广州天河区新塘医院专家预约
时间:2018年06月24日 09:23:27

Finance and economics财经商业Civil servants and austerity公务员与财政紧缩The times they arent a-changin不曾变革的时代Civil-service payrolls have held up surprisingly well一直以来,公务员的薪酬都出奇地好AFTER the party, the hangover.盛宴之后,宿醉来临。When debt-fuelled economic growth came to a crashing halt in the financial crisis of 2008, governments across much of the rich world sought to cut spending.在2008年的经济危机中,由债务推动的经济增长模式彻底崩溃,随后许多富裕经济体政府则力图缩减开。One obvious target was the states payroll.而其中一个明显的着手点便是公务员薪酬出。Leviathans minions are certainly costly.利维坦仆从们的耗费当然不菲。In the European Union public-sector wages and salaries take up about 10% of GDP.在欧盟国家当中,公共部门的薪水出大约占国民总收入的10%。The Initiative for Policy Dialogue, based at Columbia University, reckons that since 2010 almost 100 governments have set out plans to cut their payrolls.据哥伦比亚大学的政策对话倡议组织估计,自2010年以来,已有接近100个政府着手削减他们的公务员薪酬开。Some cuts may be savage.一些裁员计划或许能用残忍来形容。The headcount in many British government departments may fall by as much as 40% by 2019 from current levels, says a recent report from the Institute for Fiscal Studies, a think-tank.近期一篇来自英国政府智囊团财政研究院的报告表明,英国许多政府部门将于在2019年之前裁减目前总数40%的员工。Relative to its 2012 level Italy plans to jettison 20% of public-administration managers by 2016.而意大利政府则计划于2016年之前裁减相当于2012年总量20%的公务员。However, aggregated data on public-sector headcounts offer some surprises.然而,公共部门员工的统计数据却有些出人意料。Whereas Britains public-sector workforce has aly contracted by 8% since 2007, in Germany and France the number has increased.自2007年起英国政府公务员人数已缩减了8%,与此相反的是德国与法国方面却在增加。More intriguing still is what has happened to compensation costs—the amount governments pay bureaucrats in wages and salaries, but not pensions.更耐人寻味的是官僚薪酬待遇变化情况,而不是津贴方面的问题。Of the 30 countries in a Eurostat database, half are spending more after inflation on public employees than they were in 2007, even in cases where headcount has fallen.据欧盟统计局的资料显示,有半数国家公务员薪酬开与2007年的水平相比有所提升。The euro zone as a whole spends only 1.7% less on government wages than it did six years ago.其中部分国家甚至已经着手削减了其公务员规模。以欧元区国家作为整体来统计,其公务员薪酬开仅比6年前减少了1.7%。Belgium spends 10% more, Luxembourg 24%.与此同时,比利时政府反而增加了10%,卢森堡增加了24%。And since 2007, 21 countries, including Cyprus, Italy and France, have not cut the proportion of GDP that they devote to public servants wages.自2007年以来,有21个国家仍未削减公务员薪酬,这其中包括塞浦路斯、意大利和法国。Finding explanations for dearer public payslips is tricky.要为日益高昂的政府工资单找理由,不是一件容易的事情。One reason might be wage drift—the automatic increases in salaries that can occur as civil servants are granted annual promotions in seniority, simply for having been in their jobs for another year.其中一个原因或许可以总结为工资浮动—这一机制确保了公务员薪酬随着职位的逐年提升而增加,而职位的提升往往并不需要什么理由,仅仅在自己的岗位上又待了一年的公务员便可获得提升。In 2012, for example, more than 600,000 staff from Britains National Health Service received rises averaging 3.5%, despite a pay freeze.例如,除了一次薪金冻结之外,英国国家医疗卫生务系统超过60万名员工,在2012年得到了平均3.5%的薪金涨幅。In 2010 Barack Obama also decided to freeze government pay, yet the median salary for federal employees climbed by over ,000 during the following two years.在2010年,美国总统奥巴马虽然同样地实施了薪金冻结,然而在其后的两年内,公务员薪酬中位数则突破了3000美元的大关。Wage drift could outweigh the effect of reduced headcount, which is likely to be concentrated in the lower echelons of the civil service.工资浮动机制的影响,可能远比裁减人员的作用更大,而这是由于政府的裁员计划主要面向低层公务员。Another possibility, suggests Alberto Alesina of Harvard University, is that governments simply failed to implement planned spending cuts.哈佛大学的艾尔波托?艾莱斯那表示还有另一种可能:简单地说,那就是政府没有去执行早已制定好的开削减计划。At the end of January Greeces highest administrative court ruled that pay reductions for the armed forces and emergency services were unconstitutional: the government now faces a heavy bill in back pay.在一月底,希腊最高行政法院宣布,政府对军队以及应急务部门的经费削减行为是违宪的:这意味着政府现在要面对的是堆积如山的欠薪账单。Portugals constitutional court also opposed the scrapping of Christmas bonuses for civil servants on similar grounds.同样地,葡萄牙宪法法庭也反对其政府取消相关部门公务员圣诞节奖金的计划。These data are worrisome.以上种种数据令人十分不安。The implicit trade-off of austerity was pain now, prosperity later.如今交由政府当局权衡的利弊是自己能否忍受开削减的痛苦,以换取将来的经济繁荣。Yet as growth in advanced economies picks up, many civil services seem no more streamlined than before.但随着发达国家经济增长复苏,许多公共务将愈发臃肿不堪。 /201403/279136

Carbon capture捕捉碳Pipe dreams管道之梦A fresh effort to store pollutants underground.将污染物储存地下的新尝试。FOR more than 30 years Peterhead power station has churned out electricity from a windswept spot on the north-east coast of Scotland. Its chimney (pictured) is a familiar landmark for strollers on Aberdeens chilly beach. Yet soon the ageing gas-fired plant could host a crucial experiment. Engineers from Shell, an oil firm, and SSE, an energy company, plan to add technology that will capture the carbon dioxide which billows from Peterheads furnace and store it in a depleted gasfield more than a mile beneath the North Sea. That could cut its emissions by up to 90%, making Peterhead by far the cleanest gas plant in the world.Peterhead 电厂位于苏格兰东北部一处风不止歇的地方,长期输送电力超过30年。它的烟囱成为Aberdeen的冷滩散步者所熟知的地标。不过很快这座老化的燃气电厂将要面临一项关键的考验。来自壳牌石油公司和SSE能源公司的工程师们计划对这座电厂进行技术改造,这样就可以捕捉从Peterhead电厂锅炉中大量涌出的二氧化碳,并将之储存到一座废弃的油田中。而这座油田深藏在北海一英里以下。成功之后将比以前减少90%的二氧化碳排放量,Peterhead将成为迄今世界上最清洁的燃气电厂。Peterhead is one of two preferred bidders in a government contest that aims to kick-start Britains adoption of carbon capture and storage technologies. The other pet project is a proposed coal-fired plant at Drax power station in Yorkshire, which will pipe its pollutants about 50 miles to the coast before trapping them in rocks beneath the waves. Yet politicians have been soliciting similar proposals since 2007, without bringing any to fruition; abortive efforts at Peterhead go back even further. Boosters hope this latest crop will buck a sorry trend.Peterhead是政府竞标项目中两个被选中的竞标项目之一。此次竞标旨在促使不列颠上下采用碳捕捉和储存技术。另外一项受重视的项目是计划对约克郡的Drax电厂的煤电机组进行改造。这项改造目的在于将污染物输送到离海岸线有50英里的地方并将之固定在波涛之下的岩层中。不过政客们早在2007年就作出过相同的许诺,也没带来任何成果;对Peterhead改造的流产甚至退回原地。持者们希望这迟来的成效能在未来挽回惨淡的局面。The rewards could be great. CCS is one of a very few ways to clean up industries such as steelmaking or chemicals. Fossil-fuel power stations fitted with carbon-capturing kit would provide an unusually flexible source of green power.回报相当丰厚。CCS是为数不多可以清洁诸如炼钢厂或化学工厂的法子。化石燃料的电厂配备上碳捕捉装置之后,可以提供具有相当弹性供应量的清洁能源。These benefits would bring savings. Carbon capture could be lopping 30 billion off Britains annual energy bill by 2050, says the Energy Technology Institute, a government and industry research body. The International Energy Agency, an intergovernmental outfit, reckons CCS will have to deliver one-sixth of the emissions cuts required to limit the damage done by climate change, and that forgoing it would raise costs by 40%.这些好处可以节省很多开。据政府和工厂的研究机构,能源技术研究所称,到2050年,碳捕捉技术有望为不列颠每年砍去300亿英镑的能源开。而据一座跨国机构国际能源所认为,采用CCS技术将减少六分之一的碳排放,这可以减少因此造成的气候而带来的损失。而如果放弃这项技术将导致损失上升40%Britain is well placed to cash in. Its wealth of underwater engineers will need new ways to keep busy as the North Seas fields run dry. A steady supply of carbon could be useful to roughnecks, who are experimenting with techniques that use the gas to squeeze more oil from mature wells. And the countrys deep aquifers and depleted reservoirs could probably hold 100 years-worth of emissions.不列颠是实行这项技术的好地方。在北海油田日渐枯竭的时候,她数量众多的水下工程师需要新的渠道维持饭碗。稳定的碳供应对于矿工来说也是极为有用的,因为目前他们正在尝试新技术:利用二氧化碳从成熟油井中挤压出更多的石油。而这个国家深度蓄水层和废弃的储油层足够容纳英伦百年的排放的二氧化碳。That makes slow progress all the more frustrating. In May MPs on the climate-change select committee complained that government dithering had led to a “lost decade” for CCS in Britain. Money is part of the problem—boffins say energy from the first CCS plants could cost 150-200 per megawatt hour, four times the current wholesale price of power and more expensive even than offshore wind farms. European laws that oblige Britain to invest heavily in renewables are diverting resources away from CCS, says Judith Shapiro, an industry spokesperson.不过这进步来得少,挫败倒更多。在5月的时候,气候变化选择委员会的议员们抱怨道,由于政府的优柔寡断犹豫不决,导致CCS技术在不列颠停滞了10年。资金是其中的问题之一—研究者指出采用CCS技术的工厂最初每兆瓦·时要花费150镑到200镑,这是现行整体能源价格的4倍,其昂贵程度较之离岸风能电厂不逞多让。欧盟法律敦促不列颠在再生能源领域加大投资,这促使很多资金从CCS流失。一位工业发言人Judith Shapiro如是说。Yet the government is digging deep to make sure its latest efforts pay off. In 2007 it put aside 1 billion to help fund the capital costs of some CCS projects—not least the huge expense of laying new pipelines overland. Lately it has also promised ongoing subsidies of the type given to renewables. Bosses at Peterhead and at Drax say that next year they hope to make a final decision on whether or not to press ahead.虽然如此,政府仍在加大努力确保最近的努力措施能够有所斩获。在2007年,政府留出10亿英镑设立基金以付一些CCS项目的出—这也包括铺设离岸新管道的巨额花费。最近,政府也承诺在许可的范围的内逐步减少对再生能源项目的持。Peterhead和Drax的老板说下一年他们希望希望作出一项财政决议,以便于决定CCS项目是否继续进行。Pessimists say that a few pilot projects will not make an industry, even if the technology proves viable. Some fret that runners-up in the governments competition will run out of money while it mulls what subsidies to offer; others warn of bottlenecks without more efforts to identify storage sites. One big uncertainty is how the public will react when plans for carbon capture are better known. Though engineers have been cramming carbon underground for several years—notably in Norway—the idea could still spark alarm. That would not easily go back in the bottle.悲观论者认为一木不成林,少数先行的项目不足以撑出一个产业体系,哪怕实践明这项技术切实可行。一些人对政府的行径感到焦虑。他们认为这种竞争将耗完所有的资金,而它需要通盘考虑补贴谁;另外一些人则提醒,不花费更多精力去甄别存储地点是存在问题的。一个最大的不确定在于碳捕捉计划广为人知之后公共将作出何等反应。尽管工程师已经把碳压缩到地底这事已经干了很多年了——在挪威最典型——公众的反对仍能成燎原之势。这不像二氧化碳,能够轻易关进瓶子里。 /201407/310069

Business商业报道Formula One一级方程式赛车Flagged down落马Can Formula One succeed without Bernie Ecclestone?没有了伯尼·埃克莱斯顿,F1能否继续传奇Last lap for Ecclestone?埃克莱斯顿能跑的最后一圈?BERNIE ECCLESTONE, the boss of the Formula One Group, rarely sticks around for the finish of a Grand Prix.F1的掌门人伯尼·埃克莱斯顿很少会在国际汽车大奖赛结束后逗留。This is meant to show what a serious businessman he is.这意在显示他是一个谨慎的商人。Still, eyebrows lifted when he didnt turn up at all to last weekends race at Hockenheim in Germany.然而公众的对他上周一直没有出现在德国霍根海姆大奖赛一事依旧表示惊讶。An ongoing court case in Germany over a payment of 44m from Mr Ecclestone to a banker who was involved in the sale of Formula One to CVC Capital, a private-equity firm, in 2005 has put his future at the top of the sport in doubt.在2005年,参与CVC资产合作伙伴公司收购F1股份的高管承认收到了埃克莱斯顿4千4百万好处费,这件正在审理的案子让伯尼在此项运动上掌门地位受到质疑。German media reported that, had Mr Ecclestone gone to Germany, he might have run into trouble.德国媒体报道称,如果埃克莱斯顿去了德国,他将陷入困境。For CVC Capital, the uncertainty over Mr Ecclestone, who is 81, is becoming a problem.对于CVC资产合作伙伴公司来说,81岁埃克莱斯顿的不可靠将成为最大的问题。CVC took a huge risk in buying into the sport, at a time when several teams were threatening to break away and form a new outfit, in the hope of extracting a larger share of profits.CVC为收购F1管理公司承担了巨大的风险,因为为在当时有数车队为了争取更大的利润分成,威胁退出F1另组建新赛事。The breakaway never happened and CVC profited handsomely.车队退赛没有发生,CVC也赚得漂亮的一手。CVC had hoped to reduce its stake with an initial public offering of Formula One on the Singapore stock exchange.CVC本打算通过在新加坡券交易所为F1首次公开募股的方式减持股份。However, in May it sold a total of 21% of the sport, for 1.6 billion, to three institutional investors:但是在五月,CVC将16亿美元即总资产的21%卖给了三个团体投资人:Waddell amp; Reid and BlackRock, both American asset managers, and Norges Bank Investment Management, Norways state money manager.同为资产管理者的Waddell amp; Reid和黑石,还有挪威投资管理——挪威的国家资金管理者。Combined with cash from the business, the sale gave CVC a tasty 300% return on its original investment—though an IPO could have earned it more.尽管公开募股会赚的更多,结合从营销中获得的现金,出售给团体投资人还是带给了CVC为原有投资300%的高额回报。In June CVC postponed the proposed IPO, blaming market conditions.在6月,CVC归咎于市场行情,推迟了原有计划的公开募股。Private-equity firms do not often have to deal with chaps like Mr Ecclestone, who has dominated the sport for decades.私募股权公司不需要经常与像埃克莱斯顿这样献身于F1数十载的老伙计进行交易。In CVC had to join an apology made by Mr Ecclestone for seeming to praise Adolf Hitler.在年CVC不得不参与到埃克莱斯顿关于自己表扬希特勒的言论的道歉中。Also that year Sir Martin Sorrell, the boss of WPP, an advertising giant,在同一年中,WPP,这个广告业巨头的总裁,F1董事会成员之一苏铭天爵士,who sits on the Formula One Groups board, protested when Mr Ecclestone complained that a life ban from Formula One given to Flavio Briatore, Renaults team chief, for ordering a driver to crash, was excessive.对埃克莱斯顿的抱怨表示反对,因为埃克莱斯顿认为认为对于雷诺车队队长弗拉维奥·布里亚托利操纵车手故意撞车被终生禁止参与F1任何赛车事务的处置太过分了。Now CVC is waiting to see whether Mr Ecclestone will be charged in connection with the case involving the German banker, Gerhard Gribkowsky.现在CVC正在作壁上观,看埃克莱斯顿是否因与德国家Gerhard Gribkowsky 受贿案关联而被控诉。On June 27th Mr Gribkowsky was found guilty in Munich of receiving corrupt payments, and given a prison sentence, which he is now appealing.7月27日,Gribkowsky被查出于慕尼黑受贿,已被判入狱,但他现在正在申诉。According to people close to the sport, if the German authorities charge Mr Ecclestone with a non-trivial offence in relation to the payment to Mr Gribkowsky,根据体育圈的人说,如果德国当局对埃克莱斯顿给Gerhard Gribkowsky行贿一事判他严重犯罪,就算他声称自己是被勒索,he will be permanently removed as chief executive of Formula One Group.他也将永久被剥夺F1首席执行官的职位。CVCs managing partner, Donald Mackenzie, is said to be worried about how his possible departure might affect the business.CVC的合伙人之一麦肯齐,据说他很担心埃克莱斯顿可能的离开对商业带来的影响。The Formula One Group depends on reaching agreement with a dozen racing teams and the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, which regulates racing.F1的正常运转离不开12参赛车队的合作以及负责管理赛车项目的国际汽车联合会的持。In the past Mr Ecclestone has handled the teams brilliantly, using divide-and-rule tactics to prevent any serious rebellion and to keep a large share of revenues for his firm.在过去的日子里,埃克莱斯顿运筹帷幄,运用分而治之的策略杜绝任何违规行为并为自己的公司保持巨大的收益。He maintains close relations with circuit owners and governments, which together make up the sports largest source of revenue, in the form of hosting fees.赛道所有者和政府以主办的形式为整个赛事的收益投入巨资,埃克莱斯顿则与这些人保持着紧密的联系。It is not obvious who inside the business could succeed him; Mr Ecclestone reportedly jokes that a number two could send faxes and bring coffee, but nothing else.目前在赛车圈内尚未发现合适继任者;埃克莱斯顿据报道有过这样的玩笑话:二把手可以发传真可以买咖啡,但是除了这些也没什么别的能耐了。Bernies blinkers伯尼的马失前蹄Mr Ecclestone is a skilled dealmaker;埃克莱斯顿是个经验丰富的交易商,but he has missed out on two areas of opportunity for the sport.但他在这项运动的两个方面错失良机。The first of these is the internet. Formula One has barely begun to develop its business online.第一个是网络;F1基本没有开发其商业网络,Licensing Formula One brands and content to -games firms could generate pots of money, as could online betting.向公司出售F1品牌商标和赛事相关内容的使用权可以带来大量的金钱收入,媲美网上。Second, Formula One has failed to establish itself in America, despite corporate sponsors need for exposure in the worlds biggest market.第二则是尽管赞助商需要在这个世界最大的市场中露面,F1还是没有进军美国。Partly because of the steep fees that Mr Ecclestone charges to host a Grand Prix, circuits often end up losing money and stop hosting the event;一部分是由于埃克莱斯顿所需举办大奖赛的经费逐年攀升,赛道所有者往往赔本最终停止举办比赛there has been no American race for the past five years.美国已经在过去的五年没有举办了。That will soon change, with Austin, Texas, hosting a race in November and plans for a Grand Prix in New Jersey in June 2013.这即将发生改变,德州的奥斯汀市将在11月举办比赛并计划将于2013年6月在新泽西举办大奖赛。Red Bull, a team owned by an Austrian energy-drinks firm, is said to be looking at launching a new Stars and Stripes Formula One team with American drivers.由澳大利亚功能饮料公司所有的车队红牛,据说将成为一个由美籍车手参与的新星条旗车队,Local drivers boost audiences.本地的车手则会增加观众的数量。Although losing Mr Ecclestone may not be as big a car crash as some fear, there are other risks for the company that sits atop the sport.尽管失去了埃克莱斯顿可能不会像撞车那么让人害怕,然而其他的风险对于该公司来说则比比赛本身更重要。The biggest is that the teams will demand more money.最大的问题就是车队会索取更多的利润分成。Without them, after all, there is no show, and they are the sports biggest cost.毕竟没有这些车队,那就没有比赛可言,但他们是整个赛事中花费最大的。Over time, the racers have claimed an ever larger slice of the cake.随着时间的推移,参赛者要求分到的蛋糕越来越大块。In 2003 the teams collectively commanded an estimated 27% of the profits that Formula One derived from its three main businesses.2003年,车队总共要求的经费大约占F1从三大主要商业项目收益的27%。In a new deal that lasts until 2020, now signed by nearly all of the teams, they will get 63%.在一项持续至2020年,现在所有车队几乎都签署了的新交易中,他们将分到收益的63%。And some people wonder if Formula One can carry on charging governments so much to host races.有些人怀疑F1还能否继续像现在这样向政府收取大量承办费用。By expanding outside traditional markets in Europe, Formula One has been able to keep raising its fees;通过跳出欧洲传统市场进行扩张,F1已经可以持续不断地募集经费;non-European governments such as Singapores or Indias pay two-fifths more on average to host Grands Prix than traditional markets.非欧洲国家政府例如新加坡和印度,相比传统市场平均付了举办大奖赛费用的五分之二。For now, demand from governments comfortably exceeds the number of racing slots available. Mr Ecclestone has no shortage of calls from countries such as C te dIvoire and Bulgaria seeking the prestige of hosting a race.目前,政府的需求远大于已有可用于比赛的赛道数量。埃克莱斯顿呼吁像科特迪瓦和保加利亚这样,试图通过举办比赛增加威望的国家毫无压力。Soon, however, they may be calling someone else.不过不久之后,这些国家可能要联系其他人了。 /201308/251080

Last time, we talked about “motional induction,” aphenomenon by which the ocean generates a magnetic field.上次,我们提到过动生电磁感应:海洋产生磁场的一种现象。It works like this: earth has its own magnetic field.地球有自己的磁场,The oceanhas plenty of charged atoms in it, in the form of dissolved salt.海洋有无数溶解盐形式的带电原子,These atoms are in motion because the ocean flows.随着海洋运动而运动。Charged atoms moving through a magnetic field will induce an electric current.在磁场中运动的带电原子会引起电流,And an electriccurrent will, in turn, create another magnetic field.而电流反过来又回形成另一个磁场。The ocean should generate its own magneticfield.这样海洋应该就形成了自己的磁场。You said should. How could we know this “motional induction” is happening?你说“应该”,我们怎么知道这种动生电磁感应确有其事?Direct evidence came in 2003 from scientists working at the University of Washington and aresearch institute in Potsdam, Germany.直到2003年,华盛顿大学和德国波兹坦的某研究学院。These researchers used a magnetometer on board anorbiting satellite.研究人员将磁力计放在轨道卫星上,实海洋的磁场真是存在。First, they figured out what the magnetic field of the planet should be.最初,磁力计上的数据让科学家以为是地球磁场作用的。After subtracting thisfigure, they found there was still some leftover magnetic field.而后,他们发现除去这个因素后,仍然有磁场存在。Next, the team made a computer model of what kind of magnetic field the ocean shouldgenerate through motional induction.研究人员又电脑模拟在动生电磁感应让海洋产生哪种磁场,Sure enough, their prediction matched the excessmagnetic field measured by the satellite.当然,科学家的推论和卫星上测出的“另一个”磁场吻合。The satellite also found that magneticintensity over the oceans peaked every twelve and a halfhours, but not over the land. Can you guess why?卫星还发现,海洋磁场每隔12个半小时就会出现高峰,但是地球磁场不受影响。你能猜到原因吗?Every twelve hours…Oh, I get it— tides!每隔12个半小时?我知道了!是潮汐。Exactly right!完全正确!The tides rise and fall every twelve and half hours, just as that extra magneticenergy swells and diminishes.潮汐每隔12个半小时潮起潮落,正好和“另一个”磁场高低峰吻合。This is very strong evidence that motional induction is real… andthe ocean has its own magnetism.这正是磁场感应存在的真凭实据,海洋确实有自己独特的磁力。201405/302437


文章编辑: 豆瓣面诊
>>图片新闻