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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年09月24日 21:14:44
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  Finance and Economics;Indias economy;The fightback;财经;印度经济;反攻;Undercurrents of optimism about reform, and some fighting talk, in India;在印度经济改革势头良好、但仍存靡靡质疑之声的背后;After a storm-tossed six months for the economy, Indias authorities are trying to get things back on an even keel. On June 25th the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced measures to try to stabilise the rupee. It has lost a fifth of its value against the dollar in the past year (see chart), reflecting global woes but also a slowdown in India and a drying up of capital inflows. Its decline is widely seen in India as a bad thing, stoking inflation and hurting firms with foreign-currency debt.在国内经济度过了近六个月的风雨飘摇之后,印度政府开始着力如何将经济局势趋于稳定。6月25日,印度储备宣布了一系列措施,意图稳定卢比汇率。在过去的一年中,卢比对美元的汇率下挫近百分之二十(见下图),不仅反映出了全球经济之殇,还体现了印度本国经济增速放缓,进口资金枯竭的问题。这种下滑对印度来说普遍被视为不利因素,不仅通胀率随之节节攀升,对于举有外债的公司来说负担也更为沉重。India has long shied away from letting fickle foreigners buy government bonds, but the RBI this week loosened the rules to tempt in sovereign-wealth funds and other long-term investors. It also slightly eased restrictions on Indian manufacturing and infrastructure firms seeking funds abroad.印度向来都对一些不靠谱的外资对国债的收购请求采取规避的态度,但印度央行此次则对政策实施宽松,希望能够吸引到更多大笔的资金和长期投资意向人。一些从事制造业和基建工程的印度公司也在寻求外资助力的限制上得到了适度的放宽。IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain, boosted morale by saying it would invest up to 1.5 billion EURO(1.9 billion Dollar) in India—although on closer inspection that sum was sp over many years. Coca-Cola followed suit with the announcement of an additional 3 billion Dollar in investment, taking the total earmarked for India by 2020 to 5 billion Dollar. A ratings agency proved oddly helpful, too: on June 25th Moodys signalled it would not follow Standard and Poors and Fitch, which have both warned of a possible downgrade of India to junk status. Its rating, which hovers just within investment grade, remains stable, the agency said.瑞典家居连锁巨头宜家公司宣布决定在印度投入15亿欧元(约19亿美元)资金——尽管这笔巨额投资被安排在数年时间里逐批投放,但也为当地经济的提振带来了利好消息。可口可乐公司也紧随其后,宣布将会追加30亿美元拨入印度市场,到2020年时印度将接受总额达50亿美元的投资。一家评级机构也出乎意料地帮了个忙:本月25日,穆迪宣布其不会跟随标普和惠誉之后,警告会将印度的信用评级降至垃圾级。穆迪确认,印度目前所拥有的投资级依然稳定。The impact of all this? Not much. The rupee is still near record lows. Yet there is a feeling that a bleak picture may be improving slightly, mainly thanks to a government reshuffle. Pranab Mukherjee, the finance minister, left his position on June 26th to contest the largely ceremonial post of the presidency. Mr Mukherjee, who presented his first budget in 1982, has had a disastrous stint as finance minister this time round, pursuing controversial tax claims against foreigners, including Vodafone; failing to tame the budget deficit; and chairing troubleshooting committees that often fired ordnance at Indias own feet.上述的这些到底能派上多大的用场呢?只能说收效甚微。卢比汇率目前仍在其历史最低点附近徘徊,但随着政府部门及领导人的重新洗牌,也有预感认为惨淡的国内经济形式也许可以得到些许好转。印度财政部长普拉纳布·穆克吉在26日辞去了职务,并宣布将会参与下一届总统竞选的角逐。穆克吉部长在1982年初上任的时候第一次公布了他的财政预算,但就目前的经济状况来看,他任职期间的所作所为早已过分拮据不合时宜。比如针对如沃达丰这样的外资企业征税、缩减预算赤字失败、以及其领导的修正委员,最后往往被明是搬起石头砸自己的脚。Responsibility for the finance ministry, for a time at least, has passed to Manmohan Singh, the prime minister. Although even less of a spring chicken—at 79, compared with Mr Mukherjees 76—he has credentials as a reformer, having served as finance minister when India unveiled its liberalisation in 1991.有关执掌国家财政大权的事宜,已经在近几年移交给了曼莫尼·辛格总理。与76岁的穆克吉相比,已79岁高龄的辛格更欠年龄上的优势,但他曾在1991年时任财政部长,那时的印度正在经历一系列的经济自由化改革,可以说辛格对于这场变革也是功不可没。At the end of his career, the hope is that Mr Singh makes a stand and rams through budget cuts and vital changes on tax and foreign investment. “It could make a difference,” says an official. “He has a lot of credibility. It is an area that is close to his heart and his reputation will be much more on the line… The situation is tough so there is a limit to what can be done, but it is a mood-lifter.” His party, Congress, which leads the ruling coalition and is run by Sonia Gandhi, its hereditary chief, is lukewarm about making tough decisions. But there are signs that it may have successfully wooed one or two smaller parties outside its present coalition, which may help it push tricky changes through parliament.而辛格也被许多人寄望,能够在执政末期再加把力,促成预算削减和有关税制与外资的改革上。“局面一定会有所改变,”一位官员预测到,“他在这些议题上已经积累了不少经验和功绩,这是他的心之所向,但他的名誉也将会经受更多考验,很有可能晚节不保。目前形式仍然严峻,因此真正能够落实的项目也十分有限。但不管怎么说,这是一种士气上的鼓舞。”而主导联合政府、接任亡夫之位的领袖索尼娅·甘地所领导的印度国大党及议会对做出这些艰难决定的态度不温不火,但也有迹象显示,一些小型联合执政外的在野党则被这些议题吸引过来,帮助一些具有争议的法案在议会中通过。The promise of a push on reforms has been made—and broken—consistently by the government for years. With a busy electoral timetable up to general elections in 2014, it may be harder to fulfil than ever. Still, others, stepping back from the hurly-burly, can see a silver lining in Indias great wobble, particularly the fall in the currency. T.C.A. Ranganathan, the chairman of Exim Bank of India, which finances trade, says: “The exchange rate has moved in our favour. Im fairly happy.” He reckons a weaker rupee will help spur a long-awaited boom in manufacturing. Kaushik Basu, the governments chief economic adviser, no slouch on the need for reform, agrees. A cheaper currency means India is “getting an advantage for our export sector”. Perhaps, in time, that may prove more important than todays firefighting.印度政府在过去几年中针对改革的承诺一直反口复舌,2014年的印度总统大选意味将会有更多的高层活动,届时部分工作和议题将会更难开展。但仍然有人渐渐淡出唇舌剑,在印度如今经济局势的剧烈震荡,尤其是货币持续贬值的趋势当中看到了希望。主管贸易注资的印度进出口主席T.C.A 阮甘那桑说:“我很高兴看到卢比汇率正在朝我们希望的方向发展。”他认为,卢比的持续疲软可以帮助完成一次久盼未临的制造业昌旺。一向对经济改革信誓旦旦的印度政府首席经济顾问巴素也认同这一观点。廉价货币对印度的出口业来说“可能是一种优势”。时间会明,这一切将会比现在的改革与保守派之争更为至关重要。 /201303/228660

  First relief, then reflection. Investors greeted Spains request for aid with glee only to lose their appetites upon a myriad of unknowns.先救援,后反思。投资者先欢迎西班牙政府的经济求助,欢欣过后才发现这是个无底洞,进而对其失去信心。In a way, the bailout itself is a reminder of that you know, Spanish sovereign debt continues to be under a lot of pressure in the crisis of financing, this is due to the government sovereign would have been prohibitively high. Well up to 125 billion dollars, some say that Spains bailout raises more questions than it answers. Indeed its government doesnt yet know how much money will be needed. But for the time being, the eruozones fourth largest economy says it is solvent even if its banks are odd.在某种程度上,救助计划本身就是一个提醒,在金融危机背景下西班牙国债继续承受很大压力,这要归咎于高的惊人政府权力。救助款直逼1250亿美元,有人说西班牙的救助计划引起的麻烦比解决方案更多。实际上,政府也不知道到底需要多少救助款。但是就目前为止,欧元区的四大经济体表示即使西班牙出现异常,但还是有偿还能力。 I am not going to get into stic arguments, what I know is Europe is going to make available to the financial, Spanish financial system that it needs to lend credit that will have to be returned.我不打算陷入那种争论中,我所知道的是欧洲将要给西班牙金融系统提供其需要的信贷业务,而且必须得偿还。 Among the issues that yet to emerge, how to feed funds to Spains financial sector without jeopardizing the countrys credit rating. Also unclear the terms other eurozone members could impose and possible sources of friction with blocs previous bailout recipients.然而还没出现的问题之一,即如何在不影响西班牙信用评级的条件下,向该国的财政部门提供基金。其它欧元区成员国将要强加的条款,以及与之前救助对象之间可能引起擦的根源也都未知。 Spanish is sucking its second recession in three years, output is expected to shrink by 1.7% to the end of 2012 and ongoing crisis has wiped nearly 25% off the value of Spains largest listed companies. Despite its call for aid, Fitch Ratings still downgraded two Spains biggest banks to within a whisker of junk status and that in turn could make Spains bailout yet more expensive before it even begun.西班牙在三年内被经济衰退拖垮,生产总值有望在2012年底下降1.7%。持续的危机也将西班牙最大的上市公司价值抹去了近25%。尽管呼吁援助,但是惠誉国际评级还是将西班牙两大的评级下调至垃圾级别,这反过来使西班牙的救助计划比开始之前的代价更高。原文译文属!201207/189609。

  

  If asked to imagine the first prehistoric tools, crafted and used by our early, hominid ancestors, youd probably think of crude knives or spear heads, chipped from stone.You probably arent aware of another human innovation that might be just as old. Today well learn about the two million year history of the toothpick, possibly one of humanitys oldest tools.如果让你去想象做工粗糙,人类最早的祖先使用过的史前牙签,你可能会想到由石头磨成的原始刀具或者矛尖。你可能没有意识到另一种同样古老的革新。今天我们就来了解200万年的牙签历史,这可能是人类历史上最古老的工具之一。Early stone tools, like knives and scrapers, are easy for anthropologists to learn about because these items are still around. Even after two million years, a chipped stone tool is still going to be there when you dig it up. Toothpicks, however, are another story. Made from splinters of wood, thorns, or bone fragments, these can rot and crumble away over time, leaving no recognizable trace. If this is so, how can an anthropologist look at a two million year old fossil site and claim that these early pre-humans picked their teeth?早期的石头工具,如小刀和刮刀,让人类学家很容易理解,因为在现代社会仍然存在这些东西。即使再过200万年,这些东西仍然埋在地里。然而牙签却是另一回事了。大多数牙签由木头的碎片、荆棘或者骨头碎片制成,会随着时间的流逝腐烂消失,不留下任何可辨别的痕迹。如果是这样的话,为什么人类学家会只凭着200万年前的化石遗址,就声称古代史前人类也用牙签剔牙?Its certain that no toothpick will ever last two million years, but this isnt the case with teeth. In fact, fossil teeth are the most durable remnants that anthropologists work with, and some of these ancient teeth display a curious set of grooves. Although these might have been caused by tooth decay, a close examination of the marks seems to indicate that the grooves were worn by repeated toothpicking--probably to alleviate the pain of gum disease. Indeed, these fossil grooves match the toothpick grooves in the teeth of several modern aboriginal populations.可以肯定的是,没有牙签会保存200万年,但牙齿却不一样了。事实上,牙齿化石是人类学家所研究的最持久的残留物。这些古时人类的牙齿上排列着一道道凹槽,很令人好奇。尽管这可能是由于蛀牙引起的,但经过进一步仔细检查,明这些凹槽似乎是因为长期剔牙而形成,古人类剔牙也可能是为了减轻牙龈疾病引起的疼痛。事实上,不少现代土著居民的牙齿上也出现了凹槽,并与化石上的凹槽相匹配。Its enough to warm every dentists heart: The first tools werent just for preparing food, hunting, or fighting. They might have been used for dental hygiene as well. 这足以温暖每一位牙医的心:第一个工具不只是为了准备食物,为了狩猎或战斗,也可能是为了保持牙齿卫生。201205/184384Depending on the species, bird eggs can be any color ranging from chicken’s plain white to a robin’s blue, streaked, spotted, bright, pale, and anything in between. We take a look at some of the reasons this might be the case.不同鸟类蛋壳的颜色千差万别,鸡蛋是纯白色,知更鸟蛋是蓝色,其它蛋壳的颜色迥异:有条纹的、有斑点的、亮色的、淡色的或者是介于之间的。那么,让我们看看颜色不一的原因吧!But first, how do eggs get their color? As the egg moves down the female’s oviduct, the tube that connects the ovary to the outside, it squeezes against glands that produce colored pigments that combine to form every color in the egg shell spectrum. If the egg is stationary at the time that it comes in contact with these glands, it’ll be spotted. If the egg is in motion, it will be streaked.那么,蛋壳的颜色是如何形成的呢?鸟蛋经由母体的输卵管(连接卵巢和外界)排出,分泌色素的腺体受挤压,给蛋壳着色。如果此刻鸟蛋是静止的,触碰腺体的蛋壳形成斑点;如果是运动的,蛋壳形成条纹。So why go through all the trouble of producing colored eggs? For many species of birds that nest out in the open, the eggs’ colors help to conceal them by enabling them to blend into the background. Another way that colored eggs come in handy, is that in some species, like murres, individual birds learn to recognize their own particular markings and reject eggs that don’t match. In contrast, birds that nest in cavities, or that start incubating as soon as the egg is laid and consequently don’t need to hide their eggs, tend to lay unmarked white ones.为什么那么大费周章地形成不同色呢?一些鸟类的巢在露天野外,蛋壳的色有助于和外界混为一体,便于隐藏。蛋壳颜色还在某些地方能排上用场:例如海鸦,通过蛋壳颜色来识别,排除它类。另外一些鸟类在树洞中筑巢的,或下蛋后马上孵化的;鸟蛋不用隐藏,蛋壳颜色通常是白色。Given all this, how do scientists explain the fact that robin’s eggs are an eye-catching, unmarked blue? Perhaps this enables robins to spot when a parasitic bird tries to add its own eggs to the nest. For some species, this may pose a greater threat than that of nest robbers.终上所述,科学家如何解释知更鸟蛋是耀眼的纯蓝色呢?也许这样便于知更鸟识破其巢寄生的鸟类将自己蛋放进知更鸟巢吧!巢寄生的行为对其他鸟类更具威胁性! /201303/232028

  THE Republican majority in the House of Representatives called its budget proposal ;The path to prosperity: A blueprint for American renewal;. Whether it would live up to that billing we will never know, as Democratic opposition in the Senate will prevent it from being enacted. But by recanting on the budget deal they struck with the Democrats last year, and by renewing pledges to slash spending and overhaul popular government programmes, the Republicans have certainly paved the path to partisan rancour and Democratic attack ads.美国众议院中的共和党大多数派称其预算草案为;通往繁荣之路:美国复兴的蓝图;。我们可能永远不会知道共和党能否实行得了这个议案,因为参议院的民主党会阻止这个议案被颁布。但是,通过去年宣布放弃为打击民主党而制定的预算案,和提出重新削减开并彻底改革大众的政府计划,共和党必定已铺平了与民主党竞争的道路。The plan, unveiled on March 20th by Paul Ryan, the chairman of the Budget Committee, is similar to the one he put forward last year. It aims to cut spending by more than trillion over the next decade relative to the budget the president proposed last month. That would bring the deficit to below 2% of GDP by 2015, and the budget into balance by around 2040.这个预案是由预算委员会主席保罗bull;瑞恩于3月20日提出的,与其去年提出的预案相似。相对于上月总统提出的预算而言,此预案计划削减五万亿美元的开。这将使赤字到2015年时降到不到GDP的2%,使预算在2040年左右达到平衡。The proposal would also dramatically cut taxes for businesses and individuals;a move it claims could be paid for by eliminating exemptions and deductions. It also rehashes Mr Ryanrsquo;s scheme to stop the government paying directly for health care for the elderly via Medicare, and instead hand out that could be used to buy private insurance. But to ease suspicions that this is simply a ruse to foist rising costs on blameless grannies, Mr Ryan now says that the vouchers could be used to remain in a version of the current Medicare programme; this, however, may cost people money if competition from private providers succeeds in undercutting Medicare.这项提案也会大幅度削减企业所得税和个人所得税;;并宣称会通过消除免税额和扣除额来补偿这部分税款。在这项提案中,瑞恩先生改变了原计划阻止政府通过医疗保险向老年人直接付医疗保健费用,而是建议发放可以用来购买私人保险的抵用券。但是为了避免让人怀疑这是蒙骗无辜老人钱的伎俩,瑞恩先生现补充说抵用券可能以一种形式存在于目前的医疗保险规划中。然而,如果私人保险企业之间的竞争促使他们廉价出售医疗保险,可能会让人们花很多钱。The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office calculates that the proposed spending cuts are even more swingeing this time round. Only Social Security (the public pension scheme) would remain on its present trajectory. The projected growth in Medicare would be crimped, while outlays on Medicaid, the government health-care scheme for the poor, would be halved as a share of GDP by 2050. Everything else (such as foreign aid, assistance to veterans and federal funding for schools and roads) would be cut by over two-thirds.中立的国会预算局预测此次提议的开削减要更严厉。只有社会保障制度(公众退休金计划)得以正常运行。医疗保险原计划的增长可能会缩减,然而作为GDP一部分,医疗补助计划的开和政府为穷人制定的卫生保健计划到2050年可能会被缩减一半。其他内容(如国外援助,对退伍军人的援助及向学校和道路发放的联邦基金)则可能缩减2/3。Democrats are delighted that Mr Ryan is returning to the limb he put his party out on last year, when House Republicans overwhelmingly backed his budget proposal only to be lambasted by Democrats for ;ending Medicare as we know it; and prioritising tax cuts for the rich over benefits for the poor. A Democrat who stuck to that script won a by-election in what had long been a safe Republican seat in upstate New York last year. The party has aly launched a similar campaign this year, denouncing the Republicansrsquo; ;Medicare madness;. Republicans, for their part, insist that their forthright stance, in contrast to the Senate Democratsrsquo; failure to pass a budget for the past three years, will earn them respect from voters. Mitt Romney, the probable Republican nominee seems to agree: he has heartily endorsed Mr Ryanrsquo;s approach.民主党乐见瑞恩先生又使共和党像去年那样重新陷于困境,那时议院共和党人以压倒性的姿态持他的预算草案,却被民主党以;正如我们都知道的那样会终结医疗保险制度;和以削减富人缴税为先而不是造福于穷人为理由痛斥。一位民主党人去年因坚持这份提案而赢得了递补选举,稳稳地称为了纽约北部的一名共和党人。民主党今年又发起了一场类似的竞选,公开谴责共和党是;医疗保险制度疯子;。对于共和党人来说,则坚持认为他们鲜明的立场会为他们赢来选民的尊重,这与参议院民主党人三年都未能通过一项预算形成鲜明对比。大有希望的共和党候选人米特bull;罗姆尼似乎非常同意这点;;他热切持瑞恩先生的提案。Whatever the planrsquo;s electoral merits, it has also set off a more obscure but potentially even more significant battle within Congress. It attempts to unpick the deal sealed last year by the president, the House and the Senate to raise the limit Congress imposes on government debt in exchange for spending cuts. The Republicans are now proposing cutting billion more next year than agreed. They also want to undo part of the fail-safe mechanism that was supposed to induce both parties to compromise on a scheme to reduce the deficit. If no agreement was reached, spending dear to both sides (on defence, in the Republicansrsquo; case, and on almost everything else, in the Democratsrsquo;) was to be cut by .2 trillion. No deal has been reached, but Mr Ryanrsquo;s plan calls for the military cuts (alone) to be restored.不管这个提案的竞选优点是什么,它都已经引发了一场更隐晦却更具有潜在意义的国会内部争斗。它试图重提去年总统否决的提案,参众两院以提高国会补助政府债务的限额交换开削减计划。共和党现在提出下一年度比原定多削减190亿美元;他们也想取消部分容错机制,该机制被认为会诱使两党为降低赤字在某个计划上达成妥协。如果打不成任何协议,两党高昂的开(共和党为了防卫;而民主党则出于其他目的)将被削减1万2千亿美元。目前尚未达成任何协议,但是瑞安先生的提案已提出恢复(单独)裁军。The Democrats in charge of the budgeting process in the Senate have aly declared any departure from the debt-ceiling deal unacceptable. But plenty of Republicans in the House feel that Mr Ryan is not going far enough. That sets the stage for another fiscal showdown when the current fiscal year ends on October 1st, a month before elections in which all members of the House, a third of senators and the president all face the voters.参议院中负责预算编制过程的民主党人已宣布任何违背债务限额的提案是不被接受的。但是众议院中的许多共和党人认为瑞恩先生并没有很严重的违背这点。这为当前财年于10月1号结束后的下一个财政决战铺了台阶,而在那时后的一个月里,所有众议院的成员,1/3的参议员和总统都得直面选民。201203/175554Science and technology.科技。Neutrino communications中微子通信ET, phone home外星人,致电家中The worlds first neutrino-messaging service世界上首次中微子通信务PARTICLE physics is all very well for addressing trivial matters like ;why are we here?; (see article). But some people question its practical usefulness. To answer such naysayers a group of physicists at Fermilab have just submitted a paper to Modern Physics Letters A in which they describe how they have built themselves a neutrino-powered telephone.粒子物理学总是能很好地解决我们生活中遇到的像;为什么我们在这里?;这类的琐事。但是一些人会质疑它的实际可行性。为了消除类似的质疑,费米实验室的一群物理学家刚向物理学界权威杂志Modern Physics Letters A提交了一篇论文,论文中描述着他们怎样为自己成功定制了利用中微子载波的无线电通信电话。Naturally, their neutrinophone is digital. A pulse of neutrinos (small, elusive subatomic particles with no electric charge) corresponds to the digit ;1; while no pulse corresponds to ;0;. The neutrinos themselves are created by smashing bunches of protons into a target made of graphite. They are detected roughly 1km away by researchers who, in their day jobs, work on a neutrino collaboration called MINERvA. By modulating the pulses of protons the group was able to send a message in binary that, when translated, ;neutrino;. Whether this will go down in history alongside Alexander Graham Bells first message, ;Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you,; remains to be seen.显然,他们的中微子电话通信是数字化的。一个中微子(一种不带电荷形态诡异的亚原子粒子)脉冲对应着逻辑电平;1;,没有脉冲时就对应着逻辑电平;0;。中微子产生于一些质子束轰击一个石墨目标后产生脉冲介子,介子随后衰变而成。整天工作于一个「主注入器之中微子V-A交互作用实验(MINERvA)的研究员们在大概在一公里远处能检测到中微子。通过对质子束脉冲的调制编码后,以二进制码的形式进行中微子传输。是否这将延续亚历山大?格拉汉姆?贝尔(Alexander Graham Bell)的历史,以;Watson先生,请过来,我想见到你;进行首次中微子通信,我们拭目以待。The point, though, apart from sheer wackiness, is that neutrinos are not easily intercepted by collisions with other sorts of matter. If humanity wanted to broadcast its existence to intelligent life forms that might be out in the galaxy listening, a modulated beam of neutrinos would be a good way of doing so. Conversely, some people argue that listening for ET at radio frequencies is the wrong approach. The right one, they think, would be to build a neutrino-receiver. And that would mean plenty of work for neutrino physicists. Perhaps, then, from its makers point of view, the neutrinophone is not such a nutty idea, after all.然而,重要的不仅是其古怪性而且中微子在传输中当受到其他物质的撞击时不容易被破坏。如果人类想让远在系的地方听到充满智慧生命存在性的广播,那么经过调制的中微子光束则是使他实现的一种很好的方式。相反,一些人认为利用无线电广播频率收听外星人是一种错误的方式。他们认为正确的方式应该是搭建一个中微子载波的接收器。这就意味着中微子的物理学家将需要做大量的工作。那么,也许中微子电话的制造商会认为,毕竟中微子电话并非是一个疯狂的创意。201208/193991

  Fish ad鱼的招亲广告Today were looking at fish singles ads, lets see—single fish female seeks good father to help with eggs. Come on, dont be serious. Fish dont place ad in a paper, plus I thought a common assumption in biology is that reproductive behavior conflicts with parenting behavior, since more energy animals spent on parenting, the less energy it has to spend on courting and mating. So wouldnt the female fish be more likely to fall for a good wooer.今天我们来看看鱼的招亲广告——单身雌鱼在寻找能帮助产卵的优良雄鱼。你不是说真的吧?鱼不可能登广告,而且生物学上有一个常见的假设——繁殖与育儿行为相冲突。由于在育儿方面花了更多精力,在求爱和交配上剩的精力就少了。所以雌鱼难道不会选择一个更好的求爱者吗?Actually I hope. Scientists documented what is known as parental courtship behavior in the lab. Thats when an animal shows off its parenting skills to attract a mate. Really? Yep. University of Florida Researchers studied the sand goby, a small fish native to the European coast that is among the twenty percent of fish species that exhibit parenting behavior.我希望如此。科学家记录下了实验室内所谓的亲代求偶行为。这时动物展示它们的育儿技巧来求偶。佛罗里达大学的研究人员对沙鰕虎鱼,一种生于欧洲海岸的小鱼进行了研究。有20%的鱼类表现出育儿行为,沙鰕虎鱼属其中之一。Sand gobies nest under sea shells, and the males not only defend the nests, but also hollow them out. Then, once the eggs are laid, they use their pectoral fins to fan them, creating a current of oxygenated water that helps the eggs mature.沙鰕虎鱼在海螺壳下筑巢。雄性沙鰕虎鱼不仅要护巢,还要让它空无一物。产下卵后,它们会用胸鳍扇风,制造一股充满氧气的水,助卵成熟。Ok, but dont they also nibble on their eggs? They do indeed. But heres the interesting thing. The scientists observed that when there were female sand gobies around, the males spent less time nibbling and more time fanning their eggs and working on their nests. Show off. This was especially true for sand gobies with larger nests, maybe because bigger nests provide room for additional mating. And do the female sand gobies fall for these fatherly types? Thats the next question researchers trying to answer.但它们也要吃自己的宝宝吗?的确是。但有一个非常有趣的现象。科学家观察发现,当附近有雌沙鰕虎鱼时,雄沙鰕虎鱼花更少时间咬它们,而花更多时间给宝宝扇风,或者筑巢。这是卖弄。这种现象对有较大巢穴的雄沙鰕虎鱼而言更是如此,也许是因为巢越大,交配的空间越大。那么雌沙鰕虎鱼会为这种充满父爱型的动心吗?这是研究人员接下来要探索的问题了。 /201208/193980

  

  Ant Attack!蚂蚁来袭!Imagine this. You’re coming home to your gated community after a long day of work. As you stop to show the guard your ID, a mugger jumps out from behind a bush and grabs you by the mouth.想象一下这样的情景:结束了一天的漫长工作之后,你走到了小区的大门前。正当你停下来给门卫看你的出入时,有一人从灌木丛后跳出来,捂住你的嘴巴……Okay, that last part sounded a little weird, but that’s pretty much the way it happens to sweat bees. These are the little metallic-looking critters who live in nests burrowed into the ground. Some bees go out foraging, but one stands by the entrance to the nest. She doesn’t let anyone in unless he can identify himself using a chemical tag. When the returning bee is waiting for the ID check, its most vulnerable. And sure enough, entomologists have observed another species attacking at just that moment. Ectatomma ruidum–ants.唔,好吧,后面一部分听起来是有那么一点奇怪,但汗水蜜蜂就经常碰到这样的事情。这些小生物有着金属色的外表,居住在掘至地面的蜂巢里。有的蜜蜂外出觅食,此时,就会有一只蜜蜂像守卫一样把守在蜂窝的入口处。她不会让任何不能通过特殊的化学标记亮出自己身份的蜜蜂进入蜂巢。然而,等待确认身份这一短短的时间却是他们最容易受到攻击的时候。事实也是如此,科学家们发现正是在等待确认身份的时候,汗水蜜蜂极易受到另一种生物——一种叫做Ectatomma ruidum的蚂蚁的攻击。E. ruidum charges the waiting bee, grabs its mouthparts, hauls it away and kills it–now somebody else will be bringing home a little snack. What’s a bee to do? Two French researchers have recently spotted sweat bees changing their flight paths when an ant is lurking by the hole. According to the study, bees have been seen pulling up at the last minute and later try coming in from a different direction. Others land far away from the hole and then dash in on foot. Researchers found that even a dead ant with its odor removed is enough to spook the bees.芮杜木会冲向等待着的蜜蜂,抓住他的口器,再将他拖到远处杀死——这个时候别的蜜蜂可能正在将食物运回蜂巢。那么,蜜蜂又将怎么防着这些蚂蚁呢?两名法国研究员近日指出,一旦发现有蚂蚁潜伏在蜂巢附近,蜜蜂们立刻会改变飞行方向。该研究还发现,蜜蜂会在最后一刻停下来,然后再试图从其他方向进入蜂巢。其他有的也会在离洞口较远的地方停下来,再徒步冲进蜂巢里面去。研究人员还发现,即使是一只死掉的气味散尽的蚂蚁都足以把蜜蜂们给吓破胆。This is an impressive feat, showing that sweat bees are somehow able to understand the danger posed by ants. But it’s also eye-opening to realize how much strategy and counterstrategy is involved in the daily lives of even the smallest insects.这样的事情相当令人吃惊,至少这告诉我们汗水蜜蜂能感知到由蚂蚁所发出的危险气息。从另一个方面说,这也让人大开眼界:战略与对策甚至被用在了最渺小的昆虫们的日常生活当中。 /201301/220067

  Five years after the NASA rover Spirit landed on Mars, the six-wheeled robotic geologist and its twin Opportunity are still on the job. Expectations were far lower when Spirit made a bouncing landing in a cocoon of air bags on Jan. 3, 2004, followed 21 days later by Opportunity: The goal was to try to operate each solar-powered rover for at least three months. 美国航空航天局“勇气号”探测器登陆火星已有五年,这个六轮的地质探测机器人还有他的好兄弟“机会号”仍在继续工作。当2004年1月3日“勇气号”在茧形的气袋上跳跃着着陆,21天后“机会号”也尾随而来,这远比预期要好,因为原本只计划让这两个太阳能漫游者执行3个月任务。 ;Thats an extraordinary return of investment in these challenging budgetary times,; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for NASAs Science Mission Directorate, said in a December statement. 美国航天航空局科学使命执行官埃德·维勒尔在12月的声明中说道:在如此富有挑战性的财政预算年代里,这次投资的回报实在太丰厚了。 Combined, the rovers have made more than 13 miles of tracks on Mars dusty surface and sent a quarter-million images back to Earth. Their instruments have uncovered evidence that Mars was once a far wetter and warmer place than the frigid, dusty world it is now. 综合起来,探测器已经在火星满是尘土的表面行驶了13英里,并向地球传回25万张图片。机器人自带的仪器给出据,明火星表面曾经非常湿润,温暖,不像现在那样严寒,尘土飞扬。 Mission managers are pressing ahead with plans for more exploration even though NASA says either rover could fail without warning. 尽管美航局表示探测器可能会毫无征兆地失灵,但任务管理人员仍在推行更多探测计划。原文译文属!201207/191040

  Body language-how we physically move and gesture as we talk-is an important part of English communication. Two people can say exactly the same words, but if their body language is very different, the meaning may be different as well.在我们谈话的同时如何使用肢体语言?——这是英语交流的一个重要组成部分。两个人说的话可能完全相同,但如果他们的肢体语言大不相同,则其中的含义可能也会大相径庭。In this idiom, no talking is necessary at all. If one person asks a personal question, for example, and the other person turns away without answering, this body language is an answer in itself. To ;turn ones back on; another person is a very rude way to refuse to answer. However, we can also use this idiom even without any body language. To say ;Fred turned his back on me; may simply mean that Fred refused to help.这个习语表明,话语有时是毫无必要的。比如,有人问了一个私人问题,但其他人没有回答,只是转身离开。——这种身体语言本身就是一个。 对人“转身离开”是个很粗鲁的拒绝方式。然而,即使不做出实际的肢体语言,我们也可以使用这个成语本身。比如“面对我的求助,弗雷德转身走了”这句话只是意味着弗雷德拒绝帮助我而已。 注:本文译文属原创,未经许可,。201204/177754

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