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来源:养心社区    发布时间:2020年01月18日 01:00:17    编辑:admin         

Lots of people have had dreams that seem to foretell the future. Some psychologists attribute this to “retrieval cues.”很多人都曾做过似乎能预示未来的梦。一些心理学家把这种现象归因于“复得线索”。"Retrieval cues?"“复得线索?”A retrieval cue is a coincidence in the real world that triggers a dream memory which otherwise would have gone unnoticed.所谓的复得线索是指,发生在现实生活中的一些事恰巧触发了梦中的记忆,而这些梦中的记忆若不被触发,则会被人在不觉中抛进遗忘的角落。For example, did you know you dreamed about a little dog before the real dog showed up?比如,在见到现实中的一条小之前,你知道你曾梦到过它吗?Oh, yes, I was thinking about it all morning.能啊,我整个早上都在想着它。 Really?真是这样的吗?Well, I think so.呃,我想是这样的吧。 /201005/104921。

How Bad Are iPods for Your Hearing?Hearing loss is more common than ever before. About 16% of American adults have an impaired ability to hear speech, and more than 30% of Americans over age 20 — an estimated 55 million people — have lost some high-frequency hearing, according to a new study published Monday in the Archives of Internal Medicine. The finding has got experts — and concerned parents — wondering anew: Does listening to loud music through headphones lead to long-term hearing loss? Brian Fligor, director of diagnostic audiology at Children's Hospital Boston, explains how much damage your headphone habit might cause — and how to mitigate your risk.在现在的社会,听力丧失越来越普遍了。《内科医学文献》周一发表的一份调查研究显示,约16%的美国成年人对日常对话的听力削弱了,近30%的20周岁以上的年轻人,人数大约在55,000,000,已经丧失了对部分高频率声音的听觉。这项发现重新引起了相关人士及专家的担心:长时间通过耳机听大音量的音乐是否会导致人的听力丧失?来自波士顿儿童医院的听力学诊断教授,Brian Fligor解释了耳机听音乐的习惯会给你造成多大的影响,以及如何减轻听力丧失的风险。Q: How much hearing loss does an iPod cause?A: It depends on the person, it depends on how long you're listening, and it depends on the level at which you're setting your iPod.Q:iPod在多大程度上导致了听力丧失?A:那取决于个人,取决于你每次听音乐多长时间,以及你在iPod上设置的音量水平。If you're using the earbuds that come with an iPod and you turn the volume up to about 90% of maximum and you listen a total of two hours a day, five days a week, our best estimates are that the people who have more sensitive ears will develop a rather significant degree of hearing loss — on the order of 40 decibels (dB). That means the quietest sounds audible are 40 dB loud. Now, this is high-pitched hearing loss, so a person can still hear sounds and understand most speech. The impact is going to be most clearly noted when the background-noise level goes up, when you have to focus on what someone is saying. Then it can really start to impair your ability to communicate.如果你戴着耳机听iPod,并且将音量设置在90%或以上,每天大约听2小时,一个礼拜有五天,天天如此,我们最好的估计是,谁拥有更敏感的耳朵,谁的听力丧失的程度就更大-以40分贝为准。这意味着最安静的时候, 你能听到40分贝的声音。这是一种对高声调的声音听力丧失,所以她/他仍可以听清楚并且明白大多数的日常对话。这种听力丧失的影响在背景噪音水平上升时表现的最明显,此时你不得不集中注意力才能听清楚某人的讲话。然后,它开始削弱你的社交能力。This would happen only after about 10 years or so or even more of listening to a personal audio device. One patient I had used his headphones instead of earplugs when he was on his construction job. He thought as long as he could hear his music over the sound of his saws, he was protecting his ears — because he liked the sound of his music but didn't like the sound of the construction noise. He had a good 50 dB to 55 dB of noise-induced hearing loss at 28 years old. We asked a few pointed questions about when he was having difficulty understanding people, and his response was classic. "When I'm sitting at home with the TV off, I can understand just fine," he said, "but when I go out for dinner, I have trouble."这种情况只会发生在用随身听听音乐10年或者10年以后。我曾经遇到过这样一个病人,他是建筑行业的,当他工作的时候总是戴着耳塞听音乐,他认为只要他听的是音乐声,而不是电锯的噪音,就可以保护他的耳朵——因为他喜欢的是音乐而不是建筑施工时的噪音。在28岁的时候,他已经因噪音诱发了50~55分贝的听力丧失。我们问了一些关键性的问题,关于他在与人交流过程中遇到的困难,他给了一个典型的回答,“当我坐在家里,电视机没有打开的情况下,我可以很好的明白人们的交谈。”他说道,“但是当我去赶赴宴会时,我就会有很大的麻烦。”There is huge variation in how people are affected by loud sound, however, and this is an area where a number of researchers are conducting studies. Certainly a huge part of this is underlying genetics. We know how much sound causes how much hearing loss based on studies that were conducted in the late '60s and early '70s, before employers were required to protect workers' hearing in noisy work environments. What was found is that when people are exposed to a certain level of noise every day for a certain duration, they're going to have a certain degree of hearing loss on average. But the amount of hearing loss might differ by as much as 30 dB between people who had the toughest ears and those with the most tender ones — a huge variation. Unfortunately, we don't know who has the tougher ears and who has the tender ones until after they've lost their hearing. So, as a clinician, I have to treat everyone as if they had tender ears.这巨大的变化体现了噪音对人的影响有多大,然而,同时这是一个许多研究者正在努力的方向。当然,这里有很大一部分是属于遗传学的。我们得知的多大程度的声音导致多大程度的听力丧失,是基于六十年代末和七十年代初,雇主尚未被要求在喧嚣的工作环境中保护工人的听力的情况下的研究。我们发现,当人们长期的暴露在某一特定噪音水平环境中,他们平均都会有一定程度的听力丧失。但是,人与人之间听力丧失的程度不同,那些耳朵比较强健的人与耳朵与较柔嫩的人相比,差异可达30分贝。不幸的是,我们直到那些人失去了听力,也还不知道他们谁的耳朵比较强健,谁的比较柔嫩。那么,作为一个临床医师,我必须认真地对待每个人,将他们的耳朵都当做是柔嫩的。 /200902/63068。

Inside a massive building on a university campus, 20 Ping-Pong tables stretch across a hardwood floor. There are locker rooms, showers and a coach's office, and guests have to remove their shoes before entering. The great hall clicks and clacks -- all day long and often until dark -- with children, teenagers and adults who dedicate hours to training.Gao Jun, a U.S. table tennis player and former Gaithersburg resident, practices in that building. But the facility is not located in Maryland or even the ed States; the U.S. team doesn't have a national training complex. Gao, 39, lives and trains full time in China.For the first time, Coach Doru Gheorghe said, the U.S. table tennis team is composed entirely of China-born athletes. So when it came to training for these Olympics, many of them decided to return home."They keep training in China because they realize these are [better] options than they have in the U.S.," Gheorghe said. "This is a special case; they want to train hard. They understand they have to go to China and sacrifice and train all year long. Usually, if the athletes believe they don't have a good chance, they won't go to China. These girls, they want to play well and do the best they can."U.S. women's player Crystal Huang recently joined Gao in China. Their U.S. teammate, Wang Chen, also has trained in China in anticipation for the Olympics. The lone U.S. men's player, David Zhuang, is 44 years old, married, has two girls and lives in suburban New Jersey, but even he has taken time over the past year to practice in Beijing.In the ed States, table tennis is Ping-Pong, a hobby sport often relegated to suburban basements. In China, Gao and her teammates returned to a table tennis haven: palatial facilities that double as shrines to the sport, all filled with training partners capable of making them sweat through an extended volley."That's the best way to make me have the good performance," said Gao, who is 25th in the latest world rankings. "If you want the best results, China is the place for the players to train."Gao grew up in Baoding, China, where she practiced table tennis for five hours every afternoon. She outpaced her grade school of 1,000, defeated competition from throughout Hebei province and eventually earned an invitation to start training in Beijing with the national team.She rose to near the top of the world table tennis rankings. Shoppers noticed her in stores and people stared as she walked through the streets. She appeared regularly on television. Gao won silver in women's doubles at the 1992 Olympics but soon afterward decided to step away from the sport.She moved to Gaithersburg in 1994. It took only three years before she returned to table tennis and, as a U.S. citizen, ended up joining the U.S. team in 1997.But for the past few years, Gao has lived at East China University of Science and Technology, where she has studied economics and practices four hours daily. She resides with some of the world's best table tennis players and walks less than five minutes from her dorm to practice against them."If I want to play good, I have to go to China to train," Gao said. "In U.S., nobody was training with me. Nobody practiced with me. In the U.S., there's not many good players. We have some, but we don't live together, so it's very hard for us to train in the U.S."USA Table Tennis is in flux, with its board of directors recently pared from 14 to nine members and its chief executive officer serving on an interim basis. Because there is no central training facility, players are left to practice overseas or at one of the nation's 260 table tennis clubs."That's one of the arguments, that we need to develop our kids, identify them at an early age, make sure they have the right training and right competition and make sure they go to school," said Mike Cavanaugh, interim CEO of USA Table Tennis.Practice abroad has been a boon for the U.S. team, especially Gao. Working against dozens of highly skilled players has sharpened Gao's game, a unique style that keeps her cozy up against the table. She is all finesse, employing wide-angle and drop shots and forcing her opponents into movement.With nine days before Opening Ceremonies, Gao still is ying for the Games. And she's doing it not in the ed States but in China, in a facility filled with the world's top players."They need to go where the partners are," Gheorghe said. "It's cheaper than to bring the partners here." 在一所大学校园里的一座大型建筑物内,硬木地板上四处排放着20台乒乓球桌。这里有更衣室,浴室和一间教练员办公室,客人们进来前要脱下鞋子。由于有很多小孩子,青少年和成年人来这里练球,而且一练就是几个小时,大厅里乒乒乓乓的声音会持续一整天而且通常直到天黑。高军(Gao Jun)是美国乒乓球选手,以前住在盖瑟斯堡,目前就在这个建筑里训练。但是这个训练场并不位于马里兰州,甚至也不在美国;美国国家乒乓球队没有自己的训练基地。39岁的高军全天候吃住和训练在中国。教练多鲁.乔戈(Doru Gheorghe)说,美国乒乓球队头一次完全由在中国出生的运动员组成。所以考虑此次奥运会的训练时,他们中的很多人决定回到祖国去。“她们坚持在中国训练是因为他们知道在这里比在美国有更好的机会,”乔戈说道。“这是一个特例,她们想要更艰苦的训练。她们懂得必须去中国,做出牺牲去训练整整一年。通常来说,如果这些运动员认为自己机会不多,是不会去中国的。这些姑娘们确实想要打好比赛,并且全力以赴。”美国女子选手黄瑶西(Crystal Huang)前些日子也来到中国和高军会合。她们的队友王晨(Wang Chen)也在中国受训,期待着奥运会上有所作为。美国唯一的男子选手庄永祥(David Zhuang)今年44岁,已婚而且是两个女儿的父亲,家在新泽西的郊区。就连他也在去年抽出时间到北京训练。在美国,乒乓球是一项普通爱好,人们只在不起眼的地下室里随便玩玩。在中国,高军和队友们则回到了乒乓球运动的天堂:很多训练设施都宽敞明亮,像是一座座乒乓球的圣殿。所有这些场地里都有高水平的陪练,能和她们奋力拼杀很多回合。“这是让我打出成绩最好的办法,”高军这位最新世界排名第25位的选手谈到。“如果想要最好的成绩,选手们应该来中国培训。”高军在中国保定长大,那时她每天下午都要练习五个小时的乒乓球。上小学时,她从1000多名学生中脱颖而出,后来拿到了河北省冠军,并最终被国家队选中到北京开始集训。她的名次逐渐上升,一度接近乒乓球世界排名首位。逛商场时有人认出她来,走在街道上也有人盯着她看。她经常上电视。1992年奥运会上高军赢得女子双打银牌,不过那以后她决定退役。1994年她到盖瑟斯堡定居。仅仅过了三年,她又挥舞起球拍,直到作为美国公民于1997年加入美国队。但是在过去几年里,高军一直住在华东科技大学,在那里学习经济并坚持每天练球四个小时。她和一些世界上最好的乒乓球手住在一起,只需不到五分钟就可以从宿舍走到训练场地和那些好手们一起练球。“如果我想打得好,就必须去中国训练,”高军这样说。“在美国,没有人和我一道训练,也找不到人陪练。在美国,好的球手不多。我们有些好手,可是都不住在一起,所以在美国训练很难。”美国乒乓球理事会正处于低谷,前一阵理事会的成员由14位缩减到现在的9位,首席执行官也采用临时管理的方式。由于没有集中训练设施,选手们只好到海外训练,否则只能在全国260家乒乓球俱乐部里训练。“这是争论的焦点之一,有人提出我们需要培养自己的孩子,从中及早发现好苗子,并保他们得到良好的训练,多打一些有益的比赛,也要保他们的学校教育。”美国乒乓球理事会临时CEO迈克.卡凡诺(Mike Cavanaugh)说道。到国外训练对美国队来说是件好事,对高军更是如此。通过与几十位高手过招,高军的打法变得更加犀利,这种打法很特别,可以让她稳稳地站在台前。她手法高超,利用大角度斜线球和扣杀迫使对手疲于奔命。随着奥运开幕仅剩九天,高军还在为比赛做着准备。而且她不是在美国,而是在中国一个满是世界顶级选手的训练场里做着准备。“她们需要找有陪练的地方,”乔戈说。“这比带陪练过来要便宜得多。” /200808/45582。

Although I had never met him, I knew that my grandfather had been five feet, six inches tall, while my stately grandmother stood five feet, eleven inches. As a teen-ager leafing through old photographs with Grandma, I finally realized how unusual they must have looked together.  "Grandma, " I asked, "how could you have fallen in love with a man five inches shorter than you?"  She turned to me. "Honey," she said, "we fell in love sitting down, and when I stood up, it was too late."   尽管我从未见过我祖父,但我知道他身高五英尺六,而我高贵的祖母身高五英尺十一。十几岁的时候,我和祖母一起一页一页地翻着老照片,我终于认识到他们在一起是多么不同寻常。  “奶奶,”我问道,“你怎么会爱上一个比你矮五英寸的人呢?”  她转过脸来看着我。“宝贝,”她说,“我们是坐着相爱的。当我站起来的时候,已经太晚了。” /201107/145214。

Robot that cleans - inventor's ideal womanAn inventor has created his perfect woman, a robot who can do the cleaning, remember his favourite drink and him the newspaper headlines.Le Trung, 33, has spent pound;14,000 creating Aiko, who he describes as "in her 20s" with a 32, 23, 33 figure, shiny hair and delicate features.She can speak English and Japanese and is so accomplished at mathematics she can do Mr Trung's accounts.Mr Trung, from Brampton in Ontario, Canada, said he has never had time to find a real partner – so he designed and created his ideal woman using the latest technology.The former software programmer has taken out credit cards and loans, sold his car and spent his life savings on perfecting his "fem-bot".Now he is desperate to find a corporate sponsor to help him complete and perfect Aiko.He said: "Aiko is what happens when science meets beauty."I want to make her look, feel and act as human as possible so she can be the perfect companion."I talk to her a lot, and hope to improve her knowledge."So far she can understand and speak 13,000 different sentences in English and Japanese, so she's aly fairly intelligent."Aiko recognise faces and says hello when any of my family come around to visit. She helps me pick what to have for dinner and knows what drinks I like."She even helps me with directions when we're going somewhere."She doesn't need holidays, food or rest and she will work almost 24-hours a day. She is very patient and never complains She is the perfect woman."Mr Trung has designed Aiko with a touch-sensitive face and body so she reacts in a natural way if she is shown affection or hurt. /200812/58677。

No advance for women in top U.S. jobsWomen in 2008 made no significant gains in winning more top US business jobs, according to a study released on Wednesday, but the head of the study said women are poised to make strides in the year ahead.The number of women who were board directors, corporate officers or top earners at Fortune 500 companies remained essentially unchanged, said the study by Catalyst, a nonprofit group that promotes opportunities for women in business.The percentage of companies with women on the board of directors was 15.1 percent this year, compared with 14.8 percent in 2007, Catalyst said.Also, the percentage of corporate officer positions held by women was 15.7 percent in 2008 and 15.4 percent in 2007, it said. The percentage of top earners in 2008 who were women was 6.2 percent, compared to 6.7 percent in 2007, it said.The research on the Fortune 500 companies was based on data as of March 31, 2008. The slight changes in the numbers are not considered statistically significant, Catalyst said.Nevertheless, given the changes in U.S. politics, the future for women in business looks more promising, said Ilene Lang, president and chief executive officer of Catalyst."Overall we're expecting to see change next year," Lang said. "When we look at shareholders, decision makers, the general public, they're looking for change."What they're basically saying is, 'Don't give us more of the status quo. Get new ideas in there, get some fresh faces,'" she said.Lang said President-elect Barack Obama's choices for cabinet and other leadership positions, which include women and minorities, former rivals and opponents, bode well for women in the corporate world."These are very, very inclusive teams," she said. "I think that can be a role model for leadership in other sectors."The Catalyst study also noted that minority women -- black, Asian or Latina -- comprised 3.2 percent of company directorships, compared with 3.0 percent in 2007. /200812/58676。

Thanksgiving Day in America is a time to offer thanks, of family gatherings and holiday meals. A time of turkeys, stuffing, and pumpkin pie. A time for Indian corn, holiday parades and giant balloons.在美国,感恩节是一个感谢恩赐,家庭团聚,合家欢宴的日子;是一个家家餐桌上都有火鸡、填料、南瓜馅饼的日子;是一个充满了印第安玉米、假日游行和巨型气球的日子。 The Pilgrims who sailed to this country aboard the Mayflower were originally members of the English Separatist Church (a Puritan sect). They had earlier fled their home in England and sailed to Holland (The Netherlands) to escape religious persecution. There, they enjoyed more religious tolerance, but they eventually became disenchanted with the Dutch way of life, thinking it ungodly. Seeking a better life, the Separatists negotiated with a London stock company to finance a pilgrimage to America. Most of those making the trip aboard the Mayflower were non-Separatists, but were hired to protect the company's interests. Only about one-third of the original colonists were Separatists. 乘"五月花"来到这个国度的旅行者(朝圣者)原本是英国分离者地下教会清教徒,他们的家在英国,因不堪忍受国内的宗教迫害,他们逃亡到荷兰。在荷兰,他们享受了更多的宗教信仰自由,但最终却意识到在荷兰的这种生活方式是对他们的主的亵渎。为了寻求更好的生活,他们与伦敦贸易公司协商,由该公司资助他们到美国。在这趟旅途中,船上只有大约1/3的乘客是清教徒,其他大多数人并非分离派清教徒,而是公司雇佣来保护其利益的人员(契约奴)。 The Pilgrims set ground at Plymouth Rock on December 11, 1620. Their first winter was devastating. At the beginning of the following fall, they had lost 46 of the original 102 who sailed on the Mayflower. But the harvest of 1621 was a bountiful one. And the remaining colonists decided to celebrate with a feast -- including 91 Indians who had helped the Pilgrims survive their first year. It is believed that the Pilgrims would not have made it through the year without the help of the natives. The feast was more of a traditional English harvest festival than a true "thanksgiving" observance. It lasted three days. 1620年12月11日,旅行者们在"普利茅斯石"登陆。他们的第一个冬季是灾难性的,第二年秋天来临时,原来的102名乘客只剩下56人。但1621年他们获得了大丰收,这些幸存的殖民者们决定和帮助他们度过困难的91名印第安人一起飨宴庆祝。他们相信,若没有当地居民的帮助,他们是不可能度过这一年的。这次节日的盛宴不仅仅是一个"感恩"仪式,它更像英国传统的丰收庆典。庆典持续了三天。 Governor William Bradford sent "four men fowling" after wild ducks and geese. It is not certain that wild turkey was part of their feast. However, it is certain that they had venison. The term "turkey" was used by the Pilgrims to mean any sort of wild fowl. 总督布雷德福派了“四人捕鸟队”去捕捉野鸭和野鹅。我们现在并不能确定是否有野生火鸡在当时的筵席上,但筵席上肯定有鹿肉。当时,朝圣者用 "火鸡"一词来代表各种野禽。 Another modern staple at almost every Thanksgiving table is pumpkin pie. But it is unlikely that the first feast included that treat. The supply of flour had been long diminished, so there was no b or pastries of any kind. However, they did eat boiled pumpkin, and they produced a type of fried b from their corn crop. There was also no milk, cider, potatoes, or butter. There was no domestic cattle for dairy products, and the newly-discovered potato was still considered by many Europeans to be poisonous. But the feast did include fish, berries, watercress, lobster, dried fruit, clams, venison, and plums. 现在,几乎每家感恩节餐桌上都有南瓜馅饼――感恩节的另一种主食。但在当年的第一次庆典上却不可能有这种食品。因为面粉奇缺,所以面包、馅饼、糕点等食物都没有。但他们却吃了煮南瓜,并用收获的玉米制成了一种油炸面包。也没有牛奶、苹果酒、土豆和黄油。没有驯养的奶牛,自然没有牛奶;而新发现的土豆被很多欧洲人认为是有毒的。第一次庆典上有鱼、草莓、豆瓣菜、龙虾、干果、蛤、鹿肉、李子等。 /200904/67325。

虽然最近在国内也相当盛行吃西餐,但是在内容和形式上,随著各餐厅的经营型态而“纯”、“杂”不等,“繁”、“简”不一,十分值得一谈。   美国的西餐,和欧洲许多国家也颇有不同。如果您到美国旅游,赴家庭宴会或在餐馆吃“正餐”时,请先注意下列一般原则:   1. 男女一起在餐馆用餐,通常由男方负责点菜(order)和付帐(pay the check or bill)。   2. 许多基督教或天主教家庭饭前要由家中一员带领祷告(say a prayer or "blessing"),您即使不信教,也请跟着低头,以示礼貌和尊重。   3. 美国人宴客,是由女主人(或男主人)先拿起餐具进食,客人才跟着动餐具。   4. 如果您不喜欢递过来的菜肴时,只要说"No, thank you."即可。   5. 咀嚼食物,一定要避免出声。   6. 用过的刀、叉,必须放回盘子里,不能放在餐桌巾上。   7. 吃完主菜,把刀和叉平行地斜放在主菜盘(main plate)上,是向主人或侍者表示可以把主菜餐盘拿走了。   8. 席间要轻声谈些轻松愉快的话题,尽量避免一声不响地闷着头吃饭。   下面请看这一段模拟的席间对话:   Hostess: Would you like to have some more chicken ?   Guest: No, thank you. The chicken is very delicious, but I'm just too full.   Host: But I hope you saved room for dessert. Mary makes very good pumpkin pies.   Guest: That sounds very tempting. But I hope we can wait a little while, if you don't mind.   Host: Of course. How about some coffee or tea now ?   Guest: Tea, please. Thanks.   餐位(Seating arrangement)   餐位的安排大致上如上图。原则上男主宾(Gentleman of honor)坐在女主人(hostess)右边,女主宾(lady of honor )坐在男主人(host)右边,而且多半是男女相间而坐,夫妇不坐在一起,以免各自聊家常话而忽略与其他宾客间的交际。 /201002/96181。