南涧县妇幼保健医院专家
时间:2019年11月14日 14:54:52

China plans to scrap its state monopoly on the sale of salt, marking the end of a system with nearly 2,700 years of history. The move is intended to bolster competition, the Beijing Youth Daily reported, citing the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.中国计划取消盐业专营,这标志着一个已有近2700年历史的制度的终结。《北京青年报》援引工业和信息技术部的话称,此举是为了促进竞争。China’s economic planners have tried for years to eliminate the monopoly, but faced opposition from the China National Salt Industry Corporation, the state-owned agency that controls salt distribution, and from consumers concerned about prices and food safety.中国的经济规划者数年来一直试图取消盐业专营制度,但遭到控制盐类分销的国有企业中国盐业公司及担心物价及食品安全的消费者的反对。A monopoly on salt production was introduced as early as 685 B.C. in the state of Qi on the Shandong Peninsula, though it may have existed even earlier than that, the scholar Rowan K. Flad writes in “Salt Production and Social Hierarchy in Ancient China.”学者傅罗文(Rowan K. Flad)在《古代中国的盐业生产和社会等级》(Salt Production and Social Hierarchy in Ancient China)一书中写道,早在公元前685年,山东半岛的齐国就开始对盐业生产进行垄断,但这种制度或许出现得更早。Under the system, the government designated who could produce salt, and the shipping of salt outside authorized districts was banned. The salt trade was long a significant source of revenue for the state, and helped provide revenue and pay for troops in far-flung outposts of the Chinese empire.在这种制度下,政府指定盐类生产商,禁止将盐运送至授权地区之外的地方。盐类贸易长期以来一直是政府的重要收入来源,在一定程度上带来收益,为中华帝国偏远前哨的士兵提供军饷。As China has industrialized, the contribution of the salt monopoly to overall tax revenues has greatly diminished, but it has still served important functions. As recently as the mid-1990s, China experienced widesp problems of preventable developmental disabilities because of a lack of iodine in children’s food supply. In 1995, the country mandated that edible salt be iodized to reduce the problem, and the salt monopoly was used to enforce that rule.随着中国实现工业化,盐业专营制度对总税收的贡献大幅减少,但仍然发挥重要作用。最近,也就是在1990年代中期,由于儿童食用的食物缺乏碘,中国出现了广泛的可预防的发育性残疾问题。1995年,中国下令生产加碘盐,以减轻这一问题,政府利用了盐业专营制度来实施该规定。Studies have found a significant reduction in levels of iodine deficiency since the requirement was put in place.研究发现,自实施上述规定以来,缺碘水平大幅降低。Consumers have long complained about efforts to end the salt monopoly. When a proposal was put forward to eliminate the system in 2009, the central government backed down in the face of online opinion surveys that showed a majority of respondents wanted the government controls to remain in place, the China scholar James Reilly wrote in his 2011 book “Strong Society, Smart State.” Those concerns have revived again, as online comments have raised concerns about the inclusion of toxic industrial salts being mixed with edible salt, the magazine Foreign Policy has noted.消费者长期以来一直反对终结盐业专营制度的举措。中国问题学者詹姆斯·赖利(James Reilly)在2011年出版的《强大的社会,聪明的国家》(Strong Society, Smart State)一书中写道,相关机构在2009年提议取消专营制度,但网络调查显示,大多数参与调查的人希望政府继续控制,中央政府最终放弃这一提案。《外交政策》(Foreign Policy)杂志指出,随着一些网络引起人们对有毒工业用盐与食盐混杂在一起的现象的关注,这种担心再次出现。Some scholars have argued that the state monopoly system actually contributed to the phenomenon of tainted salt, and that overhauling the system while enforcing food quality laws should help improve safety. In a 2010 paper, Sun Jin, Fan Zhou and Qin Li of Wuhan University noted that the monopoly meant that the price consumers paid for salt was three to four times higher than the price the China National Salt Industry Corporation paid for salt from authorized producers.一些学者曾辩称,国家垄断制度实际上在一定程度上造成了食盐遭到污染的现象,在改革制度的同时实施食品质量法律应该有助于提高安全性。在2010年的一篇论文中,武汉大学的孙晋、范舟、秦丽指出,食盐专营意味着,市场上的盐价比中国盐业公司从授权生产商手中收购的价格高出两到三倍。While the average consumer does not feel the price difference because salt makes up such a small portion of a typical grocery bill, the markup supports a vast and pernicious underground market, the authors wrote. Such salt often does not contain iodine and can have harmful impurities, they noted.这些作者写道,虽然由于食盐在平时的杂货开销中所占比例较小,普通消费者没有感觉到价格差别,但这种利润撑着一个规模庞大的、有害的地下市场。他们指出,这种食盐通常不含碘,可能含有有害杂质。Likewise, the hefty profits create ample incentive for corruption, as companies within the system try to maintain their protected position, the Wuhan University scholars wrote.武汉大学的学者写道,丰厚的利润同样也带来了足够的腐败动机,该体制中的企业设法维护它们的特权地位。“Because of legislative omissions and gaps in enforcement, salt monopoly has led to rent seeking, hidden food safety dangers and other forms of malpractice,” they wrote. “Reforming the monopoly should help reduce these behaviors.”“由于现实立法的缺漏,导致盐业公司合法垄断变异,带来权力寻租和食盐安全隐患等弊端,”他们写道,“应进行食盐体制改革,以化解这种行为。” /201411/344940

Let#39;s say you#39;re an international spy and a dastardly villain has just used his laser eye to cut the cable to your elevator car, sending you plunging hundreds of stories to your death. Everyone knows the best way to survive such a fate would be to jump just before you hit, right?假设你是名国际间谍,现在有个恶棍用激光弄断你所乘电梯的缆绳,意图使你从几百层楼高的地方坠亡。所有人都认为最好的逃生办法就是在坠地之前跳起来,这样是否正确呢?Well, not really. As proven by the Myth Busters, that just doesn#39;t work.其实不然。密斯·巴斯特实,这样做于事无补。As part of a promotion for a book entitled ;How to Survive Anything,; travel-book giant Lonely Planet has just released a series of s showing how to survive a variety of situations from getting locked out of your hotel room naked, to yes -- how to emerge from a plunging elevator alive.世界最大的私人旅游指南出版商《孤独星球》在推销《如何脱离险境》一书活动中发布了一系列相关视频,比如说,一个人什么也没穿,还被锁在了酒店房间门外,在这种情形下该怎么办,又或者,怎样从一直往下坠的故障电梯中逃生。Note that steps given in the Lonely Planet , embedded below, are in contradiction to the advice Eliot H. Frank, at the time a research engineer for the Center for Biomedical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, gave to a New York Times er in 2012.要说明的是,《孤独星球》在其视频中给出的措施步骤与艾略特·H·弗兰克,时任麻省理工学院生物医学工程研究中心工程师,于2012年向《纽约时报》读者给出的意见是相左的。Frank said that the best course of action would be to lie flat on the floor to distribute the impact across your whole body. And he specifically said not to bend your knees or brace yourself (two pieces of advice given in the Lonely Planet ) because ;at high G-forces, your legs would simply not be able to support the weight of your body. Even the weight of your own head would be too much for your neck to support.;弗兰克建议,最好的办法就是躺平,使受力遍及全身。他还专门指出,最好不要屈膝或抱住自己(这两点恰是《孤独星球》在视频中提到的建议),因为“在高倍重力下,你单单靠腿是撑不了你自身重量的,甚至你的脖子也难以撑头的重量”。So it#39;s pretty much your call. Will you go with the travel book publisher, or an MIT scientist? My advice? Stick with the engineer on this one, but go with Lonely Planet on the naked-in-your-hotel thing. They really do have some good ideas for that situation.总之呢,怎么样来由你自己决定。是听《孤独星球》的呢?还是听艾略特·H·弗兰克的?我的意见?在电梯事故上还是听这名工程师的吧。而在赤身被锁酒店房门外的情况下,《孤独星球》的一些建议措施还是很好的。 /201507/388205

Growth in overseas leisure travel has helped boost core earnings at China#39;s biggest airlines in the first quarter, and signaled that the nation#39;s recent slowdown hasn#39;t weighed on consumer sentiment as much as some may have feared.境外休闲旅游的增长帮助提振了中国最大航空公司第一季度的核心收益,同时也表明,近期中国经济增长放缓对消费者信心的冲击并不像一些人所担心的那么严重。Chinese airlines carried 13% more passengers in the first three months of 2014 from a year earlier, though they saw demand being particularly strong to points outside mainland China. At flag carrier Air China Ltd., international passenger revenue rose 19% during the period, slightly below the 22% jump at rival China Southern Airlines Co.中国航空业第一季度客运量同比增长13%,不过航空公司发现乘客们飞往中国大陆以外目的地的需求尤为强劲。中国国际航空股份有限公司(Air China Ltd., 简称:中国国航)第一季度国际客运收入增长19%,略低于竞争对手中国南方航空股份有限公司(China Southern Airlines Co., 简称:南方航空) 22%的增幅。An increasingly congested home market has prompted the nation#39;s state carriers to expand their overseas reach, launching new long-haul routes from smaller cities such as Changsha and Chengdu to destinations in Europe and North America.日益拥挤的国内市场促使中国国有航空公司向海外扩张,纷纷推出新的远程航线:例如从长沙、成都等中等城市飞往欧洲和北美目的地的航线。But the move also mirrors the consistent growth in the number of Chinese leisure travelers seeking to go abroad, despite China#39;s economic expansion slowing to 7.4% in the first quarter, its lowest level in 18 months as the world#39;s second-largest economy continued to downshift.此举也反映出,尽管中国经济继续减速,但寻求境外休闲旅游的中国消费者数量的持续增长。中国第一季度经济增速放缓至7.4%,为18个月来最低水平。#39;Slower economic growth won#39;t have immediate impact on leisure air traffic unless there are one-off factors such as a major economic crisis or natural disasters that significantly disrupt air travel sentiment,#39; said Kelvin Lau, a transport analyst at Daiwa Securities, noting he expects demand for leisure travel to remain resilient.大和券(Daiwa Securities)运输业分析师刘健恒(Kelvin Lau)称,经济增速放缓不会立即冲击休闲旅游航空客运量,除非出现重大经济危机、自然灾害等严重干扰消费者对航空旅行热情的一次性负面因素。他预计休闲旅游需求将保持坚挺。During the first quarter, the number of Chinese air passengers traveling abroad rose 17% from a year earlier, according to the nation#39;s aviation regulator, reaching 7.1 million people and accounted for nearly 8% of all airline passengers.据中国民航监管部门的数据,第一季度中国出境旅游航空客运量同比增长17%,达到710万人次,占到当季总客运量的近8%。Nonetheless, net earnings figures released this week showed that China#39;s #39;Big Three#39; state carriers reported significantly weaker first-quarter results because of a weaker national currency, which fell 2.7% during the period against the U.S. dollar.不过,本周公布的 利润数据显示出中国三大国有航空公司第一季度业绩十分疲软,主要受人民币汇率走软影响,这期间人民币兑美元下跌了2.7%。The Big Three--Air China, China Southern, and China Eastern Airlines Corp.--have as much as 80% of their net debt denominated in U.S. dollars to finance aircraft leases and purchases, and any fluctuations in the yuan would have a major impact on their bottom lines. The weaker yuan has also hurt corporate profits among other Chinese industries, such as oil refiners, because crude oil is denominated in U.S. dollars.三大国有航空公司分别是中国国际航空股份有限公司(Air China Ltd. ,0753.HK, 简称:中国国航)、中国南方航空股份有限公司(China Southern Airlines Co. ,1055.HK, 简称:南方航空)和中国东方航空股份有限公司(China Eastern Airlines Co. ,600115.SH, 简称:东方航空)。三家公司高达80%的 债务是美元债务,主要是为租赁和购买飞机提供资金,人民币汇率的任何波动都会对它们的利润构成重大影响。人民币走软也冲击了中国其他行业公司的利润,如炼油企业,因原油以美元计价。Air China on Tuesday said its first-quarter net profit plummeted 63% to 92.7 million yuan ( million), compared with 249 million yuan in the year-earlier period. Meanwhile, China Southern and China Eastern posted a combined net loss of 511 million yuan during the period.中国国航周二表示,该公司第一季度 利润由上年同期的人民币2.49亿元大幅下滑63%,至人民币9,270万元(合1,500万美元)。与此同时,南方航空和东方航空在第一季度 亏损总额达到人民币5.11亿元。Yet these foreign-exchange losses are mostly noncash, as companies are required under accounting rules to value their substantial foreign-currency debts at the end of every quarter.不过汇兑损失大多是非现金性损失,这些公司之所以公布这些损失,是因为根据会计准则要求,航空公司须在每个季度末对大规模外币债务进行重新估值。Consequently, they don#39;t pose significant medium-term impact if the yuan#39;s declines stabilizes near current levels, say analysts.分析师们说,因此,如果人民币的下滑势头在目前水平企稳,那么汇兑损失对航空公司利润的中期影响不大。The weak net results therefore mask the robust earnings pickup in the nation#39;s airline industry for the quarter. All the Big Three carriers would have been profitable on an operating level if the currency impact was excluded.疲软的 利润数据掩盖了中国航空业第一季度盈利强劲增长的事实。如果剔除汇率影响,三大国有航空公司在营运层面均盈利。At China Southern, for example, operating profit saw a near fivefold increase to 1.07 billion yuan, from 188 million yuan in the same period last year, according to Barclays Capital estimates. With the currency impact, the airline swung to a net loss. Similarly, at Air China, first-quarter operating profit increased by 515 million yuan excluding the foreign exchange items.以南方航空为例,据Barclays Capital估计,该公司第一季度的营业利润由上年同期的人民币1.88亿元增加了近五倍,至人民币10.7亿元。但将汇兑损失考虑在内,南方航空则转为 亏损。同样,剔除汇率因素,中国国航第一季度营业利润增长了人民币5.15亿元。The overseas expansion drive by the Chinese airlines is helping improve utilization of the many widebody aircraft the carriers have ordered over recent years. Most aircraft orders by the state airlines are done through a centralized procurement agency by the government, and in the past have led to mismatches between capacity and demand.中国航空公司的海外航线的扩张帮助提高了这些公司近年来订购的很多宽体飞机的利用率。国有航空公司的大部分飞机订单是通过政府的一个中央采购部门完成的,过去曾导致运力和需求错配。However, analysts say they expect some of the new international routes to remain unprofitable in the near term or manage to break even at best.不过,分析师们表示,他们预计近期一些新开国际航线仍然无法盈利,最乐观的情况也就是勉强实现盈亏平衡。The Chinese airlines are #39;going into this faster growing segment to broaden their earnings stream, but in the medium term these new businesses won#39;t necessarily be very profitable to them because of the startup costs attached with the network expansion,#39; said Andrew Orchard, an aviation analyst at CIMB Securities联昌国际券(CIMB Securities)航空分析师奥查德(Andrew Orchard)表示,中国航空公司将进入这一增长迅速的领域以拓宽收益渠道,但中期内这些新业务不一定会带来丰厚利润,因为航线网络的扩张需要启动成本。The outlook for the Big Three carriers will also be overshadowed by the government#39;s recent efforts to liberalize the nation#39;s skies. The government earlier this year unveiled long-awaited guidelines to jump-start the nation#39;s fledgling budget-airline market, including pledges of financial support, plans to simplify approvals for new low-cost airlines, as well as measures to help existing budget carriers expand their fleets more quickly.中国政府最近推动民航业开放的努力也给三大航空公司的前景蒙上阴影。今年早些时候,政府公布了促进国内刚起步的廉价航空市场的政策,包括承诺提供资金持,计划简化新成立低成本航空公司的审批程序,以及帮助现有廉价航空公司加快扩张机队的举措。Mr. Orchard said he estimates nonstate airlines, including budget carriers, account for around a quarter of seat capacity on routes that they compete head-to-head with state carriers. He expects these private airlines to play an even bigger role in the domestic travel market going forward.奥查德表示,他预计,在包括廉价航空公司在内的非国有航空公司与国有航空公司正面竞争的航线上,非国有航空公司的座位数量占四分之一左右。他预计,未来这些私营航空公司将在国内旅行市场扮演更加重要的角色。#39;The history of low-cost carriers is that they#39;ve been price eroding so it#39;s logical to assume that there#39;ll be some ticket price impact,#39; he said.他表示,低成本航空的公司发展历史显示,此类公司的起到了拉低机票价格的作用,所以有理由认为机票价格将受到影响。 /201405/295252


文章编辑: 好面诊
>>图片新闻