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来源:飞度云频道    发布时间:2019年05月26日 09:29:07    编辑:admin         

Bello贝约I, the Supreme我,至高无上Latin America needs term limits. But how strict should they be?拉丁美洲需要任期限制。但是这一限制需要多严格呢?NO SOONER had Juan Manuel Santos, Colombias president, secured himself a second term in a run-off election in June than he announced that he wants to prevent such a thing happening again. He will propose a constitutional change barring immediate re-election and lengthening future presidential terms, from four to five or six years. Why didnt he think of that before, cynics might ask? He might reply that it was in Colombias interest to give him more time to complete peace talks with the FARC guerrillas, for which a single four-year term proved too short.哥伦比亚总统胡安·曼努埃尔·桑托斯刚刚在6月的大选中获得连任机会,便立即发表声明声称他希望防止这样的总统连任事件再次发生。他将提出一个宪法修正案以防止总统再次参与竞选,并将总统任期从4年延长至5或6年。不满的愤世嫉俗者可能会问,为什么他之前就没有想到这么做呢?桑托斯会回答,事实已经明四年的任期并不足以让他完成与哥伦比亚武装力量游击队的和平谈话,为了哥伦比亚的利益他需要更多的时间来完成这一使命。Mr Santoss move runs counter to the regional trend. In country after country in Latin America, term limits have been loosened over the past two decades. The latest to seek to abolish them altogether is Ecuadors president, Rafael Correa. He declared last year that his current term would be his final one, only for his supporters to unveil a bill in July allowing indefinite re-election for all public offices. Since Mr Correa commands a large legislative majority, Ecuador is likely to follow Venezuela and Nicaragua in allowing a presidency for life.Santos先生的做法与拉美整个的地区趋势相悖。在拉丁美洲的各个国家,任期限制在最近的20年里已经一再放松。最近一位想要完全废除任期限制的是厄瓜多尔总统拉斐尔·科雷亚。他去年声称只要他的持者在六月推出允许所有公共政府机关职位的无限期再次竞选的法案,他当前任期将是他最后的任期。由于Correa先生掌握着大多数立法投票席位,厄瓜多尔很有可能和委内瑞拉与尼加拉瓜一样允许终生总统任期。Not coincidentally, these countries are among a handful in Latin America in which presidents now exercise near-absolute power. Mr Correa, the late Hugo Chávez in Venezuela and Nicaraguas Daniel Ortega deployed their electoral majorities to crush the independence of the judiciary, curb the media and hamper opposition. In the extent of their power, if not in the route by which they obtained it, they resemble the regions 19th-century dictators—whose absolutism is captured in the title of a classic Paraguayan novel by Augusto Roa Bastos called “Yo, el Supremo”.并不是巧合,因为这三个国家均是拉丁美洲少数几个总统拥有近乎绝对统治权的国家。厄瓜多尔总统拉斐尔·科雷亚将是下一个委内瑞拉总统乌戈·查韦斯。他和尼加拉瓜总统丹尼尔·奥尔特加部署了大多数选举席位以便遏制司法独立、控制媒体以及遏制反对派的行动。除了获取权利的路线不同,他们的权利范围与该地区19世纪的独裁者有极大的相似之处。这些独裁者的专制统治在巴拉圭作家奥古斯托·罗亚·巴斯托斯的经典小说的标题中体现的淋漓尽致—《我,至高无上》。The trend to looser term limits goes far beyond these three countries. Daniel Zovatto of the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, an inter-governmental organisation, points out that in the 1980s the norm in Latin Americas restored democracies was to restrict presidents to a single term. Of the 15 Latin American countries with no plans for indefinite re-election, four now allow two consecutive terms and seven permit former presidents to run again after an interlude. Only four—Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Paraguay—still confine their presidents to one term only.放松任期限制的趋势并不仅在这三个国家中存在。国际民主与选举援助组织在拉丁美洲和加勒比海的区域主管丹尼尔·组瓦特指出,拉丁美洲于20世纪80年代恢复的民主政治正是为了将总统职位限制为单任期。在15个尚没有允许无限期再次竞选的拉丁美洲国家中,4个国家现在允许2期连任,有7个国家允许前任总统们在他人担任总统之后再次竞选总统,只有墨西哥、危地马拉、洪都拉斯以及巴拉圭这4个国家依旧将总统限制为单任期。Critics of this trend say that incumbents have an even greater advantage over opponents than they have in, say, the ed States. Only twice since 1990 have candidates who were sitting presidents lost elections in Latin America. Several incumbents have also managed to anoint their chosen successors, who in the case of the late Néstor Kirchner of Argentina was his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.这种趋势的批评者认为,现任总统相比于其反对者的优势很大,且这种优势甚至还大于北美总统的优势。自1990年以来,现任总统再次竞选失败的事情在拉丁美洲只发生过两次。有些在位者也会神话他们选定的接任者,比如阿根廷前任总统内斯托尔·卡洛斯·基什内尔便扶持他的妻子克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯·德基什内尔成功接任总统。But the recent success of incumbents owes much to their good fortune in presiding over a golden decade of commodity-fuelled economic growth, and in their distribution of some of this windfall to the poor. Now that economic growth has slowed, presidents have become less popular. A test of whether incumbents remain near-invincible will come in Brazils election in October, in which Dilma Rousseff faces a tough fight for a second term.不过在位者们的近期成功主要应该归功于他们幸运地处在大宗商品经济蓬勃发展的黄金时期,他们只要将一部分“上帝的馈赠”分发给穷人便可以获得持。而现在经济的增长速度放缓,总统们变得并没有那么受欢迎。今年10月,在巴西的选举中将会有一个关于在位者是否依旧无可匹敌的测试进行,在这次选举中迪尔玛·罗塞夫为了自己的第二任期将会面临一场艰难的竞争。There are, in fact, some sound reasons for allowing re-election—though not indefinitely. If a president is popular and has done a good job, surely voters should have the right to choose him or her again? A four-year term, as eight countries have, is too short to do much. Indeed, it is not all that long ago that political scientists fretted that Latin American presidents were too weak rather than too strong.事实上,还是有一些合理的理由允许总统再次参加竞选的,虽然不是无限再次竞选。如果一个总统很受欢迎并且工作出色,选民们难道不应该有权利再次选择他或者她吗?现在拉丁美洲有8个国家依旧维持4年为一任期的规定, 4年时间确实不足以让一个总统完成太多事情。而且就在不久之前,政治学者们甚至认为拉丁美洲的总统们太脆弱而不是太强大。What matters is not whether a president can run for re-election, but whether countries possess the countervailing institutions required to curb the abuse of executive power and the advantages of incumbency. Strong and independent judiciaries, electoral authorities, media and political parties are all vital.问题的关键点不在于总统是否可以再次竞选,而在于国家是否有足以遏制滥用行政权力和在位者优势的对抗制度。强大而独立的司法机构、选举委员会、媒体以及政党都是必不可少的。Paradoxically, Colombia is fairly well-served in this regard. Its constitutional court knocked down an attempt by álvaro Uribe, Mr Santoss popular predecessor, to run for a third consecutive term. Mr Santos told Bello during the campaign that he thinks Colombians dislike re-election, initiated in 2006 by Mr Uribe. That may be one reason why he barely squeaked to a second term, winning the run-off by less than six percentage points. It seems that Mr Santos has come up with a solution to a problem that Colombia doesnt really have. Perhaps he should export it to Ecuador.反常的是,哥伦比亚在这一点上做的很好。其宪法院成功粉碎了Santos先生的上一任总统乌里韦谋求3连任的企图。在此次竞选中,桑托斯先生告诉贝约,他认为自乌里韦于2006年连任总统以来,哥伦比亚不喜欢总统再次参加竞选。这恐怕也是本次竞选中他以少于6%的微弱优势艰难胜出的原因之一。看上去桑托斯已经想到了解决问题的方法,虽然这个问题在哥伦比亚并不存在。或许他可以将这个方法推荐给厄瓜多尔。 /201408/319478。

Domestics in Britain英国佣人Life below stairs阁楼下的生活Servants—in their own words仆人的自述WINSTON CHURCHILLS valet always said the great man could not dress himself: “He sat there like a dummy and you dressed him.” Whether anyone ironed the wartime prime ministers shoe laces, washed his loose change or made sure the yolks in his boiled eggs were centred, Lucy Lethbridge does not say. But as she shows in this absorbing history, much of it in the words of servants, such things were the rule in some houses.WINSTON CHURCHILL的男仆总是说,该伟大的男人无法自己更衣:“他笨拙地坐在那里,让你给他穿衣。” Lucy Lethbridge并没说战时是否有仆人为首相熨鞋带、洗零钱、确保餐桌上有水煮蛋蛋黄。但她在书里展现的这段历史引人入胜,用仆人的话来说,这些都是作为仆人的义务。This is the extreme end of Ms Lethbridges survey—a vivid sweep from ducal palace to suburban villa, from lordly butler to Barnardos orphan, from decaying gentry and aspiring middles to the foreign nannies and cleaners of today. Her subject is many-branched and full of pressing issues, not least, the status of housework itself. All the same, there is a peculiar fascination about the old order, with its skivvies and tweenies and gentlemens gentlemen. This is where the class system most resembled a theatre of the absurd, where maids became invisible by turning their faces to the wall as their master walked by. Virginia Woolf captures the ethos brilliantly in “Mrs Dalloway”, where a society lunch is apparently magicked into existence. Tables self-sp with glass and silver, food self-cooks and is served, not by working women, but by handmaidens, “adepts in a mystery”.Ms Lethbridge向我们展现了截然不同的生活场景—从公爵官邸里忙碌的大扫除到僻静的郊区住宅,从贵族男管家到Barnardo的孤儿,从衰落的贵族、兴起的中产阶级到外国保姆,如今的清洁工。所列议题广而紧迫,尤其是家务劳动本身的情形。但过去关于下等佣人、女仆、贴身男仆的约定俗成也同样令人好奇。 这就是阶级体系与荒诞派戏剧最为相似的部分,一看到主人,女仆们就要扭头脸贴墙变成隐形人。Virginia Woolf在《达洛维夫人》一书中绝妙地捕捉了这种社会现象。社交午餐何其充满了魔力,餐桌自己摆上了杯具和刀叉,食物自己煮好端上桌。其实这些并非职业女性所为,而是出自“善于隐形”的女仆之手。Ms Lethbridge is good on the mystifications that enveloped both employers and employed. Most servants were drudges or “slaveys”. It was estimated that a maid carried three tonnes of hot water up and down stairs each week. And they were expected to be grateful for a place in a home rather than a factory (often they were). A home, so the myth went, was a haven of moral purity and order. Even its furniture was sanctified. According to one advice book, a maid should keep a place in her heart for it, next only to family. No amount of digging with chapped fingers into greasy saucepans could shake the employers sense of conferring a privilege.Ms Lethbridge擅长刻画雇主与佣工身上的神秘莫测。大多数仆人过去做过苦力,当过“奴隶”。据估计,一个女仆每周要拎三公吨的热水楼上楼下地忙碌。对此他们心存感激,因为他们可以住在称作家的地方,而不是住在工厂。家如同神话般被视为纯洁的道德和秩序的庇护所。就连家具都充满了神圣感。一本指南里写道,女仆应当忠于它们仅次于忠于这个家庭。女仆用皲裂的双手清洗油锅洗得再多也不会动摇雇主享受特权的信念。Nor could anything modernise them. American innovations, such as rubber gloves, detergents and vacuum cleaners, took decades to arrive in Britain. True cachet lay in the old and customary. There is a wonderful story of footmen having to remove for cleaning all the electric lamps each morning, as if they were oil lamps. As for Lloyd Georges 1911 bill to bring in compulsory insurance and unemployment benefits for servants, there was uproar; the delicate balance between employer and servant would be destroyed, it was said.没有事物能让英国佣人与时俱进。美国的发明创造,像是橡胶手套、洗涤剂、吸尘器,过了几十年才在英国流行起来。老派的作风习惯体现了真正的贵族威望。有个有趣的故事是说一名男仆每早起来都要卸下灯泡并清洁,搞得它们跟煤油灯似的。就在1911年,Lloyd George专门为仆人开设法定保险与失业津贴一事引起骚动;舆论说这将打破雇主与佣人间微妙的平衡。Victorian and early-20th-century domestics were the largest single group of workers in Britain after agricultural labourers. Yet histories of the working class have neglected them. Scorned by their peers as flunkeys, they felt constrained by their position from doing much more than sing rudely over the washing-up. In telling their story so fully and humanely, Ms Lethbridge manages to suggest what the words to that song might have been.维多利亚及二十世纪初期的英国,佣人是继劳农群体后最大的工人群体。而工人阶级的史料中却遗漏了这一群体。同阶层的工人蔑视他们,认为他们是奴仆,社会地位让他们无路可寻,只能边洗餐盘边唱悲歌。Ms Lethbridge通过完整人道的故事叙述,成功说明了那些歌声到底意味着什么。 /201405/295939。

Finance and Economics;Indian banking;Kotak moment;财经;印度;Kotak的时代At last, a bank that didnt fall victim to Goldman envy;一家最终没有沦为“嫉妒高盛”的受害者的;In 1993 two Goldman Sachs partners, Jon Corzine and Hank Paulson, who both later ran the bank, were hosting a dinner in Hong Kong and needed a guest who could talk about India. They invited a relative unknown, Uday Kotak, whose firm financed cars and discounted bills there. Three years later the two firms formed an Indian investment-banking joint venture.1993年,高盛的两大合作者乔恩·科尔津和汉克·鲍尔森在香港举办了一场餐会,来应宴者须有能力探讨印度的情况。举办餐会的二人后来都开了。彼时他们邀请来了当时相对没名气的Uday Kotak。后者的公司在印度为轿车和折扣订单提供资助。三年后,两家公司合资成立了印度投资。In March of this year Goldmans board met in India for the first time. Invited to the shindig were the big beasts of India Inc. Among them was Mr Kotak, now boss of a leading bank and a multibillionaire. “My objective is to build something sustainable that lasts 100 years,” says Mr Kotak, who is upbeat without being hyperbolic, not a trick all Indian tycoons manage.今年三月,高盛的董事会在印度首次会面。受邀来到舞会的都是印企中的弄潮儿,其中就包括目前身家几十亿,掌管印度顶尖的Kotak先生。Kotak先生的说法虽然乐观但并不夸夸其谈:“我的目标是创立的东西能够长存百年”,这个目标可不是每个印度大亨都能做到的。Kotak Mahindra Groups rise mirrors that of India. The bank was born in 1985, and although it thrived in the insular India of that time it was quick to seek foreign expertise as the economy opened up after 1991. As well as befriending Goldman, it also struck a car-financing pact with Ford. Kotak bought out the partners in both these ventures in 2005-06 as the India boom took off. By that point its investment bank had become a powerhouse capable of taking on the bulge-bracket firms (indeed, Goldman has never hit its stride in India since the venture ended). By March 2007, before the global crisis struck, investment banking made up 60% of earnings.Kotak Mahindra的企业成长反映出了印度国家实力的增强。1985年成立以来该企业不仅在封闭的印度中繁荣发展,更在1991年经济开放后迅速搜寻外国的专家,与高盛交好、与福特签订汽车资助协议。在印度开始高速增长以后,Kotak买下了高盛两个合伙人的全部股权。完成收购后的Kotak投资有实力将全球知名企业的股份收入囊中。(事实上,合资企业终结后,高盛就再也没能很好的在印度发展)。截止到2007年3月全球金融危机爆发前,该行利润的60%都来自投资业务。There has been a startling change of colours since then. Kotak correctly judged that Indias investment-banking scene would slump as too many firms chased a smallish and shrinking revenue pot. And it chose not to go global. Although some emerging-market firms, such as BTG Pactual of Brazil, harbour such ambitions, Kotak lacked muscle and in any case, says Mr Kotak, “the jury is still out” on the Anglo-Saxon style of capital-markets-led banking. Instead Kotak focused on India and on lending. In the year to March 2012, four-fifths of pre-tax profits came from lending. Profits have more than tripled since 2007.此后的形式发生了惊人的变化。Kotak正确判断出大量的公司会将正在缩水的小型业务发展为收入柱,进而印度投行业务将会下滑。他决定避免全球化经营。尽管巴西百达等新兴市场的企业怀揣这种宏图大志,但Kotak公司尚且实力不足,Kotak先生说:无论如何,在盎格鲁-撒克逊式资本市场主导下的中,“此事还需再议”。相反,Kotak公司将重点放在了印度境内业务和放贷业务上。2012年3月,放贷业务利润高达税前总利润的五分之四,总利润额比07年高出三倍还多。The shift was not all luck, the bank says. Its roots are in small-ticket lending to middle India, not supping with too-big-to-fail types. The firms co-managing directors, C. Jayaram and Dipak Gupta, have both spent two decades at the bank and predate the investment-banking adventure. Retail loans are mainly collateralised, and used to finance purchases of cars and houses. Wholesale loans are aimed at semi-rural bits of India and skewed towards purchases of vehicles and equipment. Kotak has shied away from the big infrastructure projects that are hurting other banks. Gross bad debts and restructured loans are a low 1.2% of the total, despite fast growth.提到也不是每次环境变化都是有利的。公司的根基建立在向印度的中产阶级提供小额贷款上,那些大而不倒的客户可不是它的菜。企业的联席董事C. Jayaram和Dipak Gupta在运营投资之前都已做了二十年的业务。零售类贷款业务大部分是有抵押的,并且被用来买车买房。批发型贷款的目标是半城镇化的印度居民,用途也是买机车和设备。Kotak公司避免了让其他公司受害的大型基建性项目。尽管高速增长,但净坏账和重组贷款占总贷款比率处于低水平的1.2%。As well as a weak economy, there are potential sources of disruption. New banking licences may be awarded to politically connected industrialists. And Indian banking is due for a bout of consolidation. Both events may be a year or two away, but will still probably come under the watch of Mr Kotak, who owns 41% of the firm. At 53 he has no plans to retire, and wants his family to retain a chunky stake in the long term. That may be no bad thing. Continuity is part of the magic formula. And, unlike some well-known Wall Street firms, there is little sign of hubris. “All of us have middle-class values,” says Mr Kotak. “We never wanted to be grandiose.”除经济疲软意外,还有其他的潜在不利因素。比如有政治背景的企业家或将更容易得到新的协议,而印度也将掀起一阵合并潮。这两大事件很可能在一、二年后发生,但也可能发生在控制公司41%股权的Kotak先生眼皮底下。现年53岁的他不仅当下没有任何理由退休,更在长期希望他的家庭能够保留相当的股份。这也许不是坏事。魔法配方中就有一个环节叫做“持续性”。并且,不同于华尔街知名企业的是,这里没有狂妄自大的苗头。Kotak先生说:“我们所有人都有中产阶级价值,而且从没想过自吹自擂。” /201304/234296。

Although many of these city foxes do get killed by cars, the population as a whole is thriving. That’s because a regular supply of water means a regular supply of prey, including voles and ground squirrels. 尽管这些生活在城市之中的狐狸很多被汽车撞死,但是它们的整体数量却在上升。这是因为有着充足的水源遍意味着有着充足的猎物,这些猎物包括野鼠和地鼠。Playing on the streets at night is dangerous, but for the pups, it’s vital for improving their coordination. Parents keep a vigilant eye on their antics. Despite the hazards of city life, the Bakersfield kit foxes are now crucial to the overall survival of the species. 夜晚在街道上游荡十分危险,但是这对于狐狸幼崽来说却十分关键,因为它们需要提高它们对于城市的协调性。狐狸父母警惕地照看着它们的孩子。尽管城市生活十分危险,但是目前贝克尔斯菲市沙狐对于整个物种的存活十分关键。The promise of an easy source of food is a good reason why animals live in cities, especially at times of year when food is hardest to find in the wild. During the winter months, Anchorage in Alaska is home to North America’s largest browser, the moose. But a moose during the day is a little obvious, so they prefer to move around by night. While most of the human population sleeps, the moose wander the streets in search of food.食物来源简单、稳定可靠,这很好地解释了为什么动物们在城市定居,尤其是在这样一个食物很难在野外发现的时代。在冬季的几个月中,阿拉斯加州的安克拉治是北美最大的食草动物驼鹿的家园。不过驼鹿在白天活动实在太过显眼,因此它们更倾向于在夜间活动。当人们在夜晚熟睡时,它们开始在街上寻找食物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/267975。

Personalised car stickers个性化汽车贴纸Family portraits on wheels轮胎上的全家福Windscreens are the new Facebook挡风玻璃变成了新的脸书网IN THE Middle Ages, heraldry allowed knights to show off family histories in amazing detail, lugging shields or banners into battle that explained their ancestry, whether they had married an heiress and their status as a first or younger son. Eight centuries later American drivers are catching up, thanks to personalised “family stickers”: tiny stick-figure depictions of an entire household (most typically displayed in one corner of a minivans rear-windscreen). Though the trends origins are obscure, there is a consensus that it began in Mexico several years ago and at first involved generic outline figures, revealing ony the number of children in a family.在中世纪,骑士们可以使用非常精细的纹章来炫耀自己家族历史,在战场上带着有家族纹章的盾牌或旗帜可以阐明他们的血统—和一位女继承人结婚,或者身为家中长子或幼子。八百年后,汽车司机也开始这样做了,而他们使用的是个性化“家庭贴纸”:一副小小的全家简笔画描绘。尽管这股潮流的起源已经不甚明了,但几年前在墨西哥兴起了一种默认观点,首先就是在车上贴通用类数字图,表明了家中孩子的数量。Now the stickers are well established north of the border. And, thanks to a combination of American individualism and advances in custom-manufacturing, they are morphing into ever-more-detailed family chronicles.如今贴纸在边境线北部也开始流行起来。由于美国个人主义和先进的定制加工业,它们变成了更加精细的家族编年史。Chroma Graphics of Tennessee, a supplier to such firms as Walmart, recently designed its first kits to celebrate households headed by same-sex couples. The pick-and-mix kits—designed at the request of a large retail customer, but not yet on sale—include two father-figures, two mother-figures and an assortment of children and pets, says Brenda Sellers, the firms president. The packaging is in rainbow colours, bearing intertwined pairs of two male and two female astrological symbols as a final clue.田纳西州的色图案是一些公司如沃尔玛之类的供应商,他最近计划推出首套庆祝同性恋人担任户主系列贴纸。该公司总裁布伦达·塞勒斯表示,这套组合贴纸是应一个大型零售商客户要求推出的,但尚未对外出售。它包括两个父亲形象,两个母亲形象,各种各样的孩子和宠物。包装是虹色的,上面有两对互相交错的同性男女占星符号,作为一个最终暗示。In Idaho a sign-maker, Woodland Manufacturing, has pioneered hyper-personalised stickers. Visitors to its online www.familystickers.com retail arm, can combine thousands of different heads, bodies and accessories to depict, say, a bearded, balding x-ray technician, married to a bee-keeping mother (in hat with veil) whose kids enjoy ballet and baseball, and who own guinea pigs.在爱达荷州有家标牌制造商,名叫林地制造,他提倡超个性化贴纸。访问他家在线零售网站的访客可以将上千种头部、身体和附属部件结合描绘,一个秃顶但胡子浓密的放射线技术员称。该技术员与一名勤劳的妇女(戴着有面纱的帽子)结了婚,他们的孩子喜欢芭蕾舞和棒球,还养着荷兰猪。Most are bought by women, says the firms marketing boss, Aaron Ellsworth. The number-one seller is dog stickers: “For a lot of people, their pet is their family,” says Mr Ellsworth. Candour is a trend, with customers asking for large Xs to place over divorced spouses, or tiny halos to place over a family member who has died. Some lovelorn folk leave gaps in family line-ups, labelled: “Position Open”. Coloured stickers are big just now, and also zombies.该公司的销售经理亚伦·埃尔斯沃斯称大多数贴纸的购买者都是女性。卖得最火的是犬类贴纸,“对于大部分人来说,他们的宠物就是家人。”埃尔斯沃斯说。坦率是一种趋势,顾客会购买大型X符号来代表离婚夫妻,或者小小的光圈来代表去世的家人。一些失恋的人在家庭的一行贴纸中留出空位,贴上标签“空窗期”。如今色的贴纸和僵尸贴纸也卖得很火。Two powerful forces are at work, suggests Mr Ellsworth. The internet now allows consumers to order customised products directly from a factory. And in a fast-changing world, “all of us want to feel unique”. Those medieval knights would have understood.埃尔斯沃斯称有两种强大的力量在起作用。如今的网络可以使顾客按照自己要求直接从加工厂订购产品。而且在如今这个瞬息万变的世界,“每个人都想使自己显得与众不同”。那些中世纪骑士会理解这种心情的。 201406/304929。