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2020年02月27日 22:11:57 | 作者:国际乐园 | 来源:新华社
All cells of the body use vitamin A身体内所有细胞都利用维生素Ato regulate these events. Vitamin A helps调节这些活动,维生素A还帮助to form skin and mucus membranes and keeps them healthy.形成皮肤和粘膜,并使它们保持健康Skin and mucus membranes are important皮肤及粘膜对于in helping our bodies avoid infections帮助我们身体抵御感染十分重要and are found all over our bodies: eyes, mouth,而且遍布全身:眼睛,口腔respiratory tract, urinary tract and alimentary tract.呼吸道,尿道,以及消化道Carotenoids are dark colored dyes found in plant foods类胡萝卜素是一种在果蔬中的深色染料that can turn into a form of vitamin A.它可以转变成一种维生素AOne carotenoid is beta carotene有一种类胡萝卜素叫β-胡萝卜素which is an antioxidant which protects cells from damage它是一种抗氧化剂,能保护细胞免于伤害and oxidative stress and和氧化therefore helps with decreasing the risk of cancer.因此它能帮助降低患癌症的几率Vitamin A also plays a role维生素A也在调节in the regulation of the immune system.免疫系统中发挥着作用It may help in the development of a certain type of它可以促进一种white blood cell called lymphocytes which are essential叫淋巴球的白细胞的形成in fighting infections from viruses and bacteria.淋巴球对于抵御病毒和细菌感染有十分重要Vitamin A also maintains the cell维生素A也能维护that keeps up the membrane associated with the eyes眼睛and respiratory, urinary and intestinal tracts.及呼吸道,尿道,肠道的膜上的细胞When vitamin A is deficient these cells become damaged缺乏维生素A时,这些细胞就遭到破坏resulting in leaks in the membranes发生细胞膜渗漏through which bacteria can then enter and cause infection.细菌便会通过细胞膜进入导致感染The units of vitamin A that you will see reported include你们会看到,维生素A的单位包括both micrograms and international units or IUs.微克和国际单位,简称IUIUs are used because foods contain compounds使用国际单位是因为食物中含有that can be converted to vitamin A in the body.可以在人体内转化为维生素A的成分Beta carotene is the most abundant of these compounds.β-胡萝卜素,是这些成分中最多的About one third of the beta carotene我们摄入的β-胡萝卜素约有三分之一that we consume from foods is converted to vitamin A会被转化为维生素Atherefore IUs take into account the ability因此使用国际单位能of the human body to use these sources of vitamin A.将人类身体利用这些维生素A来源的能力考虑进来The daily recommended intakes for vitamin A19岁以上成年男子for adult males, 19 years of age and above,每日推荐的维生素A摄入量are 3000 IUs or 900 micrograms. For women为3000个国际单位或900微克,女性所需的the intake is lower, 2310 IUs or 700 micrograms.摄入量少些,为2310个国际单位或700微克Pregnant and lactating women have increased needs:怀的和哺乳期的女性需要更多:2565 IUs or 770 micrograms for pregnant women妇需要2565单位或770毫克and 4300 IUs or 1300 micrograms for lactating women.毫克,哺乳期女性需要4300国际单位或1300微克Heres a list of good food sources for vitamin A.这里列出了含有维生素A的优质食物来源Green leafy vegetables and brightly colored orange绿叶蔬菜和颜色鲜亮的橙子and yellow vegetables are easy to remember以及黄色的蔬菜是很容易记住的as excellent sources of vitamin A.绝好的维生素A来源A sweet potato baked in its skin contains 24877 IUs一个带皮的烤红薯含有24877国际单位of vitamin A, mostly in the form of beta carotene.的维生素A,其中大多是β-胡萝卜素Even though this seems like a large amount of vitamin A尽管这看起来是很大量的维生素Athere is no evidence that food sources of vitamin A但是没有据表明含维生素A的食物can produce toxicity.会产生毒性As mentioned the body converts only a small amount像之前说的,人体仅将很少量的of beta carotene to the vitamin.β-胡萝卜素转化成维生素Heres some more food sources of vitamin A.这里还有更多的一些含维生素A的食物As you can see green leafy vegetables你可以看到,绿叶菜是维生素A的are excellent sources of vitamin A.绝佳食物来源Look for really dark green vegetables such as spinach看看深绿色蔬菜,比如菠菜which contains about 7370 IUs of vitamin A含有大约7370国际单位的维生素Awhich makes up 150% of这相当于每日推荐the total daily recommended intake.摄入总量的150%Beef liver is also an excellent source of vitamin A牛肝也是一种绝好的维生素A的食物来源which contains 27185 IUs of vitamin A含有27185国际单位的维生素Aor 545% of the total daily recommended intake.相当于每日推荐摄入量的545%Egg yolks and fortified egg substitutes蛋黄和强化的鸡蛋替代品are also sources of vitamin A也含有维生素Aalthough not as high as liver尽管其含量没有肝脏and green leafy vegetables.和绿叶菜所含的多When using supplements be cautious of any that在使用补品的时候,要谨慎选择contain more than 200% of the RDA for vitamin A.任何含有超过200%每日推荐维生素A摄入量的补品As mentioned vitamin A is stored in the body之前提到过,维生素A会被贮存在体内and can be toxic.并且会产生毒性201507/384555栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201509/400135栏目简介:《造物小百科How it’s made》介绍了许多东西的制作或者说发明方法,非常实用。其中的英语视频发音地道,内容浅显易懂,过程形象生动,是提高英语听力水平,积累英语知识和一些简单生活常识的好素材。201508/391042

In Earths formative years,it was hit by thousands of comets like this.在地球形成的时代 它要受到成千上万个这样的彗星撞击By the time the bombardment finished,一旦撞击完成its thought theyd delivered up to half the water in our oceans.据分析它们会将一半的水释放到我们的海洋The amount of water in the oceans has stayed roughly the same自从40亿年前海洋形成开始ever since they were formed about four billion years ago.海洋中的水量差不多一直没变But the oceans themselves are continually changing.但是海洋本身不断变化着As the continents move over millions of years,随着大陆移动了几百万年new oceans open up, whilst others vanish.新的海洋会出现,有的会消失Its hard for us to grasp because it happens over such an immense timescale.我们很难理解 因为这些都发生在很长的时间跨度里Vet today, in East Africa we can actually see the possible beginnings of a new ocean.但是今天在东非 我们能看到新海洋的诞生This long, deep fissure,这个漫长深邃的裂缝in an area of Ethiopia called the Afar Depression,位于埃塞俄比亚一个叫阿法尔洼地的地方is where the planets next ocean may form.这里将是地球下一个海洋形成之地It appeared in 2005,when the Land was suddenly ripped open by a massive earthquake.2005年出现的 陆地突然被一次巨大的地震裂开了口子Nearby, similar tears and fractures附近也有类似的裂缝和断层scar the desert for many miles.连绵沙漠几百公里This is the Earths crust splitting apart.这是一个被分裂的大陆201511/409076

Dogs 101: Golden Retriever入门班:黄金猎犬Could this be the perfect family pet? Well, considering that they are one of the lowest ranking barkers, and they dont have bad breath. Thats a pretty good start. And whats this about an egg?这是完美的家庭宠物吗?嗯,考虑到它们是最少叫的之一,而且没有口臭,那是很好的开始。那么这个蛋怎么了?Amy Shojai: They have whats called a soft mouth. Ive actually seen these dogs pick up two or three raw eggs in their mouth at a time without breaking them.Amy Shojai:它们有所谓的软嘴巴。我真的有看过这些用它们的嘴,一次捡起两到三个生蛋而没有打破它们。Often referred to simply as ;The Golden,; the golden retriever is one of the most beloved dogs, and is always ranked high among the most popular breeds.通常仅称之为“The Golden”,黄金猎犬是最被喜爱的之一,而且总是位居最受欢迎的品种之顶端。Amy Shojai: Golden retrievers are right at the top as far as pet goes. Very versatile, they are one of the top pets that are welcomed into homes today.Amy Shojai: 就宠物而言,黄金猎犬位居其冠。它们非常多才多艺,是最被家庭欢迎的宠物之一。And there happens to be a guy you can thank for this happy beautiful pooch, and hes got a funny name: Lord Tweedmouth, or if you prefer his given name, Sir. Dudley Marjoribanks. An avid hunter, Lord Tweedmouth lived near the banks of Loch Ness, and it was there, where he developed the dog in the 1860s with the love for the water and the desire to retrieve. Well, the Tweedsters knock this one out of the park.对于这只漂亮的混种,你刚好可以感谢一个人,而他有个好笑的名字(姓):Lord Tweedmouth,或是你喜欢他的本名(名),Sir Dudley Marjoribanks。身为一个热衷的猎人,Lord Tweedmouth住在Loch Ness湖的岸旁,就在那边,他在1860年代培育了这种爱水且喜爱衔回猎物的。嗯,这些黄金猎犬做得很好。The American Kennel Club registered The Golden in 1925 and the breed flourished to the 30s and 40s, and has never lost its popularity. And if forbidding is your thing, look no further. They are rocking the good behavior hardwire.美国舍俱乐部在1925年登记了黄金猎犬,这品种在30和40年代繁荣起来,并且从来没有失宠。而如果你所要的是顺从,不用再找了,它们在表现良好方面非常杰出。Dr. Karen Halligan: Unique about the golden retriever is that they were the first ever AKC obedience trial champion.Dr. Karen Halligan:黄金猎犬最特殊的地方是,它们是第一个美国舍俱乐部从测试冠军。And thats like Miss Manners for dogs, an organization recognizing an excellent working relationship with their owners.某组织意识到与主人间一种杰出的工作关系,而这就像是界的礼仪。Victoria Wells: They are so willing to work for the people they are bonded with. They are just so y to please their families.Victoria Wells:它们很愿意为饲主工作,人合为一体。它们就是准备好要取悦它们的家人。You dont have to bother saying ;fetch; to these guys. Bred as hunters to retrieve fowl from water and land, they will run tirelessly all day.你无需操心跟它们说“去捡”。被培育成从水里和陆上衔回禽鸟猎物的猎人,它们可以整天毫无疲态地奔跑。Goldens are a big dog, measuring around twenty-two inches in height and an average weight of sixty-five pounds. They sport a dense water-repellent coat with a good undercoat and a rich shades of golden coloring. A puppys coat is almost always lighter than what it will be when its an adult. Looking at a puppys ears is a good indication of what color it will be when it grows up.黄金猎犬是一种大型,身高二十二英寸(约五十六公分),平均体重六十五英磅(约三十公斤)。它们炫耀着浓密有下层绒毛的防水外套毛皮,以及浓密的金色。小的毛色几乎总是要比成犬来得淡一些。检视小的耳朵是它长大时将成为什么毛色,很好的指标。These dogs love to chew. Yup, its that soft mouth again, bred to carry water fowl during the hunt. But sometimes it goes a little too far. Some bad reviews are taking a bite out of their reputation.这些很爱咀嚼。是的,又谈到那软嘴巴,它生来就是为了在狩猎中衔回水禽的。但是有时候有点太超过了。一些不好的影响到它们的名声。Dr. Nicholas Dodman: Aggression is now a feature in some lines, not the whole breed, but you gotta watch out for it. And goldens actually number three on the National Bite Parade, and what is an epidemic of bites these days.Dr. Nicholas Dodman:现在某些品种的特色是其攻击性,不是全部的品种,但是你必须要小心。黄金猎犬实际上是在全国咬人排行榜上排名第三,这些日子咬人是一种流行时疫。Who is number one and number two? The German Shepherds at one, the Chow Chow at two. And like its retrieve along the Labrador, it has wet feet to aide in all that pedaling it loves to do. But with all that fetching and running, the golden retriever is prone to hip displeasure, a joint disorder common to many large breeds. Its caused by a loss of cartilage due to an abnormal formation in the hip. It can be quite painful and requires proper medical attention. Consult with your vet, if your golden shows signs of discomfort.谁是第一和第二名呢?德国牧羊犬位居第一,松狮犬排名第二。拾物本能像拉不拉多犬一样,它有潮湿的脚来帮助其所爱的划水动作。但是由于黄金猎犬的捡拾和跑步动作,它很容易罹患臀关节不适,一种大型间常见的关节疾病,此乃由臀部异常结构所致软骨流失而引起的。这会非常痛且需要适当的医疗照顾。如果你的黄金猎犬表现出不适的样子,咨询你的兽医吧。For environment, goldens are versatile. But its a bigger dog that requires activity.从环境上来说,黄金猎犬是多才多艺的,但是它是较大型,需要活动。Dr. Karen Halligan: I think the nice thing about golden retriever is they are gonna adapt to anywhere. They will be fine in the apartment as long as they get worked. You can put them on the farm. Theyd have a bless.Dr. Karen Halligan:我想关于黄金猎犬很棒的事,是它们在哪里都可以适应。只要适当运动,它们在公寓里也可以很好。你可以带它们去农场。它们会很快活。Hip displeasure is common. And if not properly exercised, these guys can pack on the pounds. There has also been a problem with cancer in the breed.臀部不适是很普遍的。如果没有适当运动,这些家伙可以胖上好几磅。这品种也有癌症的问题。Dr. Karen Halligan: Lymphoma is a very common cancer in golden retriever. So you wanna make sure that you get a good line.Dr. Karen Halligan:淋巴癌在黄金猎犬中是很常见的癌症。所以你要确定你有一只优良血统的。Grooming wise, youll have to pay attention to their coat.理毛方面,你将必须注意它们的毛皮。Victoria Wells: Golden should be groomed regularly. You know, they need to be brushed. They need to get all the knots taken out with the slicker brush.Victoria Wells:黄金猎犬应该定期理毛。你知道,他们必须被刷理。需要用针梳把所有毛结除掉。Golden retrievers are extremely easy to train.黄金猎犬非常好训练。Amy Shojai: They are more biddable than some other breeds, which means they are more eager to please.Amy Shojai:它们跟其他品种相比是更为顺从的,此意味着它们更渴望取悦人。Theres probably not a better pet for the entire family. But remember, it can be mouthy and a biter. So train them early to not bite. This is not a guard dog, unless the intruder hates getting licked. Every golden has its own unique personality and traits. But in general, goldens are born to run and are generally quite healthy. Keep that brush handy and dont slack with the training and youve got a great family dog.对全家人来说,可能没有更好的宠物了。但是记得,它可能会流口水,可能会咬人。所以及早训练它们不要咬人。除非侵入者讨厌被舔,这不是一只看门。每只黄金猎犬有他自己独特的个性和特徵。但是一般来说,黄金猎犬生来就是要奔跑的,而且通常非常健康。常常刷理,不要懒于训练,你已经有一只很棒的居家了。They just have a zest for life no matter what they do. They are just amazing dogs.不论做什么,它们在生活上就是有无限热情。它们是很棒很棒的。注一:knock…out of the park 表现很好。本意用在棒球赛,打出全垒打。201506/382079


Over the course of your lifetime,在你的一生中youre likely to be prescribed more than 14,000 pills.医生可能给你开了超过一万四千颗药丸Tiny little spheres of这种小小的粉末压片crushed powder with almost magical effects,有着魔法般的功效pills that will possibly save药物可以拯救生命and extend your life by decades.并将寿命延长数十年Any medicine actually is a miracle.实际上 任何药物都是一种奇迹If you really think about what a medicine does,只要你想想药物的工作原理that you can design a small chemical人居然能研制出一种化学药品to interfere with a biological process to alter disease...调控生物进程 进而治疗疾病...I mean, it is just astonishing that you ever get there.我们能做到这一点真的令人嗔目结舌These miraculous pills这些神奇药物得以出现often owe as much to serendipity as science.所需的运气与研究并重We started with a drug that we hoped would be effective in angina我们研制这种药的初衷 是为了治疗心绞痛and we ended up with a medicine最后却发现这种药物that was highly effective in erectile dysfunction.对治疗阳痿非常有效This accidental nature of drug discovery means little is known这种药物发现的偶然性表明about what they can do until we all take them.在用药物前我们对它知之甚少In many ways you learn as much about即便投放市场之后your medicine after its launched as you knew before.你对药物许多方面的了解也并无增加201501/354661

A gladiator was like a rock star, they had fans.角斗士就像摇滚巨星 他们有自己的追随者You can even see in their graffiti,这在他们的涂鸦中便有体现love notes from women to their favorite gladiators.里面有女人给他们心爱的角斗士的情话A top gladiator can earn the equivalent of 0,000 a fight. 最高级别的角斗士一场比赛 可以得到相当于二十万美元的报酬But most die before they turn 23.但大部分角斗士活不过二十三岁Rome is at the height of its power.此时的罗马正处于鼎盛时期Its empire dominates Europe,整个帝国统治着欧洲North Africa and the Middle East.北非和中东A fifth of mankind is under Roman rule.罗马统治着全球五分之一的人口But unknown to the Romans, on the other side of the world,然而罗马人并不知道 在世界另一端There is another empire just as big and powerful.有一个像罗马一样庞大和强大的帝国166 A.D.Roman merchants, their names lost to history,公元166年 罗马商人们来到了离家五千英里外的地方 5,000 miles from home.如今 他们的名字已湮没在历史长河中For two years they have crossed oceans, mountains and deserts,Heading beyond India两年来 他们远渡重洋 翻山越岭 勇闯沙漠 一路朝着印度前进To a land theyve heard of only in whispers.这片他们只曾耳闻未曾目睹过的土地;Somewhere out there, on the outer fringe of the world,;在那之外 在这世界的外边缘;Where the sea ends,;;There is a very great inland state.;China.在大海的尽头 ;有一个伟大的内陆国家; 那就是中国201510/404144

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