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上海肛肠电子镜中国热点上海治疗直肠恶变医院

2017年10月20日 14:59:27
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上海市闵行区中心医院看肠道疾病好不好Sure, we’ve all heard that we should get more sleep. The realities of life sometimes get in the way of that, and it becomes “we should get more sleep later.” There is either more work to be done, or more fun to be had, or both. The only downside is that you wake up the next day feeling like a cast member of The Walking Dead.的确,“保持充足睡眠”这种话我们听过无数次。但现实生活常常阻碍我们的睡眠大计,然后就变成了“我们应该待会儿再睡”,因为要么还有很多工作没做,要么还有很多有趣的事情等着我们,要么是两者兼而有之。(休息不足)唯一的缺点是第二天起床时就感觉自己像是《行尸走肉》里的演员。Here are five ways you can hack your biology in order to pay less of a price for staying up longer.以下是五种调节个人生物钟以便熬夜的健康方法。Move around来回走动Exercising before bed is a sure way to keep yourself awake. That’s why you should not do it when you actually want to go to sleep, and it is also why hitting the gym, or even some fast push-ups can tell your body that it’s not time for bed. This isn’t permission to treat yourself to an intense CrossFit style high-intensity workout right before bed; that is likely to make you more tired. Being physically exhausted isn’t fun when you are trying to stay up late. Just do enough to get energized.上床前锻炼是保持清醒的一个有效方式。这就是为什么当你真正想上床休息前不能运动以及当你去完健身房或者做完快速俯卧撑后不易入睡的原因。这可不是允许你睡前做高强度的全面健身运动,因为那可能会让你更累,当你打算熬夜时,极度劳顿并不好玩,只需要适当运动让自己保持活力即可。 /201401/273327嘉兴市第一医院看腹泻好不好An uproar from hundreds of homeless New Yorkers made it clear that Chinese tycoon Chen Guangbiao can#39;t easily win the hearts of Americans. Now some in China are saying that it#39;s time for the eccentric philanthropist--and his cash--to come back home.数百名纽约流浪汉的恼怒清楚地表明,中国富豪陈光标无法轻松赢得美国人的芳心。现在,中国国内一些人都在说,这位古怪的慈善家――以及他的钱――是时候回国了。Mr. Chen--yes, he of the infamous business card--treated 250 homeless guests to an expensive lunch at Loeb Boathouse in New York City#39;s Central Park on Wednesday. But the recycling magnate backtracked on his plan to hand out 0 in cash to attendees after being told by New York City Rescue Mission officials that the money would be better used by programs treating many of the guests for drug addiction.陈光标――是的,就是连名片都很出名的那位――在纽约市中央公园的洛布船屋请250名流浪汉吃了一顿豪华午餐。但是这位废品回收大王放弃了向现场流浪汉派发300美元现金的计划,因为纽约市援救任务(New York City Rescue Mission)组织的官员此前告诉他,这笔钱更好的用途是为他招待的许多“客人”治疗毒瘾的项目。About three dozen volunteer waiters--many of whom state-run China Daily said were Chinese students studying in the U.S.--showed up donning uniforms similar to those once worn by soldiers in China#39;s People#39;s Liberation Army, bearing the words #39;Serve the People.#39;大约三十多位志愿务员――据《中国日报》称许多是在美国的中国留学生――穿着红军制,衣上面还有 “为人民务”的字样。The event was so popular that some couldn#39;t get inside. Some, angered that they couldn#39;t get in or that they weren#39;t going to get the money they had anticipated, hurled curses like #39;liar#39; and #39;con man#39; at Mr. Chen.这个活动如此受欢迎,以至于一些人都进不去。一些人因为没能进去或是拿到此前预期的钱,生气地对着陈光标大骂“骗子”之类的话。Amid all that hostility, back home, some Chinese are saying Mr. Chen#39;s money would be better spent in his own country.与此同时中国国内的一些人也说,陈光标的钱花在自己国家身上会更好。#39;Was it really worth it? There are still so many poor people in China who need help!#39; one Weibo user. #39;Looks like it was to get famous!#39;一名新浪微(Weibo)用户写道:真是何苦啊?中国还有好多需要帮助的穷人啊!看来是为了出名吧!#39;Come on Chen Guangbiao, don#39;t take your show abroad,#39; another comment. #39;The people in the motherland need you more!#39;另一名用户在中写道:让陈光标来吧,别去国外作秀了,祖国人民更需要你!Others showed empathy for how the whole show went down. One user wrote, #39;It#39;s hard to judge. I don#39;t want to criticize other people#39;s methods if they are doing good.#39;也有其他用户对整个高调宣传的慈善举动如此收场表达了同情。一位用户写道:这难以评判;我不想批评别人做善事的方式。Although many said they saw the event as an elaborate publicity stunt, some of those in New York were less critical. #39;I think he#39;s a good guy and he#39;s helping our country,#39; Antone Hills, a shelter resident, told the Associated Press.尽管许多人说,他们把这场活动视为一场精心安排的作秀,但身在纽约的一些人却没有提出那么强烈的批评。住在简陋房屋中的纽约居民希尔斯(Antone Hills)对美联社(Associated Press)表示,他认为陈光标是一个好人,在向美国提供帮助。Mr. Chen, who made his money in the recycling business, served up a of sesame-seed-encrusted tuna, beef filet and berries with crème fraiche. He topped the event off with his own rendition of the song #39;We Are the World,#39; as well as magic tricks. All this added to his bizarre track record, which now includes trying to buy The New York Times, handing out #39;Fresh Air#39; containers on the streets of polluted Beijing and giving out cash on the streets.陈光标宴请的菜单包括芝麻吞拿鱼、牛排和淋上鲜奶油的浆果。在午宴结束时,他还亲自演唱了《四海一家》(We Are the World),并表演起了魔术。此次宴请是陈光标的又一次另类的慈善和环保行动。之前,他还试图收购《纽约时报》(The New York Times),在北京充满雾霾的街头免费派发罐装新鲜空气,以及在街上撒钱。There was at least one sour commentator on the Chinese blogosphere: #39;Is there something wrong with Chen? Saving money in China for the Americans, to win over Americans politically, to show of philanthropy without borders, I want to curse him, where does he get so much money,#39; one comment.不止一位网友在中国客圈发布了尖酸的。其中一条称:怀疑陈这人有问题,在中国赚钱给美国人发,政治目的讨好美国人,个人目的炫耀做善事无国界,真想骂陈光标煞笔,你哪来这么多钱。Another Weibo user stood up for Mr. Chen as one of China#39;s own. #39;How can they not understand Chen Guangbiao#39;s philanthropy? The funny thing is that you all say you are the backbone of China.#39;另一位微用户力挺陈光标,她说:他们却理解不了陈光标的慈善。但可笑的是这些人都称自己是中国的脊梁!But if there ever was a statement for a man with a net worth of 0 million that the majority might agree on, it was that #39;money can#39;t buy everything.#39;但对于一位身家为7.5亿美元的人来说,大多数人或许都认同的一个观点是“金钱不是万能的。” /201406/308349Piracy off the coast of Somalia, one of the world#39;s crucial shipping lanes, has plunged this year because of aggressive military and intelligence steps that have made it too costly for seafaring bandits to operate, regional diplomats and naval officials said. 索马里地区的外交人士和海军官员说,索马里附近海域的海盗活动今年大幅减少,原因是力度极大的军事和情报举措使得海盗团伙运营起来费用太高。索马里海域是世界上的重要航道之一。 The success, however, has had an unintended consequence: The Somali crime lords behind the pirate networks have shifted to other illicit trade, sometimes in partnership with al Qaeda-linked militant groups like al-Shabaab, aiding terrorism in the Horn of Africa, diplomats and intelligence officials said. 不过,外交人士和情报官员说,打击海盗行动的成功产生了一个意想不到的后果:海盗网络背后的索马里黑帮头目转向了其他非法活动,有时与青年党(al-Shabaab)等跟基地组织(al Qaeda)有关系的军事组织合作,向非洲之角的恐怖活动提供援助。 #39;None of these operations exists in a vacuum,#39; said a regional intelligence official who traces terrorism financing across Gulf states. Al Qaeda and smugglers #39;trade off the same connections, the same sea routes and the same protection rackets.#39; 一位跟踪海湾国家恐怖活动资金来源的地区情报官员说,这些活动都不是存在于真空中的。基地组织和走私者使用的是同样的关系网,同样的航道,向同样的组织交保护费。 In 2011, there were 237 piracy-related events in the waters off Somalia, according to the International Maritime Bureau, which monitors piracy and the effect on commercial shipping. In 2012, the figure dropped to 75. This year, as of Oct. 14 there were 10 incidents--only two of them hijackings. 据国际海事局(International Maritime Bureau)说,2011年,索马里附近海域发生237起与海盗有关的事件。该组织监控海盗活动及其给商业航运活动带来的影响。2012年这类事件减少至75起。今年截至10月14日,发生了10起事件,其中只有两起是劫船事件。 The ed Nations reports similar figures. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said last week there had been 17 attacks in the first nine months of 2013 in the Arabian Sea, compared with 99 in the same period last year. 联合国(ed Nations)发布了类似的数据。联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban Ki-moon)上周说,2013年前九个月阿拉伯海发生了17起袭击事件,相比之下,上年同期发生了99起。 Most of the piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the adjacent Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean has been controlled by Somali organized crime lords whose business networks stretch between their homeland and Gulf Arab nations including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the ed Arab Emirates and Iran, according to U.N. and regional diplomats who follow crime and terrorism issues. 据联合国及该地区跟踪犯罪和恐怖活动的外交人士说,亚丁湾及邻近的阿拉伯海和印度洋上的大部分海盗活动是由索马里组织的黑帮头目控制的,他们的业务网络从他们自己的国家延伸至海湾阿拉伯国家,包括沙特、也门、阿联酋和伊朗。 The Somalis have helped finance pirate ships and have laundered an estimated 0 million in ransom paid by shipping companies between April 2005 and December 2012, regional diplomats and U.N. investigators said. 该地区的外交人士和联合国调查人员说,索马里人帮助为海盗船只提供资金,2005年4月至2012年12月期间,将航运公司付的约4亿美元赎金洗白。 Their profits began to slip in 2012 when navies and shipping companies began beefing up military defenses. 2012年海军和航运公司开始加大军事防御力度后,海盗们的利润开始下滑。 The international naval force known as Task Force 151 stepped up its use of drones and other intelligence gathering resources, allowing them to better position warships to intercept pirates, said Commodore Jeremy Blunden, the British naval officer currently in charge of the fleet. 英国海军准将布伦登(Jeremy Blunden)说,被称为“联合行动部队151”的国际海军部队加大了对无人机和其他情报收集资源的使用,使他们能够更好地部署战舰拦截海盗。布伦登目前负责“联合行动部队151”。 Meanwhile, the commercial shipping industry has standardized the use of armed guards on vessels carrying oil and valuable products through the waterways. The practice had been controversial because it contravened common seafaring ways. But it proved cost-effective, say shipping company executives who are reaping the advantages of lower insurance rates as a result. 与此同时,商业航运业已经把在经由这些航道运输石油和有价值产品的船只上配备武装警卫作为标准做法。这一做法曾饱受争议,因为它有违通常的航运做法。但航运公司高管说,事实明这种做法性物有所值。这些高管可以因此享受保险费率降低的好处。 Countries have also stepped up legal prosecution of pirates in recent years, adding risk for Somali pirate financiers, who face loss of crews and ships. On Wednesday, a Spanish court handed multiple-year sentences to six Somalis convicted of piracy and arms possession, according to the Associated Press. 各国近年来也加大了对海盗的法律追究力度,令为索马里海盗提供资金的人风险增大,这些人可能面临失去船员和船只的风险。据美联社(Associated Press)报道,上周三,一家西班牙法庭裁决六名索马里人犯有海盗及非法携带武器罪,判处其多年徒刑。 The only surviving pirate who attacked the Maersk Alabama merchant vessel in 2009--the story on which the Hollywood movie #39;Captain Phillips#39; is based--is serving a 33-year sentence in a U.S. prison. 2009年攻击“马士基亚拉巴马号”(Maersk Alabama)商船的唯一一名幸存下来的海盗目前正在美国刑,其刑期为33年。好莱坞影片《菲利普斯船长》(Captain Phillips)就是取材于这个故事。 The aggressive military response changed the risk-reward ratio for Somali piracy financiers, who must pay upward of 80% of their earnings to corrupt Somali officials, local warlords and other middlemen, military officials and diplomats said. 军事官员和外交人员说,这种积极的军事反应改变了为索马里海盗提供资金者的风险回报率,他们必须将至多80%的收入用来贿赂索马里官员、地方军阀和其他中间人。 In 2012, Somali pirates only managed to rake in million in payments, or about three quarters of the annual average received since 2005, according to a World Bank report. 世界的一份报告显示,2012年,索马里海盗只获得了3,700万美元的报酬,仅为2005年以来年平均收入的四分之三左右。 #39;We#39;ve put a fire blanket over the problem,#39; said Capt. William Nault, the chief of staff for the international naval force taking the lead on counterpiracy patrols in the area. #39;We#39;ve raised the cost [analysis] for them.#39; 在该地区牵头反海盗巡逻的国际海军部队参谋长诺特(William Nault)说,我们已经压制住了这个问题,增加了海盗的成本。 Somali piracy bosses, however, have proven nimble businessmen. As piracy profits decreased, they refocused resources on other long-standing illicit operations, including arms smuggling and region#39;s lucrative trade in charcoal made from Acacia trees, according to diplomats and law-enforcement officials in the region who monitor illicit activity. 然而,索马里海盗的老板明了自己是活络的商人。外交人员和该地区监控非法活动的执法官员说,随着海盗业务的利润下降,他们重新将资源投入到其他长期非法活动中,包括军火走私和该地区利润丰厚的金合欢木炭贸易。 In a report issued to the U.N. Security Council this summer, diplomats watching violations of U.N. sanctions in Somalia provide evidence of alleged links between the Somali businessmen suspected of running the pirate networks and smuggling rings and al-Shabaab. The militant group is battling Somali government forces and African peacekeepers to try to establish a fundamentalist Islamic government. 在今年夏天提交给联合国安理会的一份报告中,外交人员提供了涉嫌经营海盗网络和走私集团的索马里商人被指与青年党有关的据。这些外交人员关注违反联合国对索马里制裁措施的情况。武装组织青年党正与索马里政府军和非洲维和部队交战,试图建立原教旨主义的伊斯兰教政府。 The U.N. report presents telephone records and other surveillance that links alleged Somali financiers of piracy with business partners in Iran, Saudi Arabia and the ed Arab Emirates in the charcoal-smuggling network. 联合国的报告提供了电话记录和其他监听内容,表明被指资助索马里海盗者在木炭走私网络中与伊朗、沙特阿拉伯和阿联酋的商业伙伴有关联。 The report also alleges similar business links between these same actors and weapons smuggling into Somalia. Most weapons sales to Somalia are prohibited under U.N. sanctions, as is the charcoal trade there. 报告还指出,这些人与走私进入索马里的武器也有类似的商业关联。按照联合国的制裁措施,大多数武器都禁止向索马里销售,木炭贸易也是禁止的。 Counterterrorism officials say that the charcoal trade is one of the main avenues that al-Shabaab finances its terrorism operations and pays for the weapons they use to fight the Somali government and African peacekeepers. The business has grown from roughly million a year in the late 2000s to a business now worth an estimated 0 million-0 million a year, according to the U.N. 反恐官员说,木炭贸易是青年党的主要收入来源之一,青年党以此为其恐怖活动提供资金,并购买武器用于对抗索马里政府和非洲维和部队。联合国数据显示,这项业务的规模上世纪末约为每年3,000万美元左右,现在已经增长至每年约3.4亿至3.8亿美元。 The White House slapped a trade ban on Somali-sourced charcoal in 2012 because of the alleged trade links to al-Shabaab. 2012年,白宫方面以涉嫌与青年党存在贸易关系为由,针对来自索马里的木炭实施贸易禁令。 The U.N. investigators complain that while regional governments understand the threat of terrorism financing, there has been no political will to arrest the men at the top of the Somali crime networks. 联合国调查人员抱怨说,虽然地区政府明白为恐怖主义提供资金的威胁,但政界毫无意愿逮捕索马里犯罪网络的高层。 The majority of recent pirate trials involve men at the midrange of these organizations or foot soldiers suborned into piracy for their sailing knowledge, a regional counterterrorism official said. 一位地区反恐官员说,最近受审的海盗大多数都是这些犯罪网络的中层,或是因其航海知识而被收买从事海盗行为的底层士兵。 U.N. investigators have recommended adding these Somalis to an international sanctions list, and some diplomats argue that they should be prosecuted for sanctions violations or terrorism ties. 联合国调查人员建议将这些索马里人添加到一个国际制裁名单上,一些外交人员认为,这些人应当为违反制裁或与恐怖主义有关联而被起诉。 /201311/263589上海市九院看肛周疾病多少钱

上海肛肠医院哪个好上海肛泰肛肠外科BEIJING: It was a group wedding in the cloud as 58 couples said ;Ido; and tied the knot in unison during a flightfrom the eastern Chinese city of Hangzhou to Beijing onSaturday.北京:周六,58对新人在从杭州飞往北京的航班上举行了在云端集体婚礼,他们齐声说 “我愿意”,在飞机上完成了婚礼。All the 58 couples simultaneously kissed their spouses, handed over flowers andjoined their hands to form ;heart; symbol. The aircraft#39;s otherpassengers also joined the celebrations and congratulated the newly-wedcouples, the State media said.58对新人集体拥吻,新郎将鲜花递给新娘,他们联手拼出“心”形标志。据国家媒体报道,飞机上的其他乘客也加入了恭贺新人的庆祝仪式。The local media said all the couples work in the same company but did not specifywhich one. The couples took turns walking down the cabin aisle before pullingup their elbow rests and locking lips under the cabin lights.当地媒体报道说,所有的新人都就职于同一家公司,但媒体没有具体说明是哪家公司。新人们依次走下客舱通道,在机舱的灯光下拥吻。This is part of a rising trend of themed group marriages. A group of 18 coupleswedded using in traditional marriage customs, which are almost entirelyforgotten these days when marriages involve a trip to the officeof marriage registrar, joint photo sessions, and gala dinners. The oldcustom includes a ritual of the groom cutting off a tiny part of the bride#39;shair for keepsake.这是日益流行的主题集体婚礼的一个缩影。18对新人用传统的婚俗习惯举办了婚礼,由于现在人们结婚的内容包括到婚姻登记处登记,合影以及晚宴,这种方式已几乎被遗忘。而传统的风俗中包括新郎剪下新娘的一小撮头发作为信物。Last August, 100 couples entered into wedlock at the Grape festival inXinjiang#39;s Turpan city.八月份,100对新人在新疆吐鲁番市的葡萄节上举行了婚礼。 /201410/334623上海市新华医院肛肠专科To shield any future children from the fear she harbors of getting breast cancer, Katie Dowdy underwent a controversial procedure to select embryos of hers that were free of a genetic mutation linked to the disease. 为了不让孩子将来像自己一样害怕患上乳腺癌,凯蒂·道迪(Katie Dowdy)做了一项充满争议的检查,以挑选出不携带一种被认为与乳腺癌相关的基因突变的胚胎。Deciding to have the procedure, called preimplantation genetic diagnosis, or PGD, wasn#39;t easy, says Ms. Dowdy. Her husband initially #39;worried about playing God,#39; she says. #39;I thought, if I could have a healthy baby who doesn#39;t have to worry about the same thing I did, why wouldn#39;t I?#39; says the 34-year-old, who hasn#39;t had cancer. The couple, who live in Castle Pines, Colo., now have two young girls, both born using PGD. 道迪说,决定做这项名叫“着床前遗传学诊断”(简称PGD)的检查并不是一个容易的过程。她说,起初丈夫“担心自己是在扮演上帝的角色”。现年34岁、没有得过癌症的她说:“我想,如果我能有一个健康的孩子,不需要担心我所担心的事情,那我为什么不做呢?”夫妇俩家住科罗拉多州派恩堡,现有两个年幼的女儿,都是在做了PGD之后出生的。Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has long been available during IVF, or in vitro fertilization, to eliminate the risk of passing on severe disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and cystic fibrosis. Now, fertility clinics say they are seeing a small but increasing number of women choosing PGD to avoid giving birth to children who carry mutations in the BRCA genes, which increase the risk for breast and other cancers. 防范于未然着床前遗传学诊断(PGD)检查胚胎有没有某种可能会从父母身上遗传而来的遗传缺陷。以下是PGD检查的一些疾病:#39;It#39;s on the rise because more people are becoming aware that there#39;s a genetic component to breast cancer,#39; says Mark Hughes, founder of Genesis Genetics, in Plymouth, Mich., which offers reproductive-genetics-diagnosis services to fertility clinics nationwide. 囊性纤维化Critics fear genetically vetting embryos can be used to create so-called designer babies. Embryos with the gene mutation may be discarded, which some critics also oppose. Gender selection is one form of embryo-testing that stirs ethical questions. Some clinics will agree to select for a specific sex only for health reasons -- to avoid a disease such as hemophilia, for example, which typically is passed only to boys. Opponents of PGD for breast cancer also say that having a BRCA-gene mutation doesn#39;t mean a person will necessarily get the disease and that there are options for detecting and treating the cancer. 血友病A parent with a mutation on the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes has a 50-50 chance of transmitting it to the next generation. Between 45% and 65% of women with the mutations are expected to be diagnosed with breast cancer by age 70, according to the National Cancer Institute. That compares with about 12% of women in the general population. 亨廷顿氏舞蹈症BRCA mutations, which also increase the risk for ovarian, prostate and other cancers in men and women, are relatively rare, accounting for 5% to 10% of all breast cancers. Some women undergo prophylactic mastectomy to reduce their chances of getting the disease. 马方氏综合征In Ms. Dowdy#39;s family, the specter of breast cancer hovers. Her paternal grandmother died in 1979, five months before Ms. Dowdy was born. Several of her grandmother#39;s sisters also got breast cancer. Ms. Dowdy#39;s father had a genetic test and found he had inherited the BRCA1 mutation. When she was 27, a test showed Ms. Dowdy also had the mutation. 肌肉萎缩After her aunt, who shares the same mutation, had a prophylactic mastectomy, Ms. Dowdy researched her options and learned about PGD. Ms. Dowdy says she and her husband had struggled to conceive. Figuring they would need fertility assistance, also doing PGD to avoid passing on the BRCA mutation seemed like an obvious precaution. 地中海贫血The PGD process begins with standard IVF. After two weeks of hormonal stimulation, eggs are retrieved, fertilized and left to multiply for five days. Then a laboratory scrutinizes several cells, looking for gene mutations. The analysis isn#39;t believed to harm the embryo. Embryos without BRCA mutations are earmarked for transfer into a woman#39;s uterus. 黑蒙性白痴Two of Ms. Dowdy#39;s seven embryos were BRCA-mutation free. Both were transferred to her uterus. One implanted and grew to become a daughter, Reagan, born in 2010. Ms. Dowdy and her husband opted for PGD again to conceive another child, Mackenzie, born in March. 脊髓性肌萎缩Only recently have some doctors started discussing PGD with women who have a breast-cancer mutation. More often, BRCA-positive women learn about the procedure on their own. #39;We write about it in our newsletter and we#39;ve done webinars on it, but not everyone knows about it,#39; says Sue Friedman, executive director of Force, a nonprofit patient-support group focused on hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. 镰状细胞贫血For women who have no trouble conceiving, the choice to do PGD involves the added hassle of fertility treatment. PGD can add about ,000 to the price of IVF, which runs at least ,000, depending on the clinic, plus thousands of dollars more for medications. 资料来源:纽约大学生殖中心(NYU Fertility Center)很久以来,在试管受精的操作过程中,都可以通过着床前遗传学诊断来消除将脊髓性肌萎缩、囊性纤维化等严重缺陷遗传下去的风险。而现在,据生殖医院说,数量不大但越来越多的女性都在选择做PGD以避免生下携带BRCA基因突变的孩子。BRCA基因突变会增加患乳腺癌和其他癌症的风险。#39;It#39;s by no means 100% [of eligible women] who are choosing to do it,#39; says William Schoolcraft, medical director of the Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine in Lone Tree, Colo., and Ms. Dowdy#39;s doctor. Dr. Schoolcraft says he has done about 10 PGD procedures to eliminate a BRCA mutation in the past three years. He has heard some patients say #39; #39;My grandma had it, my aunt had it, my mom had it. I want to stop this train.#39; Others have the attitude that if my baby turns out like me, so be it.#39; 密歇根州普利茅斯堡的Genesis Genetics为全国生殖医院提供生殖遗传学诊断务。创始人马克·休斯(Mark Hughes)说:“之所以数量在上升,是因为越来越多的人懂得乳腺癌包含遗传成分。”Even after an embryo selected through PGD is successfully implanted, some doctors recommend an amniocentesis or another prenatal test called CVS to make sure there isn#39;t a BRCA-gene mutation. 批评者担心,经过遗传学检查的胚胎有可能被用于制造“定制婴儿”(designer baby)。含有基因突变的胚胎可能被抛弃,这也是一些批评者所反对的。性别选择是激起伦理争议的胚胎检查形式之一。一些医院只会同意出于健康原因而选择某个性别,比如说规避常常只遗传给男孩的血友病等。乳腺癌PGD反对者还说,携带BRCA基因突变并不意味着人一定会得这种病,而且乳腺癌的侦测和治疗还有其他方法。#39;You have to think of it from the perspective of a woman whose life has been turned upside down by breast cancer and the guilt associated with choosing to have a baby that could have those same problems,#39; says James Grifo, director of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at NYU Fertility Center. 携带BRCA1或BRCA2基因突变的父母有50%的概率将它遗传给下一代。根据国家癌症研究所(National Cancer Institute)数据,45%到65%携带这些突变的女性预计会在70岁之前被诊断出乳腺癌。相比之下,一般女性的这个概率在12%左右。Bonnie RochmanBRCA突变也会增加男性和女性罹患上卵巢癌、前列腺癌等癌症的风险。这类突变相对少见,占所有乳腺癌的5%到10%。有些女性通过做预防性乳房切除术来降低患乳腺癌的风险。 /201404/291935上海肛肠医院治疗直肠癌价格

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