福清中山能做人流吗快乐新闻

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 福清中山能做人流吗龙马咨询
Business education商业教育Field of dreams梦想之地Harvard Business School reinvents its MBA course哈佛商学院改良其工商管理硕士 (MBA) 课程YOUNG mums shopping in the Copley Mall in downtown Boston last month found themselves being questioned about their use of soap by students from Harvard Business School. The students were not doing odd jobs to earn beer money. They were preparing to help a firm in Brazil launch an antibacterial cleanser.上月,年轻的妈妈们在波士顿市区的科普利商场 (Copley Mall) 购物时,发现有来自哈佛商学院的学生询问她们使用肥皂的情况。这些学生并不在打临时工赚取啤酒钱。他们在帮助一家巴西公司发布一款抗病菌洁面乳做准备工作。Fieldwork;ie, going out and talking to people;is a big change for HBS. Its students used to sit in a classroom and discuss case studies written by professors. Now they may also work in a developing country and launch a start-up. ;Learning by doing; will become the norm, if a radical overhaul of the MBA curriculum succeeds.实地工作;;走出教室,与人交谈;;是哈佛商学院的一项大变革。哈佛商学院的学生过去常常坐在教室里讨论教授们写的研究案例。现在,他们也可能在一个发展中国家工作,并且建立一家新兴企业。如果这项对 MBA 课程的重大改革成功,那么,;做中学;将变为常规。The 900 students arriving in Boston this summer for their two-year course were told they would be guinea pigs. The new practical addition to HBSrsquo;s curriculum is known as ;FIELD; (Field Immersion Experiences for Leadership Development). Not all the staff and students are overjoyed to be experimented on. But the man responsible, Nitin Nohria, who became dean of HBS in July 2010, says that ;if it works, the FIELD method could become an equal partner to the case method.;今年夏季哈佛商学院通知接受其两年制课程的 900 名新生:他们将是试验对象。哈佛商学院实际新增课程称为;FIELD; (Field Immersion Experiences for Leadership Development)(实地浸入式体验的领导力开发)。并非所有的员工和学生都对成为这次实验的对象而感到欣喜若狂。但于2010 年 7 月就任哈佛商学院院长的项目负责人尼廷bull;诺里亚 (Nitin Nohria) 称,;如果成功,实地教学法(FIELD 法)将与案例教学法并驾齐驱。;Long before he became dean, Mr Nohria lamented the failure of business schools to fulfil their mission of turning management into a profession similar to law or medicine. Asked what should be expected from someone with an MBA, he replies that ;obviously, they should master a body of knowledge. But we should also expect them to apply that knowledge with some measure of judgment.; MBA students have long been sent on summer internships with prospective employers, but HBS, like most business schools, did little else to help them with the practical application of management studies.早在担任院长以前,诺利亚就曾抱怨,商学院未能实现自身使命,将管理转变为类似于法律或医学的一门职业。当问及应当对工商管理硕士抱以怎样的期望时,他回答说;很显然,他们应该拥有大量知识。但是,我们也应期望他们能在应用知识的时候运用一些判断力。;长久以来,工商管理硕士专业学生都会派到潜在雇主那里参加暑期实习,但是,与大多数商学院一样,哈佛商学院很少再采取措施,来帮助他们将管理学运用于实践。What happens in the second year of the new course is still being worked out. But the first year has three elements. First, team-building exercises. Students take turns to lead a group engaged in a project such as designing an ;eco-friendly sculpture;. They learn to collaborate and to give and take feedback. These exercises are loosely based on ones used in the US army.新课程第二学年的安排仍在制订中。但第一学年有三个要素。第一,团队建设训练。学生轮流领导一个组织。这个组织参与一个项目,比如;生态友好型雕刻;。他们学习相互合作、给予并接受反馈。这些训练大致建立在美军的训练方法之上。Second, students will be sent to work for a week with one of more than 140 firms in 11 countries. Aly the new intake have had conference calls with these companies, ranging from the Brazilian soapmaker to a Chinese property firm, and gone off-campus to conduct product-development ;dashes; like the one in Copley Mall. This sort of structured learning-by-doing is a world away from HBSrsquo;s traditional encouragement of students to ;go on an adventure; outside of classes.第二,把学生派往 11 国家里逾 140 家公司之一工作一周。这些新生已经同这些公司(范围涉及巴西的肥皂厂到中国的房地产公司)举行了电话会议,走出学校,为产品开发在附近;四处奔波;,例如去科普利超市。此类有组织的;做中学;不同于哈佛商学院鼓励学生到教室外;去冒险;的传统做法。In the third novel part of the course, students will be given eight weeks, and seed money of ,000 each, to launch a small company. The most successful, as voted by their fellow students, will get more funding. It remains to be seen if this amounts to much more than a souped-up business-plan competition, though Mr Nohria says he hopes some real businesses will be created. (If only HBS had thought of this when Bill Gates was thinking of starting Microsoft, or Mark Zuckerberg was creating Facebook;perhaps the school would have received shares in those firms.)此门课程的第三个创新之处是,给予学生八周时间以及每人 3,000 美元基金来创办一家小型公司。按照同学投票,最成功的公司将给予更丰厚的资金。仅管诺利亚称,他希望创造出一些真正的企业,但是,它是否不仅仅是一个花哨的商业计划比赛尚待观察。(当比尔bull;盖茨 (Bill Gates) 开始创办微软,马克bull;扎克伯格 (Mark Zuckerberg) 打造脸谱 (Facebook) 时,哈佛商学院就已想到这个主意该多好;;或许哈佛商学院可能已经收到了这两家公司的股份。)It is unclear how much the one-week working assignments will achieve. Pankaj Ghemawat, a management guru, says ;the literature suggests that an immersion experience needs to be at least 2-3 weeks and be backed up with time in the classroom.; The HBS studentsrsquo; classroom preparation will have to be pretty thorough, then, to make up for the brevity of their field trips. Moreover, some of the HBS alumni who have agreed to offer work experience at their firms say they are unsure what meaningful work they can offer the students.一周的工作任务有多大成效还不得而知。管理大师潘卡基bull;格玛沃特(Pankaj Ghemawat)称;文献资料显示,浸入式体验至少需要 2-3 周的时间且需要课堂时间的配合。;这样,哈佛商学院学生的课堂准备将必须非常充分,以弥补他们实地体验期的短暂。还有,已经同意提供工作经历的哈佛商学院校友们称,对提供给学生们何种有意义的工作他们并不确定。Privately, some faculty members are sceptical that all this change will be worthwhile. In January, the vote in favour of trying the field method was ;as enthusiastic as you could get from a faculty,; says Mr Nohria, wryly. He wisely ensured that ownership of the idea was widely sp by delegating design of the new curriculum to several faculty committees. The vote gave the go-ahead to run a ;delicate experiment for 3-5 years to see if we can move the needle;, he says, compared with the 13 years it took to develop the case method into more or less what it is today.私下里,某些教职员工对是否值得进行所有这些变革持怀疑态度。1 月份,;你能从教职员工那里得到的顶多;也就是持实地教学法的投票而已,诺利亚嘲讽地说道。通过将设计新课程的权力下放到几个教职员工委员会,他明智地确保了更广泛的教职员工能参与到这项变革中来。教职工投票同意进行;3-5 年的谨慎试验,看下能否产生显著影响;,诺利亚称。而案例教学法整整用了13年才走到今天这一步。The experiment does not come cheap, adding 10-15% to the coursersquo;s cost (students pay at least ,000 a year), which HBS will bear while it figures out what works. A lot is at stake. For where Harvard leads, other universities may follow.这试验并不便宜,课程成本由此增加了10-15%(学生一年至少付 84,000 美元)。在弄清弄什么是有效的之前,这笔费用将由哈佛商学院承担。太多吉凶未卜。因为哈佛领先之处,可能就是他校追随的地方。downtown n. 城市商业区, 闹市区practical adj.实际的fulfill vt. 履行,实现collaborate v. 合作assignment n. 作业; 工作enthusiastic adj. 热烈的, 热心的164067Some 40,000 people have been killed in Mexico over the past five years as the Latin American country's police and military battle powerful drug cartels that are also fighting with each other over smuggling routes. In spite of the dire headlines, hundreds of thousands of US citizens vacation in Mexico every year and many of them, especially those who are retired, have opted to buy property and live there. The warm weather and the lower cost of living are big draws.  在过去5年,墨西哥军警与强大的贩毒集团之间的战斗,以及贩毒集团之间为争夺贩毒路线而进行的内斗造成大约4万人丧生。然而,仍然有几十万美国公民不顾这些可怕的新闻,每年都要去墨西哥度假。其中许多人,特别是那些退休的人,甚至选择在墨西哥购买房子并且住在那里。墨西哥温暖的气候和较低的生活费用是吸引他们在那里买房的最大动力。News from Mexico these days tends to be bad.   近来从墨西哥传来的往往都是坏消息。Shootouts and grisly murders dominate media reports. 媒体报导充斥了战和恶性谋杀之类的新闻。But some Americans are moving to Mexico looking for peace and relaxation. 可是,一些美国人却前往墨西哥寻找平静与休闲。Michael Baldwin and Stephanie Villareal spoke to VOA via Skype from their home near the tip of Mexico's Baja peninsula. “We have been here almost a year now. We came from Houston, Texas. We came down temporarily last summer and made the decision to make it permanent and we actually drove from Houston to Cabo San Lucas,” Baldwin said. 迈克尔.鲍尔温和斯蒂芬尼.比利亚雷尔从位于墨西哥巴扎半岛顶端他们的家里,通过Skype软件对美国之音说,“我们在这里住了将近1年。我们是从德克萨斯州的休斯敦来这里的。去年夏天,我们本来是临时性地来这里玩儿,结果决定要在这里长住下去。实际上,我们是从休斯敦开车到卡波圣卢卡斯来的。”Baldwin says they love the natural beauty and mild climate and that their improved lifestyle has also saved them money. “Houston versus Cabo, our expenses have been reduced by about 30 percent,” Baldwin said. 鲍尔温说,他们很爱那里的自然美景和温和的气候。另外,生活方式的改善也给他们省了钱。他说,“卡波圣卢卡斯与休斯敦相比,我们的生活费用减少了大约30%。”201106/139467World Health Assembly Discusses New Health Challenges世卫敦促各国预防甲型流感流行  The annual World Health Assembly has opened with delegates from 193 member countries discussing how to protect people from diseases such as the swine flu virus that is sping around the world.世界卫生大会年会开幕,来自193个成员国的代表们正在讨论如何防止人们感染目前正在世界流行的甲型H1N1流感等疾病。World Health Organization Director-General, Margaret Chan, says the world is facing multiple crises, on multiple fronts. And, these are occurring at a time when the global economic crisis is making it more difficult to maintain good health, especially in the developing world. 世界卫生组织总干事陈冯富珍说,世界目前在许多地区面临多项危机。而目前的全球经济危机让人们保持健康的体魄更加困难,发展中国家尤其如此。The WHO Chief says the new Swine Flu A-H1N1 virus shows how health challenges are changing.世卫组织总干事陈冯富珍说,新的甲型H1N1流感病毒说明,我们面临的健康难题正在如何发生改变。"The world today is more vulnerable to the adverse effects of an influenza pandemic than it was in 1968, when the last pandemic of the previous century began," said Margaret Chan. "The speed and volume of international travel have increased to an astonishing degree. As we are seeing right now with H1N1, any city with an international airport is at risk of an imported case." 陈冯富珍说:“跟1968年即上世纪最后一次流感瘟疫的情况相比,当今世界更加难以应对流感疫症产生的负面影响, 国际旅行的速度和人次以惊人的速度增长。正如我们现在看到的甲型H1N1流感,每一个有国际机场的城市,都有可能有输入性病例。”Dr. Chan says increased interdependence among nations creates a great potential for economic disruption. This means the gap between the haves and the have-nots will grow even larger than it aly has. 陈冯富珍说,国与国之间相互依赖的增加,也极大的增加了经济崩溃的可能性。这就是说,贫富之间的差距会更大。"Today, about 85 percent of the burden of chronic diseases is concentrated in low and middle income countries," she said. "The implications are obvious. The developing world has, by far, the largest pool of people at risk for severe and fatal H1N1 infections." 陈冯富珍说:“如今,慢性病这个沉重负担有大约85%集中在中低收入国家。其中的含义显而易见。就目前来看,发展中国家有更多的人会面临感染甲型H1N1流感的这种严重致命病毒的最大风险。”Dr. Chan urges the international community to do everything it can to help developing countries from bearing the brunt of disease pandemics. And she says while the world is right to be concerned about a possible flu pandemic, it should not let these worries overshadow or interrupt other vital health programs.陈冯富珍敦促国际社会尽一切努力避免发展中国家承担疾病流行的打击。她还说,尽管世界目前担心可能发生的流感疫症,这些担忧不应该遮挡或者干扰我们实施其它生命攸关的健康计划。She says health ministers attending this week's Assembly should take the opportunity to respond to threats to their health systems. She says a priority is to finish the job of polio eradication. 陈冯富珍表示,出席这个星期世界卫生大会的卫生部长们应该抓住机会对本国、本地区医疗制度遇到的威胁做出回应。她说,一项首要任务是完成根除脊髓灰质炎即小儿麻痹症的工作。She says the global campaign that WHO started in 1988 is very close to achieving its goal of ridding the world of this terrible paralytic disease.陈冯富珍说,世界卫生组织1988年开始的这项全球性运动其最终目标是,在全世界消灭这种给人造成麻痹的可怕疾病,现在这个目标接近实现了。05/70324

It's the adrenaline rush that draws these daredevils in. Their hearts bracing until the parachute opens--the lower the rock, the higher the risk. Twenty five are taken up the 350-meter mountain, and there is only one way down. Norway's coastline is formed of fjords, deep grooves cut into the land, flooded by the sea, following the end of the ice age. Some of the world's steepest slopes, many just sheer drops, make this perfect terrain for base jumpers. They’re jumping into the fjord next to Gudvangen. It takes years of practices as a sky diver before you can base jump. And at a location like this, only the most experienced base jumpers are allowed. Because of the low height of the jump, there is no backup parachute, so anything can happen.Yeah, I'm really happy with this jump, we all did a good job, especially Mallisa, but when we were hanging in the chute up in the valley, it was a bit windy, so we just have to land on the other fields, off on there or so, but Norway is still part of the game. For Germans C. and L., the best way to explore Norway is by road. They have hired a camper van, and they're getting to know the spectacular fjords and glaciers of Southwest Norway. They are on their way to Briskdal, a valley that lies in the heart of fjord region. It's home to some of Norway's most spectacular scenery and it's easily accessible, making it one of the most popular tourist spots in the country. Their guide O.F. is driving an old trod car, one of only 15 in existence. It can just about 5 kilometers per hour. The trails are heading to one of the most famous attractions in Norway, the massive glacier Briskdalbreen. Visitors can get a little wet along the way.课后题目: 学习完后,你能告诉我文章中空缺的单词吗?201109/154995

US Car Giants Accept Bailout America's three big car manufacturers have been offered a multi-billion dollar bailout from the US Government. Chrysler and General Motors have accpeted a share of bn in loans to save them from collapse. Sky's Lisa Holland reportsAmerica’s big three car companies employ a quarter of a million people directly. But it's believed one in ten jobs in the US are tied to the industry. Part of the last chance alone, the country’s motor manufacturers has been given a 17.4 billion dollars bailout by George Bush to save them from the scrappy(混乱状态). "Our economic advisors just believe such collapse would deal with the unacceptably painful blow to hard-working Americans far beyond the auto industry. It would worsen the weak job market and the disaster that made the financial crisis. It could send our suffering economy into a deeper and longer recession. But the bailout comes with conditions. The car companies must show they can repay their loans by the end of March next year proving that they are economically viable. They have to accept limits on salaries and bonuses and have been told that perks such corporate jets must be eliminated. And the US government will have the right go through their books at any time, challenging their business independence. Shortly after announcing bailout Mr. Bush was on TV once more, this time to accept the traditional portraits given to presidents about to leave office."I suspected there will be a good sign to cry on, once the work got out about my hanging"He had made it clear he wouldn't be the one to hang the car industries out dry, because it would be too late by the time Barak Obama takes over. Mr. Obama describes the package as a necessary step."The other companies must not squander this chance to reform bad management practices and begin the long term restructuring that is absolutely necessary to save this critical industry in millions of American jobs that depend on it, while also creating the fuel efficient cars of tomorrow."Ford had said it hoped to get by without government's help. But controversially the government is using part of the 700 billion dollars, which was supposedly to prop up the Wall Street instead. Mica Holland sky news.200812/59481The Indian government is looking at the need for tougher laws to deal with industrial disasters, amid outrage in India about punishment meted out for the 1984 deadly gas leak in Bhopal from a Union Carbide-owned chemical plant. Thousands of people were killed after inhaling the poisonous gas, while tens of thousands were left coping with serious health ailments.In the days since a local court handed out two-year prison terms to seven former Indian employees of Union Carbide, many searching questions have been raised about the verdict.Angry survivors, activists and the media are asking why it took nearly 26 years to get the first convictions in the disaster.Rachna Dhingra represents the Bhopal Group for Information and Action, which has been working to rehabilitate and get justice for the victims of the gas leak. She blames the government and a slow moving judiciary for the long wait. "It has gone from one court to another and there has been no will actually to strengthen the case… there has been lack of political will," said Dhingra.Campaigners have slammed the verdict, calling the two-year prison term for the former top managers "too light." However, lawyers point out that this was the maximum sentence the local court could have handed out for the offense for which the men were tried. The managers of Union Carbide, who have been granted bail, were originally charged with culpable homicide, which could have resulted in a harsher sentence. But, in 1996, the supreme court reduced the charges to criminal negligence, citing existing laws.Facing a barrage of criticism for failing to get adequate justice for the tens of thousands of victims of the Bhopal gas leak, the government has said it needs to revisit laws pertaining to the kind of industrial disaster witnessed in Bhopal.A spokesperson for the ruling Congress Party, Jayanti Natarajan, says a group of nine senior ministers will examine the issue."An empowered group of ministers has been set up to study whether any changes in the law are necessary. We are all outraged that the punishment is something that is equal to a traffic accident. We are all aware of that," said Natarajan. Law Minister Veerappa Moily says India does not have a law to deal with a mass disaster. He has spoken of the need for fast-track courts for such cases and a specific law for such mishaps.What exactly caused the gas leak is still unclear. Union Carbide blamed it on sabotage by a disgruntled employee. The prosecution argued that it was caused by a design defect in the plant and negligent operational practices. Critics have charged that the company got away with just paying 0 million in compensation. The government has responded by saying the case against the American head of Union Carbide at the time of the leak is still open. Warren Anderson faces manslaughter charges in India, but the ed States has rejected efforts to extradite him.Acknowledging the huge anger among the victims and survivors of the disaster, the chief minister of Madhya Pradesh state, where Bhopal is located, Shivraj Singh Chouhan, promises to appeal the verdict.He says the state government will go to a higher court to get a tougher sentence and secure justice for the victims.Survivors of the tragedy and activists fear that such an appeal is again likely to get entangled in India's slow moving judicial system. However, they are not giving up their quest for justice. Satinath Sarangi, a prominent activist working with the victims of the gas leak, says the fight could be led by the generation born in the aftermath of the disaster.  "As the young people in Bhopal, the children of survivors have said, that now they will take it along and they will fight till complete justice is done," said Sarangi.Activists and many politicians say it is important for India to strengthen laws and systems to handle any future mishap, because many foreign corporations are establishing plants and factories in the country to benefit from its booming economy.They are also urging the government to look closely at proposed legislation which would cap the liabilities of foreign companies planning to establish civil nuclear plants in India to 0 million. Critics and opposition parties say the government must draw lessons from the Bhopal disaster and modify the controversial Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill to ensure that India will be able to hold private companies responsible for any mishap. The government says there is no connection between the two issues.面对全国上下因1984年帕尔致命毒气泄漏事件处罚结果引发的不满,印度政府正在考虑是否需要出台更严格的法律应对工业灾害。美国联合碳化公司在帕尔的那家工厂发生毒气泄漏之后,上千人因吸入有毒气体死亡,数以万计的人灾后余生继续同严重的健康疾病斗争。 自从地方法院宣布对七名前联合碳化公司印度籍员工判处两年监禁以来,判决结果引发了许多令人深思的问题。 愤怒的幸存者、社会活动人士和媒体纷纷质问为什么时隔近26年才首次给灾难的肇事者定罪。帕尔情报行动组织代表拉奇纳·丁格拉一直致力于为毒气泄漏事件的受害者恢复和争取公平公正。她指责政府办事不力,司法过程进展太慢。 她说:“这个案子从一个法院移交到另一个法院,政府实际上无意持这个案子,政治意愿是不够的。” 社会活动人士猛烈抨击判决结果,认为对前任高管两年监禁的处罚“太轻”。然而律师指出,这已经是地方法院针对这些人的罪行能做出的最大限度的判决了。已被保释的联合碳化公司的高管们最初被指控犯了误杀罪,本来可能面临更严厉的判决。然而最高法院1996年援引现存法律将罪名减轻为玩忽职守。 面对没能向成千上万帕尔毒气泄漏事件的受害者争取足够公平公正的猛烈批评,政府表示需要重温有关处理类似帕尔工业灾害的法律。 执政党国大党的发言人贾扬提·纳塔拉扬说,一个由九名高级部长组成的小组将就此事进行调查。 他说:“我们已经组建了一个获得授权的部长小组,研究是否需要改变法律。我们都很愤怒判决结果就像一起交通事故的处理结果。我们都意识到了。” 司法部长维拉帕·莫伊利说印度没有关于处理巨大灾害的法律。他提出印度需要针对此类案件成立快速立法法院并出台特定法律。 联合碳化公司把责任归咎于一名员工因对公司不满而故意破坏。检查机关认为工厂设备的设计缺陷和管理人员的玩忽职守导致灾难发生。批评人士谴责公司仅靠付4亿7千万美元的赔偿金就想了事。 政府回应说,对毒气泄漏期间联合碳化公司美国高管的起诉仍在进行当中。沃伦·安德森面临印度政府对他的杀人指控,但美国拒绝为引渡沃伦做出努力。 帕尔所在地中央邦的首席部长希夫拉吉·辛格·乔汉承认灾难的受害者和幸存者对判决结果感到强烈不满,他承诺将对判决结果提起上诉。 他说,联邦政府会向更高一级法院起诉,要求加重量刑,为受害者谋取公平公正。 悲剧的幸存者和社会活动人士担心此次上诉会再次同印度拖拉的司法体制纠缠不清。但他们并不打算放弃对公平公正的追求。 著名社会活动人士萨提纳斯·萨朗吉一直努力为毒气泄漏事件的受害者争取权益。他说,灾后出生那一代人可能会领导大家继续奋斗下去。 他说:“就像帕尔的年轻人、幸存者的子女们说的那样,从这刻起他们将会担起重任,抗争到底,直到取得最终的公平公正。” 社会活动人士和许多政治家说,加强法律和体制建设以备未来处理任何灾害之需对印度来说非常重要,因为许多外国公司正纷纷在印度建厂,想从印度蓬勃发展的经济中获利。 他们同时敦促政府详细审查立法提案,从而将那些计划在印度建民用核电厂的外国公司的负债控制在1亿1千万美元。 批评人士和反对党称政府必须要从帕尔惨案中吸取教训,修改颇受争议的“核损害民事责任法案”,确保私营公司能对任何灾害负责。而政府则表示,两件事之间没有联系。201006/106408In 1983, trailblazing astronaut Sally Ride blasted out of Earth's orbit, opening the world of space travel for women. Watch the stories of other pioneers who have followed her path to the stars.Since the US space program began in 1958, NASA has achieved much in the realm of space exploration. From lunar landings to voyages into the depth of our solar system, NASA has built a storied history.In the early days, space was a men's world. All that changed on June 18, 1983, when Sally Ride became the first American woman to rocket toward the heavens aboard the space shuttle Challenger. A Doctor of Physics, she was recruited by NASA as one of six female astronaut candidates for the shuttle program. While her first job was as a mission control communicator to orbiting shuttles, Sally Ride soon found herself in orbit during 1983's STS-7 mission. And although the Russian space program had sent women into space as early as 1963, Ride's journey into space was a first ever for the US. Aboard the shuttle Challenger, she served as a mission specialist, helping deploy two satellites and perform scientific experiments over six days. Shortly after her return, Ride reflected on what her journey into space meant.“That I was asked at a press conference just before our flight what I thought about being the first US woman astronaut, I was ed to say that it was no big deal. What the astronaut meant to say was that, technically, as far as NASA's concerned it, was no big deal. On another level, the ed States' sending a woman into space was a very important event for at least 53% of the population and I'm very proud of that.”Sally Ride re-adventured into space once more in 1984. And since that time others have become trailblazers as well. Physician-turned astronaut, Mae Jemison became the first African American woman in space during shuttle Endeavour's 1992 mission. During orbit, she performed experiments involving life sciences, material sciences, and bone cell research. In 1990, Astronaut Eileen Collins became the first female shuttle pilot aboard Discovery. Collins commanded two space shuttle missions including the important return to flight mission in July 2005, the first after the 2003 Columbia disaster. Since Sally Ride’s momentous flight into space, the ranks of female astronauts have grown. And in a male-dominated field, they hold a special position as role models for young women everywhere who dream of reaching the stars. 200810/53309

Out of the Blue Ridge Mountains in northwest Georgia, the cold waters of the Conasauga River descend toward Tennessee. Flowing back and forth across the state line, the River's abundant wildlife and unspoiled beauty is a remnant of the past--a fading memory that Carton Petty wants to restore. "I found out it phased out. Take care of the land and it’ll take care of you." It break, (if) you didn't. Petty purchased this land several years ago to grow corn and raise dairy cattle. Today, his farm covers more than 7,000 acres, 170 of them along the Conasauga. To preserve the beauty of the river and his property, Petty has built buffer zones--dedicated strips of land to stop chemicals he sps on his crops from running into the river, and to prevent bank erosion. "Yep, this, this is just the new buffer we put in and it just, They were sold in November. And it’ll take about a year for you to get established good. " Buffers are an idea from the Conservation Reserve Program--a ed States Department of Agriculture backed initiative that brings landowners, local alliances, and other government agencies together. Nevertheless, keeping an old river like this one healthy in a modern world is difficult. Beneath the surface of these waters, a pollutant is killing one of its oldest residents --a rare kind of mussel(贻贝). And no one knows exactly where it is coming from. "This animal's, probably, 20 to 30 years old... " Paul Johnson with the Tennessee Aquarium has the task of figuring out how to preserve the mussels and help them reproduce. "This animal’s called... Its scientific name is Cora-bean Hellene. Its common name is the Georgia Pigtail. It was believed to be extinct, then we found this species alive in the Conasauga River, and as far as we know, Conasauga is the sole river that contains this species" It is a race against time. As long as they cannot figure out what is killing the mussels, that something poses a threat to the whole river. While the work goes on, the Petties will keep doing their part. "It's lucky we got something special here with the Conasauga. So, I think we all well understand and start to realize that. And we're trying to do the appropriate steps to keep it a clean and beautiful view."200812/58659Obama: Signs of Economic Progress奥巴马称经济出现复苏迹象 U.S. President Barack Obama says the first signs of an economic recovery are beginning to emerge. But at the same time he warns the process is only beginning and much hard work lies ahead. 美国总统奥巴马说,经济复苏的最初迹象已经开始出现。但他同时警告说,复苏进程仅仅处于初始阶段,未来的任务仍然艰巨。With his administration about to reach the symbolic hundred day marker, the president went before the American people with an assessment of the economy. 奥巴马总统主政即将满一百天。在这个具有象征意义的时刻,他为美国公众评估了经济现状。He said the measures he has put in place in his first months in office are beginning to bear fruit. But he acknowledged will continue to be a difficult year. 奥巴马说,他在就任最初几个月采取的经济措施已经开始见效。但他承认,年仍将是艰巨的一年。"There is no doubt that times are still tough," said Mr. Obama. "By no means are we out of the woods just yet. But from where we stand, for the very first time, we are beginning to see glimmers of hope." “毫无疑问,形势仍然严峻,我们远未摆脱困境。但是,就我们目前所处的位置而言,我们第一次开始看到希望的曙光。”In a speech at Georgetown University, a short drive from the White House, President Obama mixed optimism with a dose of reality. 奥巴马在距离白宫只有一箭之遥的乔治敦大学发表了上述讲话。他在表达乐观情绪的同时,也提到现实情况。Sounding at times like a college professor, he spoke in great detail about action aly taken to stimulate the economy, free up credit, and repair the damaged financial sector. 在演讲过程中,奥巴马总统时而像大学教授一样,详细阐述美国政府在刺激经济,疏缓信贷、以及修复残破的金融系统方面采取的具体措施。"All of these actions - the Recovery Act, the bank capitalization program, the housing plan, the strengthening of the non-bank credit market, the auto plan, and our work at the G20 - all have been necessary pieces of the recovery puzzle," he said. “所有这些行动,包括经济恢复和再投资法案、注资项目、房主偿付能力和稳定计划、对非信贷市场的加强、汽车工业救助计划、以及我们在20国集团所做的工作,所有这些行动都是解决经济复苏这道难题的必要步骤。”But he said these efforts must be just the beginning of a sustained often difficult drive to put the economy on a sounder footing. 但是,奥巴马说,在巩固经济基础这个持久而艰难的过程中,所有这些努力都仅仅只是开端。Using a Bible story to make his point, he said America can not rebuild its economic foundation on a pile of sand."We must build our house upon a rock," continued President Obama. "We must lay a new foundation for growth and prosperity - a foundation that will move us from an era of borrow and spend to one where we save and invest; where we consume less at home and send more exports abroad." “我们必须把房屋建在磐石之上。我们必须为经济增长和繁荣打下坚实基础。这样的根基将把我们从借钱和消费的时代引入节省和投资,即减少消费和增加出口的时代。”President Obama said that stronger foundation will require new rules for Wall Street, and new investments in education, renewable energy and health care. 奥巴马总统说,更为坚实的经济基础意味着加强对华尔街的监管、以及增加教育、可更新能源和医疗保健等领域的投资。Critics charge he is advocating reckless government spending in tough economic times. 批评人士认为,奥巴马正在经济困难时期宣扬毫无节制的政府开。The president said that view is shortsighted. He said what is needed is the political will to make difficult decisions. 奥巴马说,这是一种短视的观点。他认为,美国现在需要的是做出艰难决定的政治意愿。"We have been called to govern in extraordinary times. And that requires an extraordinary sense of responsibility - to ourselves, to the men and women who sent us here, and to the many generation whose lives will be affected for good or for ill because of what we do here," he said. “我们临危受命。这要求我们具备不同寻常的责任感。这种责任感不仅仅是针对我们自己和赋予我们权力的广大选民,同时也是为了子孙后代。我们今天的所作所为将和他们的祸福得失息息相关。”The head of the U.S. central bank echoed some of Mr. Obama's remarks in a speech of his own on Tuesday. Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke said there have been signs that the sharp decline in economic activity may be slowing. But he also made clear a sustainable recovery hinges on the ability to stabilize financial markets, and get credit flowing freely again. 美联储主席伯南克在星期二的一次讲话中表达了和奥巴马总统类似的观点。他说,有迹象显示,美国经济活动的急剧下滑可能开始放慢。但是他同时强调,可持续的经济复苏将取决于美国能否稳定金融市场和恢复信贷流动。04/67152

Shuttle Discovery Launches Mission to Space Station发现号航天飞机发射升空驶向国际空间站Space shuttle Discovery has launched on a mission to deliver new science equipment to the International Space Station.美国“发现”号航天飞机已经升空执行一项任务,就是将新型科研仪器运送至国际空间站。Discovery blasted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida and rose toward orbit shortly before sunrise on Monday. 在星期一日出前不久,“发现”号航天飞机在佛罗里达州的肯尼迪航天中心点火升空,接近轨道。Commander Alan Poindexter is leading the Discovery's crew on a 13-day mission that includes a stop at the space station. The vehicle is carrying nearly 8,000 kilograms of supplies, including a series of new science experiments to be conducted in space. Some of the experiments focus on studying how orbiting in space can affect the human body and plant growth. “发现”号机组总指挥波因德克斯特率领机组成员执行为期13天的任务,其中包括在空间站的停留。“发现”号此次装载了将近8千公斤的供给物资,包括一系列要在太空中完成的新的科学实验用品。其中一些实验将重点研究在太空轨道上运行将会如何给人体和植物生长带来影响。Also on board is a new exercise machine, which is part of ongoing studies into the effects of long-term space flight on muscle and bone loss in astronauts. 航天飞机上还载有一台新的健身器。这是一些正在进行的研究的一部分。这些研究是有关长期航天飞行对宇航员肌肉和骨骼损失的影响。Moments before Discovery's launch, NASA camera caught the space station passing through its orbit above Florida. NASA's George Diller said the station is easily visible from Earth because it is more than 100 meters long and 14 meters tall.在“发现”号升空之前的片刻,美国航空航天局的摄像机捕捉到宇宙空间站正顺着其轨道运行到佛罗里达州上空。航空航天局的乔治·迪勒说,这个空间站很容易在地球上看到,因为它长达100多米,高14米。"It is a large object, getting bigger all the time," he noted. "Six permanent crew members are there today, and about to be joined by the seven crew members of Discovery to conduct science in space."“它是一个很大的物体,而且正变得越来越大。现在那上面有6名常驻工作人员,“发现”号的7名机组人员马上就会加入他们,进行空间科学实验。”Discovery is delivering a new astronaut sleeping quarters, an ammonia tank and a gyroscope for the space station. Astronauts will conduct three space walks during the mission to install some of the equipment to the station. “发现”号将为空间站送去一个新的宇航员睡觉舱,一个氨水箱和一个回转仪。宇航员们在为空间站安装设备的时候将进行三次太空行走。NASA officials say plans to build out and expand the station are more than 90 percent complete, mainly thanks to space shuttle and its large cargo capacity. Recent shuttle missions have delivered new sleeping quarters, laboratory segments and other modules to the station.美国航空航天局的官员说,加建和扩建空间站的计划已经完成了超过90%,这主要归功于航天飞机及其很大的载货量。航天飞机最近已经向空间站运送了新的睡觉舱、实验室部件和其他配舱。There are only three shuttle flights remaining before the fleet is set to be retired, later this year. After that, space station partners will rely on Russian and private launch vehicles to ferry supplies to the orbiter.美国的航天飞机机组预计将在今年晚些时候退役,在那之前只剩下三次飞行任务。之后,空间站的合作伙伴们将依赖俄罗斯和私营发射器来为空间站运送物资。201004/100744Volunteers equipped with nothing more than digital cameras are taking part in an unusual bee hunt.It's part of an environmental study that has amateur photographers documenting the impact of climate change, pollution and other factors on the interplay between plants and the creatures that pollinate them.Freeze frameBees pollinate billion worth of fruits, nuts and a variety of row crops each year in the ed States.Yet recent declines in the population of these essential insects threaten the lucrative agricultural industry.Sam Droege, a researcher at the US Geological Survey's Native Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab, is examining possible causes for the bee decline. Working with an online environmental encyclopedia called, "Discover Life," Droege has helped organize the Bee Hunt study.Bee hunters across the ed States take pictures of pollinators and the plants they pollinate, and then upload them to the "Discover Life" website. The online database keeps track of trends in pollinator populations that show the effects of climate change, pollution or invasive species. Tracking pollinator populationsDroege's lab is filled with boxes of dead bees at various stages of identification, but the part of his job he seems to really enjoy is being outside hunting for live bees.After a short, bumpy car ride, Droege stops at a small grassy field filled with milkweed, Canada thistle and bees. He feels there is an urgent need for a large sampling of pollinator populations across the ed States."There's no bureau census of bees," he says. "So we are trying to create that in any way possible. There's not a lot of funding, so having citizens collect that kind of information would be advantageous."Information on the status of pollinators helps researchers understand exactly how factors, such as disease or pollution, impact the numbers of these important insects.Bee huntersAmateur naturalists begin their bee hunts by noting the time of day and location they are photographing.Once they find some bees, or other pollinating insects such as wasps, butterflies and beetles, it's time to pull out the camera and get some good close-ups. The volunteers upload the photos to the "Discover Life" website, where free online tools and experts are available to help identify the insects and the plants they're pollinating.So far, 50 bee hunters across the U.S. have contributed to the database. Stephanie Urquhart took pictures of pollinators in the state of Oklahoma. She became interested in the study when she first heard that bees were disappearing due to an occurrence called colony collapse disorder."My family, my father and my grandfather, they were beekeepers. And so when I heard that news, I knew what that meant. And it really scared me." Urquhart began researching colony collapse disorder and learned that, as far back as 1996, about 40 percent of the nation's wild pollinators had disappeared. "That includes bees, bats, butterflies, moths, the whole gamut."In addition to her desire to help scientists understand what is causing this pollinator decline, Urquhart also uses Bee Hunt as part of her home-schooling routine with her two young daughters. For all three of them, she says, this is a way to have a positive impact on the world."With digital photography, and the internet, now people can get directly involved with this - with climate, with wildlife issues, conservation, whatever. And really contribute something meaningful, and learn about themselves and start to understand where they live and how they can interact with their environment."Hope for the futureFostering that community involvement in research is exactly why University of Georgia researcher John Pickering founded "Discover Life," and created Bee Hunt. With the study gaining momentum now that it has full funding, Pickering is excited to see what the data will tell us, and how we can use it."I don't look at doom and destruction in our future," he says. "I really feel that if we work together, network together, collect the data that we need as a society, we can really understand and better manage this planet."Droege says combining data from multiple Bee Hunts can create an impressive database showing the status of pollinators today. It would also provide a valuable environmental baseline for understanding changes in the years to come."It's the foundation for all information to come. It'll be compared to, used over and over. We know that there were these kinds of bees and these kinds of critters on flowers at this time and this place. Twenty years later, 100 years later, you can go back and look at that again and you have the original data right there. You can look at it." 一些只带着数码相机的义工正在参与一项不寻常的环境研究。 这个“寻觅蜜蜂计划”要求业余摄影家们记录下气候变化、污染和其它因素对植物和传播花粉的蜜蜂之间相互作用所造成的影响。 在美国,蜜蜂每年为价值100亿美元的果实、坚果和其它作物传授花粉。 可是,最近蜜蜂数量的减少,威胁到这些收益良好的农副产品的生产。 为了找出导致蜜蜂数量下降的可能原因,德罗基利用网上环境百科全书“发现生命”,组织起一个叫作“寻找蜜蜂”的研究项目。美国各地的寻蜂者拍摄传授花粉的昆虫和接受花粉传授的植物照片,并且将这些照片上载到“发现生命”网站。网路资料追踪因为气候变化、污染或外来物种入侵造成的传授花粉昆虫数量的变化趋势。山姆·德罗基的实验室里摆满了盒子,里面装着不同时期死亡的蜜蜂。这是他为美国地质调查局的“本土蜜蜂清查监测实验室”所做的工作。在这个工作当中,他最喜欢的是到野外寻找活着的蜜蜂。德罗基在崎岖道路上开了一小段路,然后停在一小片长满了紫云英和加拿大蓟荆、蜜蜂飞舞的草地上。他说,现在急需大范围采集全国各地传授花粉昆虫的样品: 业余自然生物学家开始寻蜂作业时,要记下来他们拍摄照片的日期、时间和地点。 一旦他们找到了蜜蜂或者其它传授花粉的昆虫,例如黄蜂、蝴蝶、甲虫等,就马上拿出相机,拍摄近距离特写。最后,义工们将照片上载到“发现生命”网站,由专家们确认昆虫的种类和接受花粉传播的植物。 目前,全美国有50名寻蜂者为这个资料库提供资讯。奥克拉荷马州的斯特凡尼·厄克特是听说蜜蜂消失的消息后,开始对这项研究发生兴趣的。 她说:“我父亲和祖父都是从事养蜂的。所以,我听到这个消息时,我知道那意味着什么,我非常担心。所以我开始研究蜂群的反常消失和潜在的原因。我发现,早在1996年,我们就失去了百分之40的野生授粉昆虫,包括蜜蜂、蝙蝠、蝴蝶、飞蛾等等。” 除了希望协助科学家了解授粉昆虫数量减少的原因,厄克特还把寻找蜜蜂作为她的两个小女儿家庭教育的内容。她说,这是她们母女三人能够为这世界做出积极贡献的途径:  “由于数码摄影和网路,人们现在可以直接参与气象、野生生物、环境保育等许多问题,并且做出有意义的贡献,学习并了解自己居住的地方,以及如何与环境互动。” 促进社区参与研究工作,这正是乔治敦大学学者约翰·皮克林创立“发现生命”网站和开始“寻找蜜蜂”项目的初衷。随着研究工作渐入佳境和有了充裕的经费,皮克林现在非常希望知道这些数据将揭示什么,和我们如何去利用这些数据。 皮克林说:“我不认为前途一片黑暗。我确实觉得,如果我们一起努力,一起建立我们的网络,收集我们作为一个社会所需要的资讯,我们就能够懂得地球,懂得如何把地球治理得更好。”201007/110053你还记得你上次写信是什么时候的事情了吗?我指用信纸写的那种,不是e-mail.现在写信问候朋友和亲人的人越来越少了,大多数人是选择打个电话,发条短信或者发个邮件...但是精美的信封和信纸自有其吸引力,所以绝对不会被人所遗忘。07/77596

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