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2019年07月22日 05:06:54来源:美丽健康

Multiplication Table九九乘法表Chinese students are no strangers to the multiplication table. Known as jiujiu biao(Nine-nines rhyme),the multiplication table was aly very popular as early as the seventh century in China according to historical very popular as early as the seventh century in China according to historical records.It was titled this because when it was taught one would start with “nine times nine ( 9x9)”and work his or her way down to “1x1”.In today’s schools in China.students start with“1x1”and work their way up.中国的学生都背过九九乘法表。据史料记载,早在公元前7世纪,九九乘法表(亦称九九歌诀)在中国已广为人知。之所以称之为九九表,原因在于,古代的乘法口诀从“九九八十一”开始,一直到“一一得一”。今天则反其道而行之,从“一一得一”开始,一直到“九九八十一”。Recent archeological finds shows that a multiplication table found at the Guren-di cultural relics of the Eastern Han Dynasty in Zhangjiajie of Central China’s Hunan Province was amazingly consistent with the table of today, although the handwrit-ing on the table is quite illegible. The table was discovered on a 22cm long wooden strip,which was broken when it was discovered. Previously, another 2,200-year-old bamboo strip from the Qin Dynasty with the carving of the multiplication table was found in the ancient Liye City in western Hunan Province,which is the earliest calculation table ever found in China.根据考古专家在湖南张家界古人堤汉代遗址出土的简犊上发现的汉代“九九乘法表”,竟与现今生活中使用的乘法口诀表有着惊人的一致。这枚记载有“九九乘法表”的简犊是木质的,大约有22厘米长,残损比较严重。此前在湘西里耶古城出土的一枚秦简上也发现了距今2200多年的乘法口诀表,并被考为中国现今发现的最早的乘法口诀表实物。Another multiplication table was discovered in documents from Loulan,which was written on two pieces of paper and discovered by Swedish explorer Sven Hedin a century ago.除了里耶秦简外,与张家界古人堤遗址发现的这枚简犊样式基本一致的“九九乘法表”还曾在楼兰文书中见到过,那是写在两张残纸上的九九乘法表,为瑞典探险家斯文赫定在上个世纪初期发掘。Ancient Chinese were not the only people inventing multiplication tables as they have also been discovered on the clay tablets from ancient Babylon,but as the pronunciation of Chinese words is monosyllabic,the traditional Chinese multiplica-tion table can be smoothly and easily to be remembered and used.乘法表在古代并非中国一家独有,古巴比伦的泥版书上也有乘法表。但汉字(包括数目字)单音节发声的特点,使之读起来朗朗上口,便于记忆、使用。 /201512/410696。

  • A Chinese state-controlled technology group has terminated a .8bn plan to become the largest shareholder in data storage group Western Digital, after the investment was flagged for an investigation by US authorities.中国政府控股的一家高科技集团终止了成为美国数据存储集团——西部数据(Western Digital)最大股东的38亿美元投资计划。此前美国当局指明要调查这笔投资。Yesterday a unit of Tsinghua Unigroup, China’s most ambitious overseas acquirer in the chipmaking sector, said it would abandon a deal agreed last September that would have seen it acquire a stake of about 15 per cent.清华紫光(Tsinghua Unigroup)是中国在芯片制造领域境外收购最雄心勃勃的集团。昨天,该集团的一个部门表示,将放弃去年9月达成的一宗交易,按照协议该集团原本会收购约15%的股份。Shares in Western Digital had slumped more than 6 per cent by late yesterday morning, to .93. The California-based company said the deal with Tsinghua had fallen apart after a decision by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States (Cfius) to investigate the transaction.昨天接近中午时分,西部数据股价下滑逾6%,至每股42.93美元。这家总部位于加利福尼亚州的企业表示,在美国外国投资委员会(CFIUS)决定调查该交易之后,与清华紫光达成的交易已破裂。The move comes at a time when Chinese companies are striking large overseas deals at the fastest pace in history, even as concerns remain about their ability to close the transactions.这种局面出现之际,中国企业正以史上最快节奏在境外发起大规模收购——尽管有关它们能否完成交易的担忧挥之不去。Shares in Western Digital have fallen sharply in the past year. This has affected both the value of its bn cash and stock acquisition of SanDisk, a flash-memory disk maker, as well as the premium of the investment from Unisplendour, the Tsinghua subsidiary.过去一年里西部数据的股价急剧下滑。这不仅影响了该集团以现金和股票形式对闪存盘制造商晟碟(SanDisk)的190亿美元收购的价值,也影响了清华紫光子公司紫光控股(Unisplendour)对其投资的溢价。The deal would have seen Tsinghua given the right to nominate one person to the board of Western Digital. Neither company would incur a termination fee, Western Digital said.按照协议,清华紫光原本能通过该交易获得在西部数据董事会提名一位董事的权利。西部数据表示,双方均无需付解约金。One Washington-based lawyer said it was odd for Tsinghua to walk away from the deal as the government had only said it would investigate the investment, not that it would block the deal.一位驻华盛顿的律师表示,由于美国政府只是表示会调查(而不是封杀)这一交易,清华紫光退出该交易有点奇怪。“All that happened here was that Cfius said it was a covered transaction and that they would look into it,” he said. “The Chinese were getting a board seat and a joint venture was being formed, so of course they would review it.”他说:“CFIUS只是表示该交易属于其调查范围,他们会对其开展调查,这就是事情的全部。中国人将获得一个董事会席位,双方将成立一家合资企业。出于这个原因,他们当然会审查这一交易。”The collapse marks the second time this year such a transaction has collapsed due to scrutiny by Cfius, the US body which reviews foreign investments for national security concerns.这一交易的破裂是今年第二宗因CFIUS审查而破裂的交易。CFIUS是从国家安全角度对外来投资开展审查的美国机构。 /201602/428509。
  • Just three months after raising an enormous sum of money from investors, Uber is at it again.三个月前刚从投资者那里筹集到一大笔钱的优步(Uber)又要融资了。The ride-hailing service is planning to raise close to billion in new venture capital from investors, according to people with knowledge of the matter. Investors are looking at a valuation of billion to billion.知情人士称,这家叫车务公司计划从投资者那里筹集近10亿美元风险投资。投资者预期该公司的估值在600亿美元到700亿美元之间。Such a fundraising round would make Uber the world#39;s most valuable private startup by far. A round just this summer valued the company at more than billion, a bit more than Facebook#39;s last big private capital raise in 2011.这样一轮融资会让优步成为目前世界上估值最高的初创公司。今年夏天那一轮融资对该公司的估值是500多亿美元,略高于Facebook上市前在2011年进行的最后一轮融资中的估值。Nearly as eye-popping as its soaring valuations has been the furious pace at which Uber has been raising money. The latest round of financing will be the eighth that the company has sought over the last five years.几乎和日渐飙升的估值同样吸引眼球的,是优步的融资步伐。最新一轮融资将是该公司在五年时间里的第八次融资。More precise targets on the size and the valuations will be determined after the company begins talks with investors in coming weeks, said the people, who spoke on the condition of anonymity. Executives at Uber and the company#39;s board have approved another round, and the company plans to start holding official conversations in the next few weeks, they said.要求匿名的消息人士称,有关融资规模和公司估值的准确目标,接下来几周该公司与投资者开始谈判后,才能确定下来。他们表示,优步的高管和公司董事会已经批准进行另一轮融资,公司计划在未来几周正式开始对话。An Uber spokeswoman declined to comment Friday.周五,优步的一名女发言人拒绝置评。While Facebook#39;s last big fundraising round took place a year before the social network went public, Travis Kalanick, Uber#39;s founder and chief executive, has little interest in going public in the near future.尽管Facebook最后一轮大规模融资结束一年后,这家社交网络公司便上市了,但优步创始人兼首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)对于在近期内上市几乎没什么兴趣。“We#39;re like eighth-graders. We#39;re in junior high and someone is telling us that we need to go to the prom, and it#39;s just a little early,” Kalanick said at The Wall Street Journal#39;s WSJDLive Conference in Laguna Beach, California, on Tuesday. “Let us get into high school before we start talking about these sorts of things.”“我们就像八年级学生。我们刚上初中,就有人对我们说,要参加毕业舞会,实在有点早,”卡兰尼克周二在《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)在加州拉古纳海滩举办的WSJDLive全球科技大会上说。“我们还是先上了高中再谈这些事情吧。”Founded in San Francisco in 2009, Uber has swollen to operations in more than 300 cities across 63 countries around the globe.2009年成立于旧金山的优步,业务已遍及全球63个国家的300多个城市。Throughout Uber#39;s rapid expansion, investors have poured money into the company at a staggering rate. To date, the company has raised more than billion from investors including Benchmark and Google Ventures, as well as large financial firms like Goldman Sachs and TPG Growth.在优步的快速扩张中,投资者大笔投钱的速度令人震惊。迄今为止,该公司已筹集了逾80亿美元,投资者包括Benchmark和谷歌风投(Google Ventures),以及高盛(Goldman Sachs)和TPG Growth等大型金融机构。 /201510/405832。
  • It is less than a quarter of an hour’s drive down Route 101 from the village-like campus of Stanford University to Mountain View, the Silicon Valley home of Udacity.从庄园般的斯坦福大学(Standford University)校园出发,沿着101号路,驾车来到Udacity所在的硅谷山景城(Mountain View),只需要不到一刻钟的时间。This was the journey Sebastian Thrun, the online education company’s chief executive and co-founder, made in 2012 when he cleared his desk at the computer science department to focus on a way of teaching business skills differently.这正是这家在线教育公司首席执行官兼共同创始人塞巴斯蒂安礠饲(Sebastian Thrun)在2012年走过的路。当时,他清空了在计算机系的办公桌,将精力集中于一种全新的传授商业技能的方式。His new life as a tech entrepreneur is about as different to his tenured faculty post as Udacity’s modern headquarters, in an office block next door to the sprawling car park of a Target hypermarket, is from the Spanish colonial architecture of Stanford.作为科技企业创业者的新生活,与他终身教职生活之间的区别,大约和Udacity的现代化总部大楼与斯坦福大学西班牙殖民时代建筑之间的区别差不多。Udacity的总部在一个办公大楼内,旁边是一家塔吉特(Target)超市的巨大停车场。While this new life among the tech industry’s elite may make some professors wince, the 48-year-old Mr Thrun, a German expat, looks every inch the Valley entrepreneur when we meet, with his shaved head, black T-shirt, jeans and flame red running shoes.这种在高科技产业精英中的新生活,可能会令某些大学教授望而却步。然而,在我们相见之时,现年48岁的德国人特龙,看起来却是一名十足的硅谷企业家。他剃着光头,身着黑色T恤、牛仔裤、以及一双火红色的跑鞋。“The beauty of Silicon Valley is that people are literally fearless,” Mr Thrun says, after we settle into one of the glass walled meeting rooms, named after characters in the Doctor Who and Transformers franchises.我们在一间玻璃墙面的会议室坐定之后,特龙说:“硅谷的美妙之处在于,这里的人们真正是无所畏惧。”这里的会议室都是以《神秘士》(Doctor Who)和《变形金刚》(Transformers)系列中的人物命名的。The belief that the education market is ripe for “disruption”, as it is put in the Silicon Valley vernacular, has led to a mushrooming in ed tech start-ups seeking to create new platforms for teaching. Downloadable s, known as Moocs (massive open online courses), for example, are now a tool for delivering learning to anyone with Internet access.用硅谷的流行语言来说,“颠覆”教育市场的时机已经成熟。在这种信念的影响下,一系列教育类科技创业型企业如雨后春笋般出现,试图建立新的教学平台。比如,被称为“大型网络公开课”(Massive Open Online Courses,简称“慕课”(Mooc))的可下载视频,如今已成为向所有互联网用户提供学习机会的工具。With Google X – a semi-secret facility dedicated to making technological advancements, including driverless cars and Internet-connected glasses -also on his CV, Mr Thrun is seen as the market’s most innovative thinker. He is credited with creating the first big Mooc hit, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, while he was still teaching at Stanford.曾在Google X工作的特龙,被视为这一市场中最具创新能力的思想家。Google X是一个处于半保密状态的部门,致力于开展包括无人驾驶汽车和互联网眼镜在内的高科技研发。特龙因开设了首门轰动性慕课——《人工智能导论》(Introduction to Artificial Intelligence)——而受到赞誉,当时他还在斯坦福大学教书。Udacity is one of the “big three” in the market, alongside neighbouring start-up Coursera and Boston-based EdX, which between them boast the largest collections of Moocs.Udacity是在线教育市场的“三巨头”之一。另外两大巨头分别是同为硅谷邻居的创业型企业Coursera,以及位于波士顿的EdX,这两家总共拥有的慕课数量是最多的。Although his presentations at the time were extremely low-tech, recorded on a digital camera in his living room, 160,000 people from 190 countries signed up to the course within days, including young men dodging attacks in Afghanistan.当时,他的课程使用的技术十分低级,是在他的起居室里用一台数码摄像机录制的。尽管如此,几天之内就有来自190个国家的16万人报名参加了这一课程,其中包括正在躲避袭击的阿富汗年轻人。The power of networks and sharing网络与分享的力量As Moocs evolved, however, it became apparent that as few as three per cent of students signing up to courses would complete them. So while others tried to copy Mr Thrun’s model, he was among the first to claim that Moocs were not actually the panacea to the market they had first appeared.不过,随着慕课的发展,人们发现,在报名参加慕课的学生中,似乎只有3%能完成课程学习。因此,虽然其他人也试图复制特龙的成功模式,特龙却较早提出,在线教育市场上最先出现的慕课,其实并不能一劳永逸地解决这个市场的所有问题。Instead, he created a model at Udacity based on supplying credentials, called nanodegrees, that cost a fraction of the cost of traditional programmes and are endorsed by employers.于是,他在Udacity创立了一种新模式,提供被称为微学位(nanodegree)的书。这种书所需成本只有传统教育项目成本的零头,并且得到雇主的认可。“We want to be the Uber of education,” Mr Thrun claims, following the start-up convention of comparing one’s business model to the current darling of the VC community.特龙声称:“我们想成为教育界的优步(Uber)。”这番言论沿袭了创业型企业将自己的商业模式与风投圈现在的宠儿相比拟的习惯。There is some justification for this metaphor given that both Udacity and Uber use a network of freelancers paid per piece of work they perform. In the case of Uber, this means taxi drivers, while Udacity uses the marking skills of academic staff, cross checking nanodegree students’ work through a process of peer review.这一比喻有一定道理,原因是Udacity和优步都使用了由自由职业者组成的网络,按照他们完成的每份工作付报酬。优步使用的是指出租车司机组成的网络,而Udacity使用的则是学术人员的打分技能,通过一种同行评议的过程,实现对微学位学员学习成果的交叉检查。The list of academics on Udacity’s books is now in triple figures, many of whom are retired computer science professors. “We have a guy in South Africa who makes ,000 a month,” says Mr Thrun.如今,Udacity账本上的学者名单有三位数之多,其中许多都是计算机科学领域的退休教授。特龙表示:“我们有一位老师在南非,每个月赚1.1万美元。”The selling points of such “sharing economy” models are not just that they provide work to professionals and enable companies to expand operations relatively easily, but that they create a network effect where the service gets better the more people get involved.这种“分享经济”模式的卖点,不仅仅是向专业人士提供了工作,令企业能够相对容易地扩大业务,还在于它产生了一种网络效应——参与的人越多,务越好。Mr Thrun’s premise is that the way people learn and the way companies are prepared to fund this has changed so dramatically that old models of teaching need to be replaced with more flexible techniques.特龙的假设是,人们学习的方式和企业准备为这一过程提供资金的方式已发生了极大改变,旧的教学模式必须由更加灵活的技术代替。Flexibility is key to competition灵活性是竞争力的关键The first of Udacity’s online courses, in web development and data analytics, was launched in September 2014 through a partnership with US telecoms provider ATamp;T. To date, some 5,000 people have enrolled on it with ATamp;T offering 100 paid internships to those completing the course. Some 20 other tech companies have since become Udacity partners, including Google, Salesforce and Cloudera.Udacity第一门在线课程是有关网络开发和数据分析的,该课程于2014年9月与美国电信务提供商ATamp;T合作推出。截至今天,已有约5000人注册了这一课程,ATamp;T面向完成这一课程的人提供100个带薪实习岗位。自那以来,包括谷歌(Google)、Salesforce、和Cloudera在内,已有另外约20家高科技企业成为Udacity的合作伙伴。“We get 90 per cent finishing rates on courses,” Mr Thrun boasts. However, he cannot afford to rest on his laurels as competition in the market is heating up (see sidebar). There is also a need to keep Udacity’s business model flexible, given that online teaching is still an evolving market, where the one certainty is that no one has yet gained a clear lead.特龙自豪地说:“我们的课程完成率达到了90%。”不过,在线教育市场竞争日益激烈,他也不敢躺在过往的成绩上睡大觉。此外,他还必须保持Udacity商业模式的灵活性,原因是在线教育是个仍在发展变化的市场,关于这个市场唯一确定的一点是还没有人明显领先。Rewards for educational innovation教育创新的回报Mr Thrun knows what he doesn’t want for his company; professors in tenure, which he claims limits the ability to react to market demands. “Android has over a billion users now, but you would be hard pressed to hear of a single college that provides courses in Android.”特龙知道他不希望他的企业有什么,那就是拥有终身教职的教授。他声称,终身教职会限制他们回应市场需求的能力。“目前,Android拥有逾10亿用户。但是,你很难听到任何一所大学提供有关Android的课程。”He is clearly keen to stimulate more blue sky thinking about solving the education challenge he has set himself.很明显,对于如何解决他自己提出的教育领域的挑战,他急于激发出一些更加天马行空的想法。“What I have done instead is hire some very young people. Almost 50 per cent female. Average age is 28.“我所做的是聘用一些非常年轻的人。其中将近一半是女性,平均年龄是28岁。“I want people with fresh ideas. People with a passion for it. What I do is just unleash their potential.”“我想要的是拥有新鲜观点的人,是对此充满热情的人。我所做的只是释放出他们的潜能。”Being in Silicon Valley’s heartlands, where working on a start-up is the norm, is vital for this reason, explains Mr Thrun. He claims it would be harder to develop such a business in another part of the world and certainly not in an existing academic institution. “People in education are risk averse,” he says. “They want to build Steinways. I like to think of us having the impact Ikea has.”特龙解释说,出于这个原因,把公司设在硅谷心脏地带至关重要,因为在这里为创业型企业工作是种常态。他声称,在世界其他地区发展这样的企业将更加困难,而在现有学术机构中发展这类企业则完全不可能。他说:“教育系统中的人都不喜欢冒险。他们想要打造的是像施坦威(Steinway)那样的百年老店。我则喜欢把我们视为与宜家(Ikea)有同样影响的企业。”One of Mr Thrun’s ideas to stimulate creative thinking in Udacity has been to reward suggestions with bottles of wine. In less than a month, he has given more than 12 away. “I want to make it almost mandatory what people can do without fear,” he says.在Udacity,特龙激励创造性思维的一个办法是,提建议就奖葡萄酒。在不到一个月的时间内,他已发放了不止12瓶葡萄酒。他说:“我想要把人们抛弃恐惧后可以做到的事情变成他们必须做到的事情。”Edtech competitors find partners to scale up教育科技业竞争者借合作伙伴扩大规模Down the road from Udacity, Coursera has been building partnerships with commercial organisations and the world’s top universities, including Stanford (photo of campus on left), to offer free courses online for the masses.在Udacity旁边不远处,Coursera已经和多家商业机构以及斯坦福等全球顶尖大学建立了合作关系,向公众提供免费的在线课程。NovoEd, also created by former Stanford professors, is building similar partnerships for online learning.同样由曾经的斯坦福大学教授创办的NovoEd,正在为在线学习建立类似的合作关系。These companies have considerable war chests to fund the competitive battle. Coursera has raised more than m for its effort, an increase on the m Udacity has raised since its launch three years ago.这些企业都坐拥大量资金,供他们开展激烈的竞争。Coursera已募集逾8500万美元用于竞争,超过了Udacity自三年前成立以来筹集的5500万美元。In his defence, Udacity co-founder and chief executive Sebastian Thrun says: “Taking on all of education is like boiling the ocean...My ambition is to make the experience of working at Udacity the best experience of people’s lives. But letting go of people [is] a liberation. I make them a task to find a new job. Many times I find people say thank you for firing me...It doesn’t always work but I think it works most of the time.这位Udacity的共同创始人兼首席执行官这样为自己辩护:“意图拿下全部教育市场无异于想要烧开整个海洋……我的志向是,令在Udacity的工作经历,成为人们生命中的最佳体验。不过,让人们离开是对他们的一种解放。我让他们把找到新工作当做一项任务。我曾多次遇到人们对我说,谢谢您解雇我……这种方式并不总是有效,但我认为多数情况下是奏效的。”“I have an ego but I don’t [say] I know everything. A lot of the decisions I have made were bad decisions,” he adds. “People in the Valley are both arrogant and extremely humble.”他还说:“我比较自信,不过我不会(说)我什么都知道。我所做的决策许多都很糟糕。硅谷人既自负,同时又极度谦卑。” /201509/399128。
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