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Amid all of the current talk about whether government law enforcement agencies should be able to legally force Apple to unlock an iPhone to look for evidence, there is a machine available now at London#39;s Fone Fun Shop that will find the four-digit passcode used to lock down an iPhone. And this device costs only 0.当人们还在讨论政府执法机构迫使苹果公司解锁iPhone手机来寻找据的行为是否合法,伦敦的Fone Fun商店却开始出售一种能破解iPhone四位锁屏密码的设备,售价仅170美元。Fone Fun Shop director Mark Strachan says that this machine was developed to help iPhone owners get to their photos or contacts in a locked iPhone with a forgotten passcode. Discovered in Hong Kong, Strachan says that they were at first skeptical that the device would work. But over time, the tool has proven itself over and over again.店长马克·斯特罗恩说,开发这种设备旨在帮助那些忘记自己锁屏密码的iPhone用户进入被锁在手机上的照片或通讯录。斯特罗恩在香港第一次看到这台设备,他表示,在最一开始大家都对其能否起作用持怀疑态度。但随着时间的推移,这台设备一次又一次的明了自己。The so-called IP-BOX will work on iPhones running iOS 7 and older. It takes 6 seconds to 17 hours hours to crack the four-digit passcode. The Daily Mail purchased the device and cracked the code on an Apple iPhone 5c in 6 hours. A version that will work on iPhones running iOS 9 will be available later this month. 这台叫做IP-BOX的设备可以破解运行iOS 7或者更老版本的iPhone,通常它需要6秒到17小时来破解iPhone的四位锁屏密码。英国《每日邮报》购买了这台设备,并在6小时内破解了苹果iPhone 5c的锁屏密码。该密码破解设备运行在iOS 9系统上的版本将会在本月晚些时候出现。Strachan says that he believes that the IP-BOX uses the same method employed by the FBI to unlock the iPhone 5c used by Syed Farook, without Apple#39;s help. The FBI is now offering to help other law enforcement agencies seeking to unlock an iPhone, iPad or Apple iPod touch. Apple is trying to discover how the FBI unlocked the phone so that it can issue a software update to close the vulnerability.斯特罗恩表示,他认为IP-BOX运用了和FBI没有经过苹果公司的帮助而破解塞义德·法鲁克iPhone 5c相同的技术。现在FBI已经开始向其他执法部门提供帮助解锁iPhone,iPad或者iPod Touch的方法。苹果方面正在积极寻找FBI是如何破解iPhone的,并将推出软件更新来关闭这些漏洞。 /201604/437007Elections 美国的选举 Suprises often come in boxes. Birthday presents wrapped in colorful paper, brown paper packages mailed from a friend. No matter what kind of box it is, people like to open it up and see what's inside. In America, and in many other countries, one special kind of box contains the future. It's called a ballot box. What people put into the box on election day can change the course of history. 惊奇常常是在箱子里出现:包在色包装纸里面的生日礼物…朋友寄来牛皮纸包的包裹…不论是怎样的箱子,人们喜欢打开来看看里面是什么。在美国以及其它许多国家,有一个特殊的箱子关系着未来,称为投票箱。人们在选举日投在箱子里的东西可以改变历史的走向。 Elections are the lifeblood of a democracy. The word democracy literally means "the people rule," an important concept in America's history. In the mid-1700s, England began passing laws that made the American colonies angry. The colonists had to pay more and more taxes and enjoyed less and less freedom. They felt the government of England didn't represent their interests. On July 4, 1776, the colonies declared their independence from England. They wanted to establish a democracy where people could have a voice in government. 选举是民主的原动力。民主这个字照字面的意思是「人民自主」,是美国历史中一个重要的观念。十八世纪中期,英国开始通过一些使美国殖民地愤怒的法律。殖民地人民必须付愈来愈多的税,享有愈来愈少的自由。他们感到英国政府没有代表他们的权益。一七七六年七月四日,殖民地宣布脱离英国独立。他们想要建立民主制度,使人们在政府中有发言权。 An effective democracy holds regular elections. In America, elections are held every two years for members of Congress. In these elections, all seats in the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate seats are up for grabs. In addition, every four years, voters go to the polls to elect the nation's president and vice-president. Voters also regularly cast their ballots for state and city government leaders and local school board members. Sometimes they also have to vote on a proposed law. 有效的民主制度定期举行选举。在美国,每两年选一次国会议员。在这些选举中,人们可以争取所有众议院的席位和三分之一的参议院席位。除此以外,选民每四年去投票所选出国家的总统和副总统。选民也定期投票选出州长、市长及当地学校的董事会成员。有时他们也必须投票决定提议的法律。 In the American electoral system, people don't really vote for presidential candidates. Instead, voters cast their ballots for "electors" who support each candidate. Each state has as many electors as the total number of its representatives in Congress. This equals two senators per state plus the number of its representatives in the House (which is based on the state's population). The candidate who has the most votes in a state wins all of the state's electors. To win the presidential election, a candidate must gain at least 270 of the 538 total electoral votes. 在美国的选举制度中,人们并不直接投票给总统候选人,而是由选民投票给持各个候选人的「选举人」。每一州的选举人人数和代表此州的国会议员人数相同,等于每一州有两位参议员,加上众议院的众议员人数(以各州的人口为基准)。在一个州里拥有最多票数的候选人就赢得了那一州所有选举人的票数。要赢得总统大选,候选人必须至少获得总共538个选举人中的270张票。 Over the years, the U.S. has made a number of election reforms. Some early reforms outlawed cheating, giving bribes and threatening voters. They also limited the amount of money candidates could receive from donors and spend on their campaigns. In 1870, black people gained the right to vote, and in 1920, that right was extended to women. In recent decades, laws against unfair rules for voting have been passed. No longer do people have to pay a special tax or pass a test in order to vote. In 1971, the voting age was lowered to 18. Other reforms made voting easier for the blind, the disabled and people who couldn't . In some areas, ballots had to be printed in languages besides English. 多年来,美国在选举方面做了一些改革。早期有些改革禁止作弊、收受贿赂或威胁选民。他们也限制候选人从捐赠者那儿获得的金额数目及花在竞选宣传上的费用。一八七○年,黑人获得选举权。一九二○年,权利延伸至妇女。近几十年来,通过了反对不公平选举规则的法律。人们不再需要付特殊的税或通过测验才能选举。一九七一年,投票的年龄降至十八岁。其它的改革减轻了盲人、残障者及文盲投票的困难。在某些地区,选票上面除了英文以外,还必须印上别的文字。 In November, Americans will again elect those who will represent them in government. Although some citizens aren't even registered to vote--and some registered voters don't bother to go to the polls--most Americans exercise their right to vote. They realize that their future is wrapped up in a special package--the ballot box. It's a package that must definitely be "handled with care." 十一月五日,美国人要再一次选出在政府中代表他们的人。虽然有些市民甚至不是法定投票人──有些法定投票人懒得去投票──但是大多数的美国人都会行使他们投票的权利。他们了解他们的未来包在一个特别的箱子里──投票箱。它实在是一个必须「小心处理」的箱子。 /200804/33375

Researchers have developed electronic ‘paper’ that is less than a micrometre thin and works like a Kindle tablet – but requires far less energy.研发人员已研制出电子“纸片”,厚度不足一微米,功能可与Kindle平板相当,不过其能耗更低。The bendable display reflects light to produce as many colours as an LED screen, and unlike the latter, it thrives in brightly lit areas.可弯曲的显示屏在光的反射下产生如同LED显示屏一样五斑斓的颜色,但与后者不同,这种显示屏只有在光线明亮的区域才会产生色。The team has so far built and tested a few pixels of the material, and while it’s not yet y for application, they say manufacturing a product with the display is likely soon to come.迄今为止,研发团队已经制作并测试了材料的多种像素,虽然目前还不适合应用,但他们表示其产品的大规模生产将很快成为现实。Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology stumbled upon the combination to create the electronic display while working on placing conductive polymers on nanostructures.查尔姆斯理工大学研究人员在将导电聚合物放置在纳米结构上时,偶然发现二者结合可制造出电子显示屏。The thin, flexible material relies on the polymers’ ability to control how light is absorbed and reflected.这种轻薄、灵活可弯曲的“显示屏”主要取决于该聚合物控制光线吸收和反射的能力。These polymers cover the surface of the material, and guide electric signals throughout the full display to create high resolution images.这些聚合物覆盖在材料表面,引导电信号在整个显示屏进行传输,从而产生高分辨率图像。The results are described in a paper published to the journal Advanced Materials.该研究成果的论文刊登在《新材料》杂志上。‘The “paper” is similar to the Kindle tablet,’ says Andreas Dahlin.安德里亚斯.达林说,“这张电子‘纸片’和Kindle平板差不多。”‘It isn’t lit up like a standard display, but rather reflects the external light which illuminates it. Therefore it works very well where there is bright light, such as out in the sun, in contrast to standard LED displays that work best in darkness.“它并不像标准显示屏一样被点亮,只能通过外部光线反射才能发光。因此,它在光线明亮时工作很好,比如太阳光下,而标准LED显示屏则在黑暗中工作最佳。”‘At the same time it needs only a tenth of the energy that a Kindle tablet uses, which itself uses much less energy than a tablet LED display.’“同时,它所需能量仅为Kindle平板电脑的十分之一,其本身能耗也比平板LED显示屏要少得多。”According to the researchers, the samples they#39;ve so far built and tested use the same red, green, and blue colours which combine to give LEDs their vibrant displays.研发人员表示,他们目前研制并测试的样本使用红色、绿色和蓝色,这也是组合出LED能显示的所有鲜艳色的三种颜色。Moving forward, they will build pixels to cover much larger areas.接下来,他们将构建更多的像素来覆盖更大的区域。‘We are working at a fundamental level but even so, the step to manufacturing a product out of it shouldn’t be too far away,’ Dahlin says.达林说:“我们的研究还处于基础层面,但即使这样,距离生产该类产品也不远了。”‘What we need now are engineers.’“我们目前需要的是工程师。”This type of material could be used outside for public displays, the researcher says, helping to reduce energy consumption and upgrade signs and information screens to be both electric and flexible.研发人员说,这种类型的材料可以应用在室外的公共显示屏上,既能减少能耗,又能将指示屏和信息屏升级成电子化且可弯曲的显示屏。The researchers are working to improve their design, which currently uses gold and silver, and would thus be expensive to manufacture.研发人员还在优化设计,因为目前显示器使用的是金和银,生产成本太高。‘The gold surface is 20 nanometres thick so there is not that much gold in it,’ says Dahlin.达林说:“金制表面的厚度为20毫微米,因此制造这样一个产品并不需要特别多的黄金。”‘But at present there is a lot of gold wasted in manufacturing it. Either we reduce the waste or we find another way to decrease the manufacturing cost.’“但在目前的制造过程中,很多黄金被浪费。所以我们要么减少浪费,要么寻找另外一种方式来降低生产成本。” /201610/473752

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