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赣州俪人医院空气动力祛眼袋赣州双眼皮团购Science and Technology New transistors Mechanical advantage科技 新型晶体管 机械优势Two new types of transistor may lead to simpler, more efficient computers两种新型晶体管或许会导致更加便捷高效计算机的出现WHEN baking a cake it helps to have all the ingredients within reach, rather than wasting time and energy making frequent trips to the pantry.当你在烧烤蛋糕的时候,它有会让所有的一切都变得触手可及,而不是让你在食品柜繁琐的开关之间浪费时间与精力。Something similar is true of the logic circuits in computers microprocessors.这也同样会真正应用于电脑微处理器中的某些逻辑电路。These could be made faster, and would consume less energy, if they were able to store information themselves instead of fetching it from separate memory chips or hard drives.如果这些微处理器自己能够储存一些信息,用来取代从原来相互独立的芯片或手工操作中获得的信息,它们的速度将会变得更快,能耗将会更低。The problem is that the transistors used to make logic circuits hold their electronic state, and therefore any data they contain, only when powered up.问题是,用来制造逻辑电路的晶体管中保留着它们的电子态,因此当这些晶体管通电的时候,它们会包含任何可能的数据。The choice engineers face is thus between supplying continuous power to a transistor, so that it can retain its memory (which costs energy), and ferrying data that would otherwise be lost to and from so-called non-volatile memory devices that do not require continuous power (which costs time).因此,工程师们面临的选择就是要么对晶体管提供一个持续的电源,让晶体管保持自己的记忆(这会耗费能源),否则从所谓的非易失性半导体存储器中传输的数据就有可能丢失,不过它不需要持续的电源(这会消耗时间)。Cracking this problem—so that transistors can act as their own non-volatile memory—would make all computers faster.解决这个问题——以便于让晶体管使用自身的非易失性半导体存储器——将会让所有的电脑运行速度更快。It would be particularly valuable, though, for mobile devices.虽然这对于移动设备来说,显得特别昂贵。These could be made smaller and lighter, since they would require fewer components.不过移动设备因此可以做得更小,更轻盈,因为它们需要的元件更小。And they could go for longer between charges.并且两次充电的时间间隔将会变得更长。To this end, Hiroshi Mizuta of the University of Southampton, in England, and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa of the National Institute for Material Science in Tsukuba, Japan, are proposing a marriage between two novel types of transistor that could hardly be more different.为此,英国南安普顿大学的Hiroshi Mizuta和日本筑波国立材料科学研究所的Tsuyoshi Hasegawa提出了将两种完全不同新型材料混合起来。One, the atomic transistor, draws on the latest advances in nanoscience.其中一种就是原子晶体管,它利用了最新的纳米科技。The other, the mechanical transistor, sounds as if it has been lifted from the annals of the industrial revolution.另外一种就是机械晶体管,这听起来就像是从工业革命史册中发掘出来的玩意儿。The atomic transistor works, as its name suggests, by shuffling individual atoms around within the device.原子晶体管的工作方式就像它名字所示的那样,是通过移动该元件内部的单个原子进行工作的。The atoms in question are copper,这里所说的原子指的是铜原子,and the result of the shuffling is to create or destroy a conductive pathway between two crucial bits of the transistor, the source and the drain, thus switching the device on or off. That is possible because this part of the transistor is made of tantalum pentoxide, a material whose atoms are arranged in a lattice which contains holes large enough for copper atoms to squeeze through.移动的结果主是在晶体管的两个十字位置构建或消除一个传导通路,它的源极和漏极因此就会开启或关闭。这是有可能实现的,因为这部分晶体管是由五氧化二钽制造的——这种材料可以将它自身的原子排布在晶格中,这些晶格包括一些足够大的孔,可以让铜原子挤过去。The mechanical transistor, more properly called a nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) transistor, creates and destroys the connection between source and drain mechanically.机械晶体管,更确切地可以称之为纳米电子机械系统(NEMS)晶体管,它可以在源极和漏极之间机械地构建或消除连接。When a voltage is applied across two beamlike electrodes made of aluminium, which are separated by a gap of around 50 nanometres, charge builds up on each, creating an attractive force between them, until a critical point is reached.两个柱状的铝电极间隔约50纳米,当电压加在这两个电极之间时,它们就会相互通电,在二者之间会形成一股引力,直至达到一个临界点。At that moment one of the electrodes flips towards the other, causing the two to make contact. This closes the circuit and turns the transistor on.在达到临界点的那一刻,其中一个电极就会移向另一个电极,这两个电极就会形成通路。Apply the opposite charge and the electrode flips back, breaking the circuit.这样就会接通电路,打开晶体管。利用相反的电荷,电极就会复位,进而断开电路。What makes these two very different types of transistor attractive is that both the copper and the aluminium stay put when the power is turned off.这两种完全不同类型的晶体管如此吸引人的地方就在于断电后,如何让铜原子和铝电极待在原地。They can thus act as memories as well as processors.它们可以应用于储存芯片和处理器。The ;on; state represents one type of binary digit (a one, say) and the ;off; state represents the other (zero).;开;的状态表示二进制中的一个数字(就是;一;),;关;的状态可以表示另一个数字(即;零;)。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa are therefore using the novel transistors to try to make the worlds first non-volatile processor chip.Mizuta士和Hasegawa士因此都在使用新型的晶体管,力图制造出世界上第一个非易失性处理器芯片。Ideally, such a chip would have only one sort of transistor, since that would mean it was much easier to manufacture.理想的这种芯片将只有一种晶体管类型,因为这意味着它将会更加容易制造。However, transistors come in two varieties, n-type (negative) and p-type (positive).不过,晶体管却有两种,一种是N型(负),一种是P型(正)。Both are needed in a logic circuit, but atomic devices can be only n-type.逻辑电路都需要这两种晶体管,不过在原子设备中,只需要N型。The alternatives, then, are to make the circuit entirely out of NEMS transistors, or to mix the two by using atomic devices where an n-type transistor is needed and NEMS ones where a p-type is required.那么另一个方案就是完全用NEMS晶体管制造电路,或者是将利用N型晶体管的原子设备和利用P型晶体管的NEMS晶体管混合起来。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa have opted for a mixture, because atomic transistors are much smaller than NEMS ones, and the saving of space outweighs the awkwardness of mixing them together.Mizuta士和Hasegawa士选择了二者的混合,因为原子晶体管比NEMS更加小巧,这样节省的空间就会消除二者的混合的尴尬。If their recipe works, it will mean far fewer electronic trips to the pantry and a quicker baking time for whatever answer the new chip is trying to cook up.如果他们的方案成功的话,这意味着食品柜中的开关将会大大减小,(无论任何口味的饭菜)实现更短的烹饪时间。 /201211/210629赣州脱毛团购 This was supposed to be the moment Mitt Romney finally convinced his own party that he was the president in waiting.罗姆尼要成功说共和党他是总统候选人,成败可能就在这一刻。But he has the air of a man who believes he will win this race, more and more Republicans dont.他充满自信,相信自己会赢得这次预选,而其它共和党人都不是对手。It was a far from Super Tuesday winning where he was expected for only just in a state he couldnt afford to lose--Ohio.用超级星期二来定义这一刻远远不够。全国只有俄亥俄州,他输不起,所以他很看重这个州的选票。The prepared victory speech delivered before the result was in, sound in hollows.选举结果出来后,胜利的演讲稿也准备好了。他用低沉的声音致辞道:;Tonight, we are doing some counting. We are counting up the delegates from that convention that looks good.“今夜举足轻重,发展形势好的代表人数越来越多。And we are counting down the days until November and that looks even better.现在我们正朝着十一月大选开始倒计时,到时候形势会更好。We are gonna take your vote a huge vote tonight in Massachusetts and take that victory all the way to the White House.;今夜在马塞诸塞州,你们的选票举足轻重。这次胜利会成就了我,会帮我在选举的道路上走得更远。”All Romneys money and organization cant shake off Rick Santorum.罗姆尼与桑托勒姆势均力敌。他所募集的选举基金,以及他的选举团队都不足以助他甩掉对手。Its state after state, the former sanetor again showed the Republican hardlines want something other than Romney.一州接着一州,这位前参议员再次表明,共和党目的在于成为执政党,他们不会把所有希望都寄托在罗姆尼身上。;We have won in the west, the midwest and the south and we are y to win across this country.;“我们已经赢得西部,中西部和南部,我们取得全国性的胜利也志在必得。While Santorum wants Newt Gingrich to drop out of the race, he wants his homestate of Georgia struggling for attention.桑托勒姆想要金里奇退出竞选,而金里奇却以赢得他的家乡佐治亚州引起注意。;And now with Santorum, and you just cant quick get across him. Its all right.;桑托勒姆是你的劲敌,不能很快地拿下他是情理之中的事。There are lots bunny rabbits that run through, Im the tortoise so I just take one step at a time. ;很多代表就像那速度飞快的小兔子,赛跑之初大显起手,而我就是那乌龟,坚持不懈,一步一个脚印。”With Ohio, the big Cohona.赢得俄亥俄,这至关重要的一州。It leads the country to reflect on where the Republican Party stands and how long this race will run.这会引起全民对共和党所持立场的反思,会影响选举的时长。;Dramatic race could keep going for a while.;“民主党的选举可以短时间完成。”Perhaps the big winner of the night was the man whose job they want.也许大选那晚最大的赢家就是现任总统奥巴马。While Republicans continue to attack each other, they cant fully focus on Barack Obama.因为共和党人还在持续互相竞争,所以他们不能把全部精力放在奥巴马身上。He begins a three-day swing through three states today to sell his message.今天他开始在三个州连续来回进行竞选,为时三天,以传达他的理念。Mitt Romney remains the favourite to face in November, but it is more evidence than ever that it will be a scrap to the finish line.面对十一月大选,罗姆尼优势虽然明显,但未来数月内,缠斗之势不会终结。201205/181860赣州治疗毛孔粗大多少钱

赣州祛眉间纹用玻尿酸多少钱一次Business Microsoft and Intel Wintel swings商业 微软和英特尔 微软和英特尔各觅新欢The marriage that dominated personal computing becomes more open强强联姻主导个人电脑市场之势日趋明朗TOGETHER Microsoft, the maker of the Windows operating system, and Intel, the worlds biggest maker of semiconductors, used to rule the world of personal computing.微软(Windows操作系统的开发者)和英特尔(世界最大的半导体制造商),曾联手统治了个人电脑市场。Now that new computers are as likely to sit in peoples hands as on their desks or laps, life for the Wintel couple is less comfy.然时代变迁,如今的电脑已不再局限于放在桌上、膝上,还能持于手上。于是乎,微软和英特尔这两口子也开始心猿意马。On September 13th, at their annual conferences for software developers, both claimed to have found new zest—not least from dallying with other partners.就在9月13号,一年一度的软件开发大会上,两口子都宣布已有了新的对象——不仅仅只是和别人眉目传情、暗送秋波了。Gartner, a research and consulting firm, expects that this year only 3.8% more laptop and desktop PCs will be shipped than in 2010.研究与顾问咨询公司高德纳预计,今年的笔记本和台式个人电脑的发货量较2010年顶多增长3.8%。That is partly because people have tightened their belts, but also because they are snapping up tablets and smartphones.这里面部分是因为现在的人都在拉紧裤腰带生活,但也有部分原因是他们都去抢购平板电脑和智能手机了。Both Microsoft and Intel have struggled to adjust.对此,微软和英特尔都是心急如焚,急于转变。The phone version of Windows has had good reviews but was installed in only 1.6% of smartphones sold in the second quarter; Googles mobile operating system, Android, scooped 43%.Windows手机综合测评不错,但第二季度只有售出的智能手机只有1.6%是安装其操作系统。而谷歌的安卓操作系统却抱走了43%的市场份额。Windows share of tablets is minuscule.在平板电脑市场Windows所占份额更可谓是芝麻粒豆。And in markets where battery life is prized, economical chips designed by ARM, a British company, have made the running.再者,在如今这个极其重视电池续航能力的市场情况下,节能型芯片可谓是前景广阔,而英国ARM公司在这方面已是先拔头筹。Intel has made virtually no impression in tablets and none at all in smartphones.可怜的英特尔对平板电脑市场几无影响,对智能手机更是无比汗颜。Both firms boasted this week of liaisons with others.本周,微软和英特尔都在高调宣传他们的新感情生活。Intel and Google said that future versions of Android would be tuned for Atom, Intels family of low-power processors.英特尔和谷歌结了姻,英特尔家族的节能处理器凌动未来将会和安卓系统合体,预计将会于明年上半年诞生。Phones with Intel inside should be on sale in the first half of next year. Microsoft showed off the next version of its operating system, code-named Windows 8, using ARM chips.另一方面,微软则看上了ARM,并对他们的后代表示出极高的自信,冠以Windows 8的美名。It wants to reassure the army of developers who write programs to run in Windows that these will be just as reliable as Intels.微软此举也就是想消除那些开发Windows系统软件的人们的疑虑,表明此产物会如与因特尔所产的那样稳定可靠。Microsoft also told developers how easy it would be to create applications for Windows 8 and to put them in a ;Windows Store;.同时,微软也一直向应用软件开发人员们宣传为Windows 8制做软件并存入Windows软件商店是何其地容易。Happy developers are essential, because the more apps they create, the more users will want to use Windows 8.软件开发者开心是必须的,因为这样才会有更多的应用软件,也就会吸引越多的用户使用Windows 8。Better still for both users and developers, the system will run on everything from PCs to smartphones.此外,这个系统将运行于从个人电脑到智能手机的所有平台,这对用户和开发都来说可谓是喜上加喜。Steven Sinofsky, the head of Microsofts Windows division, says Windows has been ;re-imagined;.Windows 部门主管Steven Sinofsky说道,Windows 已经重新设计了用户界面。A user sees chunky ;tiles;, as on a Windows smartphone today, rather than small icons; and he can view two apps at once, which he cannot do on an iPad.用户将看到像现在Windows智能手机上那样的瓷砖式的显示,而不是小的图标。它还能同时浏览两个应用程序,这是在iPad上也没有的功能。The system is designed for touch-screens, common on mobile devices but not yet on PCs—though you can use a keyboard or mouse if you like.目前这个系统只能在触屏移动设备上运行,个人电脑版的尚未发布,但是如果你想的话,只要接上键盘和鼠标,看起来和PC也没什么两样。Writing off either of these giants, even after their slow start, would be daft.不管是微软,还是英特尔,尽管他们近来反应迟钝,但无视他们都是一种愚蠢的行为。Intel is probably closing the power-consumption gap with ARM.英特尔完全有可能缩小与ARM 间的能耗差距。Microsoft claims to have 450m users of Windows 7, the operating systems latest incarnation on PCs.微软也声称其拥有4.5亿的用户正在使用其最新的个人电脑操作系统Windows 7。Many of these, and people with older versions, may upgrade, especially if they can use the same system on all their devices, at home or at work.由于Windows8能在所有的设备上运行,不管是在家里还是在工作单位都可以使用一样的操作系统,所以众多的windows7以及更旧版本的用户都可能会选择升级。Even so, the clock is ticking, especially for tablets, where the competition will get fiercer.尽管如此,还是必须争分夺秒,尤其是对平板电脑这种日新月异、竞争激烈的商品而言。Apples iPad2 is selling like, well, an iPad.苹果的iPad2 正如其一代iPad 一样热销。By the time Windows 8 tablets appear, a third version may well have won Apple even more customers.待到Windows 8平板上市时,苹果的第三版平板可能已经抢占了更多用户。Amazon, buoyed by the success of its Kindle e-er, is expected to launch an Android tablet within weeks.Kindle电子书阅读器的成功也鼓舞了亚马逊,预计其安卓平板也将在数周内上市。Its vast online shop, selling much more than books, may be a draw.其在线销售多种产品的综合网上商城,将会是其一大助力。Other Android tablets are arriving all the time.其他安卓平板也将陆续上市。Some contenders, such as Research In Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry smartphone, have aly stumbled; HP has all but given up.其他一些竞争者,像动态研究通信公司(黑莓智能手机制造商),如今已是跌跌撞撞、蹒跚而行。;The longer they [Microsoft] leave it,; says Carolina Milanesi of Gartner, ;the more consumers will have found an alternative, and not just for tablets but for PCs too.;惠普则已是放弃了。;微软要是再拖拉下去,;高德纳的Carolina Milanesi说道,;将会有更多的消费者选择其他替代产品,而且这不局限于平板电脑,个人电脑也是同样的。; /201301/220397上犹县治疗白瓷娃娃多少钱 赣州哪里丰胸

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