrilled to see any athlete breach his limits, but he isnt putting any money on it.如果有人能打破这个极限丹尼士一定会很激动,但他可不会在这上面押钱。 /201402/276494You know, radio is a great thing.要知道,收音机是伟大的发明。Here I am! Flying high abovethe earth, but my voice is coming across just as if I were sitting in front of you.现在,我在演播厅,可是,我的声音让你觉得我就在你面前。Communicating by voice alone has its drawbacks, though.但是,光凭声音沟通是有缺点的。For example, I cant use hand gestures to clarify what I mean.比如,我现在无法用手势来表达自己。And, as it turns out, that makes a big difference.这说明手势对沟通很重要。Researchers at the University of Otago in New Zealand wanted to know how much a relevant hand gesture helps to communicate an idea.新西兰奥塔拉大学的研究,想知道相关的手势对表达想法有多少帮助。They had volunteers watch clips of a woman saying different simple phrases, such as “the square box,” or “peel the banana.”志愿者被要求观看视频短片,短片中有个女人在说各种简单短语,比如,“方盒子”、“剥香蕉”。In some, she simply said the phrase without moving her hands.第一组志愿观看的视频中,她只是说出来,而不做任何手势。Peel the banana. In others, shemade the kind of hand gesture most of us would make when saying that-a sort of banana-peeling mime that matches the content of the phrase.但是,第二组志愿观看的视频中,她模仿默剧,做剥香蕉手势。In a third group, she made gestures with her hands that were unrelated to what she was saying.在第三组志愿观看的视频中,她做了一些和剥香蕉毫不相干的手势。The results?结果是什么呢?People who got the matching content hand gestures remembered those phrasesmore effectively than folks who got just the words alone.第二组志愿者比第一组记得更好;而第一组比第三组记得更好!What does this show us?这说明什么呢?We aly knew that all the hand-waving we do when we speak isntjust nervous energy; it serves various functions.我们在说话时所做的手势,除了情绪表达还有更多其它用处。Apparently, one of them is to help the listener remember what youve said.很显然,手势有助于听者记忆。 201407/309042Anyone who s gothic fiction will tell you that vampires arebad news.读过哥特小说的人都会说吸血蝙蝠是个讨厌的东西。People who modern medical journals, however,might disagree-in fact, they think vampires just might help savelives.而那些读现代医学杂志的人也许不同意这样的观点,他们认为吸血蝠能帮助拯救生命。The kind of vampire Im talking about is Desmodus rotundus, commonly known as the “vampirebat.”我说的是圆形叶口蝠,俗称“吸血蝙蝠”。Yep, these little creatures are real; and even though they almost never turn into suave Romanian counts to drool over, they do drool a lot themselves.是的,这些小家伙是真实的,尽管它们几乎没有垂涎于温雅的罗马利亚人,但它们却经常流口水,Thats because their saliva is anessential part of their dining habits.因为唾液是它们饮食习惯中的必不可少的一部分。When a vampire bat latches onto, say, a steer, it needs to keep the blood flowing from the puncture made by its teeth.当吸血蝙蝠缠在,比如一直公牛身上时,必须保持血液从牙齿咬开的孔流过。Thats achieved by a natural anti-coagulant in the vampire batssaliva.这是通过蝙蝠唾液里一种天然的抗凝血剂来实现的。Despite what you see in the movies, vampire bats almost never drink human blood.尽管你会在电影里看到,吸血蝙蝠几乎从来不吸人的血。But people do suffer from other blood problems-a leading one being stroke.但人类患有其它血液疾病—最重要的就是中风。Stroke is caused by a clotting in the blood which stops the flow and can starve areas of the brain of oxygen.中风是由于血液凝结成块阻碍其流动,从而导致大脑部分缺氧。Doctors have generally broken up clots with a compound called tPA.医生们已经找到了分解血液凝块的化合物,就是tPA。TPA works okay,but it has dangerous side effects, and can even hurt brain cells.TPA很有效,但具有危险的副作用,甚至会损伤脑细胞。A better idea?有更好的主意吗?Bring in the bats, says researcher Robert Medcalf, a biochemist from Australia.澳大利亚生物化学家,Robert Medcalf对蝙蝠进行研究。Vampire bat spit contains a different compound, DSPA, which does the good things tPA does withfar fewer side-effects.吸血蝙蝠的唾液中含有一种不同的化合物,DSPA,它能够帮助减少tPA引起的副作用,DSPA is now being tried on patients who have suffered a stroke; the datashould be in within a year.DSPA现在正在患有中风病人身上测试,结果将于一年内揭晓。If it works, doctors might have found an unlikely friend–the vampire bat.如果有效的话,医生们也许多一位意想不到的朋友—吸血蝙蝠。201407/311505

Business商业报道German weapons firms德国武器公司No farewell to arms不和武器说再见Political pressure and bribery allegations are unlikely to hurt Germanys exporters of military equipment.看起来政治压力和受贿指控都不会影响德国的军事装备出口公司。SINCE the second world war, Germany has rarely sent soldiers to combat zones.自二战以来,德国几乎不曾向战争地区派兵。But it exports a lot of weapons: more than Britain, France or any other country besides America and Russia.然而它却出口了大量武器:超过英国、法国以及除美国、俄罗斯之外的所有其他国家。Some German makers of military gear are part of civilian industrial giants, such as Airbus Group, and ThyssenKrupp, a steelmaker.德国的武器制造商中有些隶属于私有的工业巨头,比如空客集团,还有钢铁制造商蒂森克虏伯集团。But the biggest German company known mainly for weapons, Rheinmetall, is just 26th in the world league of arms-exporting firms.然而,即使是德国著名的以武器业务为主的公司中最大的莱茵金属公司,在世界武器出口公司中也仅仅排在26位。And Krauss Maffei Wegmann, which makes the Leopard 2 tank, is 54th.而制造出豹2坦克的Krauss Maffei Wegmann则位居54位。Germans are, in general, proud of their export prowess.总的来说,德国对自己的出口实力感到骄傲。But although foreign sales of weaponry bring in almost 1 billion a year, they are a delicate subject, and lately beset by bad press.但是尽管武器外贸带来了将近10亿欧元一年的利润,这是一项非常微妙的行业,并且近日承受的巨大压力。Several German firms are accused of bribery in Greece.数家德国公司被指控在希腊行贿。A former defence official there has said that of 8m in bribes he took, 3.2m came from German firms, including Wegmann and Rheinmetall.希腊一位前国防部官员曾说,在他被行贿的800万欧元中有320万来自于德国公司,其中包括Wegman和莱茵金属公司。On January 3rd KMWs alleged middleman was detained after a court hearing.在1月3日,一位宣称的KMW中间人在庭审后被拘留。The firm itself denies any bribery.该公司自己否认有行贿行为。Atlas, a maker of naval weapons owned jointly by Airbus and ThyssenKrupp, is under fire too.空客集团和蒂森克虏伯共有的海军武器制造商Atlas也正受到打击。A former representative in Athens has reportedly admitted to bribery; the company says it is investigating the matter.一位前雅典代表在报道中承认行贿;该公司则表示其正在进行调查。On another front, the industry faces criticism over the countries it sells to—most recently over a deal to sell Leopard 2s to Saudi Arabia.另一方面,该产业因其售卖武器的对象而受到批评—最近是因为向沙特阿拉伯卖出豹2。Arms sales to anywhere other than NATO and NATO-equivalent countries are in principle forbidden.向北约以及北约等同国家以外的国家和地区销售武器从原则上说是禁止的。But the Federal Security Council, headed by Chancellor Angela Merkel, can approve exceptions when foreign policy dictates, as long as they do not harm human rights.但是由总理安吉拉默克尔领导的联邦安全局可以在外交政策需要时批准一些特殊情况,只要他们对于人权没有损害。Peace campaigners fear that the exceptions are becoming less exceptional.和平活动者们担心这些些特殊情况正变得越来越不特殊。NATO countries budgets are being squeezed, so Germanys armsmakers are looking farther abroad.北约国家正紧缩财政,因而德国武器制造商们只能将目光转向了远方的国家。Rheinmetall, for example, has a target of 50% of exports outside Europe by 2015.比如,莱茵金属基团计划在2015年前将欧洲以外地区的出口比重提高到50%。Asia is a growing target: Singapore recently signed a 1.6 billion deal for ThyssenKrupp submarines.亚洲是一个快速成长的目标:新加坡最近签署了一份价值16亿欧元的合同用于购买蒂森克虏伯潜艇。German small arms are also popular. Heckler amp; Kochs G3 rifle is the worlds most popular after the Russian AK-47.德国的小型武器同样很受欢迎。赫克勒-科赫G3步的受欢迎程度仅次于俄国的AK47。Germany was a leader in pushing the UN to restrict the flow of small arms to war-torn countries.德国是推动联合国限制对战争频繁地区的小型武器出售的领导者之一。But such weapons leak across borders nonetheless.尽管如此,此类武器依然会进入这些地区。This is why Helmut Schmidt, a former chancellor, in December urged Germany to restrict arms exports, calling gun deaths a slow-motion Hiroshima and Nagasaki.这也是为何前总理赫尔穆特施密特在12月督促德国限制武器出口,他称引发死亡如同慢性的广岛和长崎原子弹爆炸。His fellow Social Democrat, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, promised to restrict sales if his party made it into government after last Septembers elections.他的社会民主党同僚,弗兰克沃尔特施泰因迈尔曾承诺如果去年9月选举后其党派成功执政,就会限制武器出口。It did: Mr Steinmeier is now foreign minister, and sits on the Federal Security Council.这一条件已经实现:施泰因迈尔现在是外交部长,并任职于联邦安全委员会。But Germanys arms exports are probably in little danger, since they have the same reputation for reliability as its cars and other industrial goods.但是德国的武器出口看似并无危险,因为它的武器产品在可靠性方面有着和汽车及其他工业产品一样的好名声。Even Pieter Wezeman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a critic of weapons sales, compares a Heckler amp; Koch gun to a high-quality Leica camera.甚至斯特哥尔和平研究所的Pieter Wezeman,一位武器销售的批评者,也将赫克勒-科赫比作质量优异的徕卡相机。Though German soldiers mostly stay clear of combat zones, German weapons are battle-tested; Leopard tanks in the former Yugoslavia and Afghanistan, for example.虽然德国士兵不曾踏足战争区域,德国的武器可是经过实战检验的;豹型坦克就曾现身前南斯拉夫和阿富汗。Moreover, there are ways to lessen the controversy of selling things used to wage war.此外,还有许多方法来减少战争武器销售的争议性。For example, making guns for a fighter jet assembled elsewhere is less visible than selling a German-made tank.比如,为在其他地区组装的战斗机制造同直接卖出德国制造的坦克相比要不显眼许多。Military transport, logistics, surveillance and protective equipment together account for five times as much of German defence firms output as weapons and ammunition—and are less likely to be blamed for civilian casualties.军事运输设备、后勤物资、监视和防护设备总计是德国国防公司武器和军火出口额的5倍,而且这些生意不会受到引发平民死亡的谴责。Stephan Boehm, an analyst at Commerzbank, sees such non-lethal materiel as a bright spot for German exporters.德国商业的分析师Stephan Boehm将这些非致密材料看做是德国出口的闪光点。The flagging fortunes of Rheinmetall, in particular, should be restored by strong sales of the armoured transporters it produces in a joint venture with MAN, a lorry-maker.需要指出的是,莱茵金属公司的巨大财富中不少就源自于它和货车制造商MAN联合制造的装甲运输车辆的良好销量业绩。Critics say the government is too willing to let arms firms export to dodgy regimes.不少批评认为政府太想要将武器公司出口到过于冒险的区域。The Federation of German Security amp; Defence Industries argues that strong exports are crucial to sp the development costs of the equipment Germany needs to defend itself.德国安全和国防工业联合会争辩说繁荣的武器出口对于分担德国发展国防设备的花费至关重要。This would be less of a problem, the lobby group admits, if Europes fragmented defence industry were consolidated; it says the government should not have vetoed a proposal last year to merge EADS with BAE Systems of Britain.游说者们也承认,如果欧洲散乱的国防工业能得到统一的话,这个问题就会小很多;他们还提到,政府不应在去年否决EADS和英国的BAE System合并的提议。Weapons account for less than 1% of Germanys exports.武器出口在德国总出口中所占比重不足1%。But it is a 1% that it, like other countries, is loth to give up.但是如同其他国家一样,德国无法割舍这1%。 /201401/273294

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