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2019年09月18日 20:05:46 | 作者:39乐园 | 来源:新华社
China has exercised ;great restraint; in the disputed South China Sea by not taking back islands occupied by other countries even though it could have, Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Liu Zhenmin said on Tuesday.中国外交部副部长刘振民在本周二表示,没有从其他国家手中拿回本属于我国的岛屿,已经是中国在南海问题上表现出的极大克制。;The Chinese government has the right and the ability to recover the islands and reefs illegally occupied by neighbouring countries,; Liu said. ;But we haven#39;t done this. We have maintained great restraint with the aim to preserve peace and stability in the South China Sea.;“中国政府有权力也有能力收复被周边国家非法侵占的这些岛礁,但是我们没有做,我们保持了极大的克制,我们的目的是为了保持南海的和平稳定,”刘振民称。The issue is likely to feature in two summits this week, one in Manila and the other in Kuala Lumpur, both attended by U.S. President Barack Obama.南海问题很可能会成为两次峰会的关注点。其中一次峰会是在马尼拉,另一次则是在吉隆坡,预计美国总统奥巴马将出席上述两个峰会。Liu Zhenmin said China did not want the South China Sea to be the focus of the East Asia Summit in Kuala Lumpur later this week, which Premier Li Keqiang will attend. But he noted it would be hard to avoid and that some countries would raise it.中国国务院总理李克强将出席东亚峰会。刘振民表示不希望南海问题作为东亚峰会的关注点,但他也表示,这是避免不了的,因为有些国家肯定会提出这样的问题。China is building facilities like lighthouses, while protecting the environment, Liu added.他补充道,中国正在南海岛礁上建设灯塔等设施,并会保护好岛上的生态。At last he said the focus of the East Asia Summit should be development. ;Hyping the South China Sea issue is not conducive to cooperation,; Liu said.最后,刘振民表示,东亚峰会重点应该关注发展问题,炒热南海问题不利于合作。 /201511/4103535.David Foster Wallace at Kenyon, 20055.2005年,大卫·福斯特·华莱士于肯扬学院;There is no such thing as not worshipping. Everybody worships. The only choice we get is what to worship.;“所有事都值得崇拜。每个人都有自己的信仰,但我们可以自由选择信仰什么。”David Foster Wallace, author of ;Infinite Jest,; delivered a timeless commencement address at Kenyon College in 2005. With touches of the macabre, the speech rang true, if not for graduates on the cusp of shiny new lives, then certainly for their parents. ;There happen to be whole large parts of adult American life that nobody talks about in commencement speeches. Once such part involves boredom, routine and petty frustration,; Wallace said, describing a resentful stop at a crowded grocery store after work for illustration. While Wallace#39;s speech started as a downer, it ended on notes of transcendent grace, because he pointed out, you get to choose how you#39;ll respond to life#39;s frustrations and pettiness. ;The really important kind of freedom involves attention and awareness and discipline and effort, and being able truly to care about other people and to sacrifice for them, over and over, in myriad petty little unsexy ways, every day;. So provocative was Wallace#39;s address that it went viral. After Wallace#39;s suicide in 2008, a portion of his address became a short film and was published in its entirety as a book.大卫·福斯特·华莱士,是《无尽的玩笑》的作者,于2005年在肯扬学院的毕业典礼上发表了经典的演讲。这次演讲涉及“死亡”话题,可能对即将开启崭新生活的毕业生来说不够具有吸引力,但对他们父母来说可谓价值颇丰。华莱士说,“美国成年人的大部分真实生活,在一般的大学毕业典礼上都无人谈及,包括无聊的例行公事和极度沮丧挫折。”并用为工作忙了一天后,到拥挤的杂货店产生的不满来举例说明。华莱士的演讲指出,你得选择如何面对生活中的挫折和琐事。演讲开篇发人深省,结尾更是锦上添花。“真正重要的自由,是集专注、觉醒、自律及上进于一体,每天都会发自内心地去关心他人,在无数琐碎、无趣的事上,贡献自己的力量。”华莱士的演讲令人振奋,并被迅速传播。2008年,华莱士自杀后,他的部分演讲被改编成电影短片,演讲全文则被收入书籍出版发行。4.Randy Pausch at Carnegie Mellon, 20084.2008年,兰迪·波许于卡内基梅隆大学;It is not the things we do in life that we regret on our death bed. It is the things we do not. I#39;ve done a lot of really stupid things and none of them bother me.;“人们临终时后悔的不是已做过的事情,而是没做过的事情。我已经做了很多愚蠢的事情,但这并没有让我觉得遗憾。”The keynote speaker at Carnegie Mellon University#39;s 2008 commencement ceremony was former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, but Randy Pausch#39;s surprise address stole the show. Pausch, a Carnegie Mellon professor, had months earlier delivered ;The Last Lecture; after being diagnosed with a fast-moving pancreatic cancer. His memorable and moving message intended for his students went viral, sparked worldwide interest in his condition and later became a book. In Pausch#39;s commencement speech, which was based on ;The Last Lecture,; he spoke of his love for Carnegie Mellon. He delivered the address three months after doctors predicted he would be dead and detailed what he#39;d learned about living. In typically humorous fashion, he asked students to seek respect from their peers, to form loving relationships with the people they held most dear and to follow their passions. ;If there is anything I have learned in my life, you will not find that passion in things. And you will not find that passion in money.; Instead, he implored the audience to ground their passion in people. As he exited the podium, Pausch kissed his wife and carried her offstage to the sounds of a cheering crowd.2008年,美国前副总统阿尔·戈尔为卡内基梅隆大学的毕业典礼作了一场演讲,但被兰迪·波许那场令人拍手叫好的演讲抢尽了风头。波许是卡内基梅隆大学的教授,在确诊患有晚期胰腺癌的几个月后,做了 “最后一堂课”的演讲。这场令人难忘和生动的演讲被他的学生们广为传播,并激起了全世界对他的病情的关注,最后被编著成了一本书。这是一篇以 “最后一堂课”为基点的毕业演讲,波许讲述了他对卡内基梅隆大学深挚的爱。在医生预测他将离开人世的三个月后,他作了这篇演讲,并详细讲述了他从生活中学到的事物。他用一种独具一格的幽默方式,忠告学生们要在同龄人中找到尊重,跟最爱的人在一起并且要为自己所热爱的事物奋斗。“如果要说我从生活中学到的东西,那就是你不可能从物质、金钱中找到生活的。”相反,他建议他的学生们把热情在他人身上。走下讲台时,他亲吻了一下妻子并带着她走进了欢呼鼓掌的人潮中。3.Neil Gaiman at the University of the Arts, 20123.2012年,尼尔·盖曼于艺术大学;When things get tough, this is what you should do. Make good art.;“当你遇到困境时,这是你最应该做的:创作美妙的艺术。”Neil Gaiman, the U.K.-born author of ;Coraline; and ;American Gods; among other works of literature, didn#39;t go to college, let alone graduate from one. Instead, Gaiman, a self-described ;feral child who was raised in libraries,; engineered his own education as a writer. Gaiman cautioned graduates that life could -- and would -- go wrong, and therein lay the best experiences. ;A freelance life, a life in the arts, is sometimes like putting message in bottles, on a desert island, and hoping that someone will find one of your bottles and open it and it, and put something in a bottle that will wash its way back to you: appreciation, or a commission, or money, or love.; He also gave some very practical advice on staying employed: ;People keep working, in a freelance world ... because their work is good, and because they are easy to get along with, and because they deliver the work on time. And you don#39;t even need all three. Two out of three is fine;. Life, Gaiman noted, is about making good art, no matter the disappointments -- or successes -- along the way. It turns out his commencement address was good art, too. It was published in book form just one year later.尼尔·盖曼是一名作家,出生于英国,写了《鬼妈妈》、《美国众神》等文学作品。他没有上过大学,更别提从大学毕业了。但是,盖曼自称是“被图书馆养育的孩子”,接受了“以成为作家为目标”的自我教育。盖曼告诫学生们,生活中不如意事常八九,但其中会有弥足珍贵的体验。“从事自由职业、艺术工作,就犹如你投放在荒岛里的瓶中信,并希望终有人会发现你的瓶子,打开它、阅读它并放入某些你期待的响应:欣赏,委托,金钱,喜爱。”关于职场生涯,他也给出了很多建设性的建议:“人们能在自由的工作环境中保住工作………因为他们的作品是优秀的,他们性格随和并且他们及时投稿。但是你甚至不需要做到这三点,做到两点就够了。”盖曼说,生活无论成功与失败,都是关于美好艺术的创作。他觉得作毕业演讲也是一项美妙的艺术。一年后,这篇演讲被收入书籍出版发行。2.President Barack Obama at Morehouse, 20132.2013年,美国总统奥巴马于莫尔豪斯学院;My whole life, I#39;ve tried to be for Michelle and my girls what my father was not for my mother and me.;“我的一生都在为妻子米歇尔和女儿着想,而不是像我父亲待我母亲和我那样。”U.S. President Barack Obama had spoken at several commencements by the time he addressed the graduating class of Morehouse College in 2013. But this speech turned out to be his most personal – and controversial. Obama touched on the historic role the historically black Morehouse College has played in higher education, but also spoke of his personal failings and his struggles with race. ;Sometimes I wrote off my own failings as just another example of the world trying to keep a black man down,; he said. ;I had a tendency sometimes to make excuses for me not doing the right thing. But one of the things that all of you have learned over the last four years is there#39;s no longer any room for excuses;. Obama also lamented that his father had not been present when he was growing up. ;I want to break that cycle where a father is not at home -- where a father is not helping to raise that son or daughter. I want to be a better father, a better husband, a better man;. Afterward, some criticized the speech as condescending and ignoring the role of government in perpetuating policies that hindered African-Americans. But others applauded his ;no excuses; stance and for being a more vocal role model to young black men.美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马曾经在几个毕业典礼上发表过演讲,但他在莫尔豪斯学院2013级的毕业典礼上发表的才是其最具个人特色也是最具争议的演讲。奥巴马谈到,莫尔豪斯学院为黑人的高等教育发挥了历史性的作用,但同时他也提及自身为种族歧视所做的奋斗及失败的经历。“有时我会将我的失败一笔勾销,把它当做是这个世界试图打压黑人的又一个案例。”他说道,“有时我会倾向于为自己没有做正确的事而找借口,但在过去的四年中,你们所需要学到的一件事就是这里没有借口存活的任何余地。”奥巴马还为他的父亲在他成长过程中的缺席而感叹。“我要打破这种父亲在儿女成长过程中没有担当好其角色的做法,我想成为一个好父亲、好丈夫和好男人。”随后,一些人就其演讲进行了批评。他们认为奥巴马的演讲显得目中无人,忽视了政府在现存政策上对阻碍非洲裔美国人所起到的积极性作用。但也有一些赞同的声音,他们认为奥巴马“别找借口”的立场值得称赞,使其在年轻的黑人心中成为直言不讳的榜样。1.George Saunders at Syracuse University, 20131.2013年,美国作家乔治·桑德斯于雪城大学;Be kind.;“与人为善”。If you remember nothing else of George Saunders#39; commencement address at Syracuse University in 2013, odds are he#39;d want you to know those two words. ;What I regret most in my life are failures of kindness,; Saunders said. ;Those moments when another human being was there, in front of me, suffering, and I responded ... sensibly. Reservedly. Mildly.; Saunders is an English professor at Syracuse University and writer of short stories, including the collection ;The Tenth of December.; He can count his graduation speech-turned-book ;Congratulations, by the Way,; among his credits, too. The literary star said that each of us thinks we are the center of the universe and behaves accordingly. So the key to becoming less selfish was to ;err in the direction of kindness.; ;Do those things that incline you toward the big questions, and avoid the things that would reduce you and make you trivial. That luminous part of you that exists beyond personality -- your soul, if you will -- is as bright and shining as any that has ever been;.如果你对乔治·桑德斯)在2013年雪城大学毕业典礼上发表的演讲没有什么印象的话,那有可能是,他只想让你们记住“与人为善”这几个字。“我人生中最后悔的事便是没有对他人表达善意,”桑德斯说。“真希望当一个人在我面前表现出痛苦的那些时刻,我能够温和的、体贴的、含蓄的予以回应。”乔治·桑德斯是雪城大学的英语教授,同时也是短篇小说作家,著有作品集《十二月十日》。根据他的毕业演讲所集成的书《顺便祝贺你们》也可为其履历添上一笔。这位文学家说道,我们每个人都认为自己是宇宙的中心,为人处世都以自我为中心。因此“竭尽全力让自己变善良,犯错也在所难免”是让我们少一些自私自利的有效方法。“做那些顾全大局的事情,避免做纠结于细节的琐碎小事。真正凸显一个人光环的是灵魂而不是个性,如果你愿意,你可以比以往任何时刻都闪耀光。”审校:围巾 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201603/429739

Wearing a grey jacket from Alexander McQueen, pale grey cashmere sweater and button-down shirt, his baby birdlike features exaggerated by black-rimmed spectacles, Federico Marchetti meets me in a small parking lot on the shores of Lake Como, Italy. It’s a steely grey day and the clouds hang mistily over the surrounding hills. As he greets me, the scene has a whisper of John le Carré about it — like two operatives meeting to share secrets.在意大利科莫湖(Lake Como)边的一个小停车场内,我见到了费代里科氠尔凯蒂(Federico Marchetti),当时他身着Alexander McQueen牌的灰色夹克、搭配浅灰色羊绒衫和纽扣领衬衫,佩戴的黑框眼镜进一步凸显出他精明的五官。天色阴沉,云雾缭绕着附近的山上。当他问候我时,整个场景有点约翰勒卡雷(John le Carré)的味道——我们俩就像是两名特工在接头交换情报。The truth is rather more prosaic. The 46-year-old tech entrepreneur and founder of Yoox, the vast e-commerce retailer of luxury goods now poised on the brink of a merger with Net-a-Porter, is about to give me a tour of his hood.而事实远没有那么戏剧性。这位46岁的科技企业家、大型奢侈品电子商务零售商Yoox(即将与Net-a-Porter合并)的创始人,正准备带我在他的地盘四处看看。Marchetti settled in Como permanently a year ago, at the insistence of his partner, Kerry Olsen, a writer and journalist, who wanted to raise their daughter, Margherita, three, in a house with a garden. “I moved for her,” he says, explaining the daily commute to his office in Milan. Although Como has no shortage of starry inhabitants — Richard Branson is a few minutes along the lakeside, George Clooney owns a villa — the neighbourhood has, says Marchetti, the same sleepy provincial feel of his childhood home in Ravenna, the Byzantine capital in Italy’s northeast.在其伴侣克丽攠尔森(Kerry Olsen)的坚持下,马尔凯蒂1年前在科莫定居了下来。奥尔森是一名作家兼记者,她希望让他们的女儿——3岁的玛格丽塔(Margherita)在有花园的房子里长大。“我是为了她才搬家的,”他在解释自己为什么每日往返于位于米兰的办公室和这里时说。尽管科莫不乏星光熠熠的居民——理查德布兰森(Richard Branson)的住处就在湖边,距离马尔凯蒂家仅有几分钟的路程,乔治克鲁尼(George Clooney)在这里也有一栋别墅。马尔凯蒂称,这个社区寂静的乡村感就像他童年时在拉文纳(位于意大利东北部,过去曾是拜占庭在意大利的首府)的家一样。Walking towards the restaurant, we pass a palazzo belonging to a Russian billionaire that is being renovated for his daughter, and a dilapidated silk factory. The former mill is Marchetti’s, a two-year building project that will ultimately become the family home. With its industrial windows and factory roof, it is the antithesis of the splendid building next door. “I didn’t want a great ostentatious house,” he says. It will, however, fulfil his lifetime ambition of having a swimming pool: a 20m lap pool in the basement. “I never wanted a Ferrari. But I always wanted a pool.”在去往餐厅的路上,我们路过了一栋属于一位俄罗斯亿万富翁的豪宅(现在他正在为女儿翻修这栋宅子)和一座破败的丝绸厂。该厂现在归马尔凯蒂所有,正在装修(工期两年),最终将成为马尔凯蒂的家。这座有着工厂式窗户和房顶的建筑与隔壁富丽堂皇的豪宅形成鲜明的对比。“我不想要一栋特别浮夸的房子,”他说。然而,这栋房子将会实现他毕生的愿望:拥有一个位于地下室的长20米的小型游泳池。“我从不想要法拉利,但是我一直想要一个游泳池。”As we enter the restaurant, 40 pairs of eyeballs turn towards us. The diners are all local tradesmen, burly men on their lunch break. We were going to sit inside, as rain seems imminent, but the sight of so many young men, eating in silence, is a little overwhelming. “Shall we go back outside?” asks Marchetti, with a sympathetic grin. We take a corner table under a tree in the courtyard. “It has been family-run for over 100 years,” he says of the bar with its tabacchi desk by the till. “It’s our second home and the food is very good. I asked you to come here because I wanted to show you how I live. Rather than bring you to a Milanese super-duper restaurant, the luxury guy is bringing you to a little bar.”当我们走进餐厅时,40双眼睛立刻转向我们。用餐者都是身材健硕的本地人,正在享受午休时光。因为感觉快下雨了,我们本来准备坐到餐厅里面,但是这么多沉默用餐的年轻人盯着我们的目光,让人有点招架不住。“要不我们回外面吧?”马尔凯蒂问道,脸上带着同情的笑容。我们在院子角落一颗树下的桌子旁坐定。“这里是家族经营的,已经开了100多年了,”他说起这个吸烟桌紧挨着收银机的酒吧,“这里是我的第二个家,食物非常赞。我让你来这儿,是因为我想让你看看我是怎么生活的。这个奢侈的家伙没带你去米兰的高级餐厅,而是带你来一个小酒吧。”Today, though, the luxury guy has a sore tummy and is on “a strict diet” of fish and steamed vegetables — “no rice, or potatoes,” he insists, while ordering a shoal of lake fish that will be variously deep-fried, roasted, smoked and smothered in green sauce. I eat some b while Marchetti demonstrates parsimonious restraint; he is, however, persuaded to take a thimble of white wine.不过,这个奢侈的家伙今天肚子痛,而且还正处于“严格节食”中,只能吃鱼和蒸煮的蔬菜。他坚持“不要米饭,不要土豆”,然后点了各种炸、烤、熏、青酱拌的湖鱼。在马尔凯蒂展现自己过于严苛的自制力时,我吃了些面包;而他在我的劝说下抿了几口白葡萄酒。The younger son of a “white-collar” family — his father was a warehouse manager at Fiat and his mother worked at a call-centre (in “e-commerce”, he jokes) — Marchetti launched Yoox in 2000 with next to no experience of the fashion industry but the conviction he could persuade luxury brands to sell him end-of-season stock to sell online, at a time when luxury accounted for “zero per cent” of the e-commerce market.马尔凯蒂来自“白领家庭”,是家里的次子,他父亲是菲亚特(Fiat)一家货仓的经理,母亲在电话呼叫中心(他开玩笑说,也算是“电子商务”)工作。2000年创办Yoox时,他几乎没有任何时尚业从业经验,但却坚信能够说奢侈品牌把季末尾货卖给他、让他在网上销售,而当时奢侈品在电子商务市场上的份额为“0%”。Since then, Yoox has grown into a multinational “lifestyle” company with revenues of 524m and a net profit of ㄠ3.8m last year. It entered the US in 2003, Japan in 2004 and, in 2006, signed a deal with Marni to provide tech support and a website for the Italian fashion house. Yoox now powers the web infrastructure for 38 luxury brands (“mono brands”), including Armani, Valentino and those owned by the Kering group. In 2009 the company was listed on the Milan stock exchange. And on March 31 this year, Marchetti announced plans for a merger with Net-a-Porter, the luxury fashion site founded, also in 2000, by Natalie Massenet.从那时起,Yoox逐渐发展为一家跨国“时尚”公司,去年收入达到5.24亿欧元、净利润1380万欧元。2003年进入美国,2004年进入日本,2006年与意大利时尚品牌玛尼(Marni)签订协议,为后者提供技术持并建一家网站。Yoox如今为38家奢侈品牌打理它们的在线商店(“单一品牌专卖”),其中包括阿玛尼(Armani)、华伦天奴(Valentino)以及开云集团(Kering)旗下的几个品牌。2009年,该公司在米兰交所挂牌。今年3月31日,马尔凯蒂宣布了与Net-a-Porter的合并计划,后者是纳塔莉氠斯内(Natalie Massenet)于2000年创办的奢侈品时尚网站。In September, Marchetti will become chief executive of the newly created Yoox Net-a-Porter Group (Massenet will be executive chairman) and will oversee the operations of the world’s largest online luxury retailer. When the merger was announced, the implied valuation for the combined group was 3.4bn, with annual sales of ㄠ.3bn, shipping to 180 countries worldwide, and with a combined total of 24m unique users.今年9月,马尔凯蒂将成为新成立的Yoox Net-a-Porter集团的首席执行官(马斯内将担任执行董事长),负责这家全球最大的奢侈品在线零售商的运营。在合并消息宣布时,合并后集团的潜在估值为34亿欧元,年销售额13亿欧元,产品销往180个国家,总共拥有2400万不同用户。Not bad for someone who, even after 15 years in the industry, still describes himself as an outsider. “I’ve always been ambitious,” says Marchetti, as he gently separates some fish from its spine. He attributes his drive to no one. “My parents didn’t encourage me in any way. I wasn’t guided. But I was extremely, extremely, extremely good at school.” Neither was there an inspirational teacher to push him into further education — first economics in Milan, then an MBA from Columbia University. “I did it my own way,” he says. “I’ve been alone most years. I started Yoox by myself.”对于已在时尚行业干了15年却仍然称自己为局外人的他来说,这是个不错的成绩。“我总是野心勃勃,”马尔凯蒂一边剔鱼骨一边说。他并不把自己的进取心归功于任何人。“我父母从没有以任何方式鼓励我这样。也没人引导过我。但是我就是非常、非常擅长念书。”他也不是因为哪个老师的鼓励而继续深造——先是在米兰学习了经济学,之后在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)拿到MBA。“我就是按照自己的方式做的,”他称,“大多数时间我都是自己一个人。我也是自己创办了Yoox。”......The merger is another step towards a long-imagined “dream” of Marchetti — the specifics of which he is vague about. “We started talking about a merger in 2009 but it was too early. It hasn’t been done to please investors, or for stock price; it’s a merger based on substance. And the substance is two companies that started at exactly the same time, with exactly the same vision, but which took completely different approaches. We started with end-of-season, they started full price. Then they started end-of-season [with The Outnet], we started full price [with The Corner]. Then we launched the mono brands, because we were strong at the back-end with logistics, and they launched the editorial content, because they were strong at the front end with the marketing. It’s incredible, like sliding doors — like it was almost planned. I don’t think any merger in history has been so perfect on paper. ”两家公司合并是马尔凯蒂向着其长期憧憬的“梦想”迈进的又一步(具体细节他不愿多谈)。“我们2009年便开始讨论合并,但那时还太早。合并并不是为了取悦股东或者推高股价,而是一次基于实际情况的合并。现实就是两家公司几乎同时创办,拥有完全相同的梦想,但是选择的道路却截然不同。我们从季末尾货做起,他们从全价商品做起。之后他们(创立The Outnet)进入季末尾货市场,而我们(创立The Corner)进入全价商品领域。再之后我们推出了单一品牌专卖,原因是我们在后端物流方面很强,而他们推出了编辑内容板块,因为他们在前端营销方面很强。我们就像两扇滑动门一样相互契合,简直不可思议,几乎像是设计好的。我不认为公司合并史上有过如此完美合拍的案例。”Nevertheless, as he quickly points out, this is not a marriage of equals. Marchetti is still a solo operator and he’s very clear that the Yoox Net-a-Porter Group has only one boss. He raises a hand: “And that’s me.”尽管如此,正如他很快指出的那样,这并非一次平等的联姻。马尔凯蒂仍然是唯一的掌门人,他非常清楚地表明Yoox Net-a-Porter集团只有一个老板。他举了举手说:“那就是我。”While their business models have followed opposite but complementary paths, Marchetti and Massenet’s managerial styles might be harder to fuse. At Net-a-Porter, the glamorous, California-born Massenet has built her empire on foundations of sororal cheerleading — lots of positive affirmations, #incrediblewomen and whooping about team achievements. Marchetti, on the other hand, is notable for his relative anonymity. “They don’t like me,” he says of his relationship with his staff. Really? “No, they don’t like me,” he continues. “There is no love.” He stops. “I think they feel inspired. But they don’t need to love me.”尽管两家公司的商业模式选择了截然相反却又相互补充的发展道路,但马尔凯蒂和马斯内的管理风格也许没那么容易调和。在Net-a-Porter,生于加州的魅力女性马斯内以拉拉队为基础建立了她的帝国,这里充满了正面肯定、对女性的歌颂、对团队成绩大张旗鼓的宣扬。而马尔凯蒂是出了名的低调。“他们不喜欢我,”他说起自己和员工的关系时这样说。真的吗?“是的,他们确实不喜欢我,”他接着说,“没有爱,”他顿了一下,“我觉得他们会感觉受到鼓舞。但是他们不需要爱我。”Will there not, then, be a conflict of cultures in the new world order? “We’re different,” says Marchetti. “But it’s not bad. I don’t need love. I need results.”那么,在新公司中不会出现文化冲突吗?“我们截然不同,”马尔凯蒂称,“但是这不是坏事。我不需要员工的爱。我要的是业绩。”On paper, Marchetti’s attitude may seem arrogant but, in person, his gnomic self-analysis is drily amusing: when I suggest our lunchtime rendezvous is an elaborately staged attempt at humility and that no one in the bar knows who the hell he is, he starts laughing. “Today everything low-key. And then when you leave the helicopter arrives with my dinner...”栠攀 jokes.理论上,马尔凯蒂的态度可能看起来很傲慢,但是与他本人接触时,他精辟的自我剖析颇有些冷幽默:当我暗示我们的午餐地点是为了彰显其谦虚的精心安排、且餐厅里没人知道他到底是谁时,他笑了起来。“今天一切都很低调。等你走了以后,直升机会给我送晚餐过来……”他开玩笑说。In fact, his braggadocio sounds more like incredulity: as if he’s still a little mystified by his success. “Starting a company like Yoox in a country like Italy, it’s quite a miracle. It was a cultural innovation: internet, venture capitalist, stock options...It was an American story in Italy, so it was quite brave. But, at the same time, I had huge advantages: the proximity to the designers, speaking the same languages to the brands, understanding their needs.”事实上,他的自夸听起来更像是质疑:仿佛他对自己的成功仍然有点困惑。“在意大利这样的国家创办一家Yoox这样的公司,是个不小的奇迹。这是一种文化革新:互联网、风投资本家、股票期权……这是一个发生在意大利的美国故事,所以这相当勇敢。但是,与此同时,我也拥有巨大的优势:与设计师近在咫尺、与品牌厂家说着同样的语言、理解他们的需求。It was brave, possibly foolhardy, to launch a company selling discounted luxury goods in 2000. At the time, Marchetti was working as a merchant banker — and miserable with it. “I was leaving the office around 8pm and at night writing my business plan. Around Christmas 1999 I said, ‘I think I need to do it.’ I’m 30, I had to take a risk. So I quit my job. And in 40 days I convinced the venture capitalist to give me ㄠ.5m for 33 per cent of my idea,” he says. “And this was Italy, where there were two venture capitalists, not Silicon Valley, where there are hundreds.在2000年创办一家卖打折奢侈品的公司的确很勇敢,可能还有些鲁莽。当时,马尔凯蒂是一名商业的员工——过得很痛苦。“晚上8点左右我才离开公司,夜里还要写商业计划。1999年圣诞节前后,我说,‘我觉得我必需做这件事。’当时我30岁,不得不冒一次险。于是我辞掉工作。在40天内说风投给我150万欧元,来买我这个想法的33%的所有权,”他称,“这发生在当时只有两个风投资本家的意大利,而不是在如今有着数百名风投资本家的硅谷(Silicon Valley)。”“I took a big risk, and the risk was essential. I cannot say I love risks. I’m not a cowboy. I suffer, internally. But it’s a fine line between luck and risk and I’ve been very lucky. We started in the same month as Net-a-Porter, in June 2000. Boo.com [the LVMH-backed e-commerce site] collapsed in May 2000, and then luxury collapsed. Had I [tried to get] the investment a month later, I would have got nothing.”“我冒了很大风险,而这种风险是有必要的。我不能说自己喜欢冒险。我并非莽撞之人。我内心很受煎熬。但是,幸运和风险仅有一线之隔,而我非常幸运。Yoox和Net-a-Porter在同一个月创办,都创办于2000年6月。Boo.com(路威酩轩集团(LVMH)出资的电商网站)于2000年5月关停,随后奢侈品业也垮了。如果我再晚一个月去争取投资,我可能筹不到一分钱。”He may not be a cowboy but there must have been a certain swagger about the 30-year-old nobody. “I didn’t even have a website,” he says. “And I was not the son of any one. I was just selling the dream of an online service. And I was very good at selling the dream. Because I believed in that dream.”他也许不是莽撞之人,但是当时那个30岁的无名小卒身上必然带着某种狂妄。“我连个网站都没有,”他说,“我也没有爹可以拼。我当时只是在推销自己关于在线务的梦想。我很擅长推销梦想。因为我相信自己的梦想。”Marchetti made fashion his focus because it was a native luxury, because he had the home advantage and because there was no competition. “You cannot be great at everything,” he argues, when I suggest the big fashion brands have been rather cowardly about e-commerce. “You need to be a specialist. The internet is a different set of skills. Unless, like Burberry, you have a leader and designer that is an internet native and it’s part of the strategy.”马尔凯蒂把重心放在时尚方面,因为它是天然的奢侈品,还因为他有本土优势,而且还没有竞争。当我表示大型时尚品牌一直对电子商务相当畏惧的时候,他反驳道,“你不可能什么事都精通。你需要成为一个专家。互联网是一套不同的技能。除非像巴宝莉(Burberry)一样,你有一个出生于互联网时代的领导者兼设计师,并且互联网是你战略的一部分。”Marchetti’s specialism is in logistics and, to that end, his greatest asset is a warehouse in Bologna. A 102,000 sq m distribution centre through which 8,000 orders are processed every day, it is the mother ship for the group’s operations. It is here that every one of the 5.5m items currently stocked are unpacked, checked for damage, photographed, tagged, stored and repackaged on their passage to a final destination. A marvel of technology, it is patrolled by robots that pick out items from container-loads of goods while 55 studios capture between 9,000 and 15,000 images every day. It’s also a very human enterprise; human hands unpack the incoming product, dress the mannequins and pack the merchandise away when it is sold: they might also wrap them in tissue paper or tie them with a ribbon depending on the particulars of the mono-brand packaging. “It’s an amazing operation,” says Marchetti. “You wouldn’t expect so much perfection from an Italian company — about 0.001 per cent of mistakes. Why? Because we cannot send Armani.com a Saint Laurent product. We need it to be right, otherwise it’s a loss of credibility.”马尔凯蒂的特长在于物流,在这方面,他最宝贵的资产就是位于洛尼亚的仓库。这个面积达10.2万平米的配送中心,每天处理的订单数达到8000个,是该集团运营的大后方。就在这里,550万件现有库存商品逐一被拆包、检查、拍照、打上标签、存放好、然后在发给最终顾客前重新包装好。这是科技的奇迹,机器人将商品从成集装箱的货物中拣出,55间摄影室每天拍摄9000-15000张照片。这也是一家非常需要人力劳动的企业;入库商品拆包、给模特穿上装、商品售出时打包好发走,靠的都是人工;有些商品还需要人工用薄纸包好或是用丝带打结(取决于不同的个别品牌的具体包装要求)。“这是一项神奇的业务,”马尔凯蒂称,“你想不到一家意大利公司能如此完美——错误率约为0.001%。为什么呢?因为我们不会给Armani.com送一件圣罗兰(Saint Laurent)的商品。我们需要它准确,否则我们会失去信誉。”Neither does the stock hang around. “We have a huge inventory in our logistics, so it’s a huge commitment,” he says. “Boo.com collapsed because of the inventory.” So what do you do? Discount it to death? “Yes,” says Marchetti. “And everything goes.”他们也不会让库存停留太久。“我们物流中的库存量很大,因此这是巨大的投入,”他称,“Boo.com就是因为库存积压严重倒闭的。”那你怎么办?打折到卖出去?“是的,”马尔凯蒂说,“所有东西都会清掉。”His other great advantage is a vast bank of data. With nearly 15 years and millions of transactions to pick over, he has become a font of retail information and it’s a joy to quiz him about the world’s shopping habits. Who are the serial returners? “The Germans,” he says. “They’re the worst.” And the least likely to shop during office hours? “The Japanese are the most ethical guys. They only ever shop after midnight. They don’t sleep.” (The Brits tend to shop late afternoon and evening and, though he won’t speak ill of his countrymen, it’s pretty clear from his facial expression that Italians like to do it at their desks.) The Spanish prefer red while the Italians love purple. Men are more loyal to brands and 65 per cent of transactions are undertaken by women, except in China, where the reverse is true.他另外一个巨大的优势是拥有海量数据库。坐拥近15年、数百万笔交易的信息,他成了零售业信息的百科全书。考他世界各地的购物习惯是件很有趣的事。哪国人最爱退货?“德国人,”他称,“他们最爱退货。”哪国人最不可能在上班时间购物?“日本人是最有职业道德的。他们只在半夜购物。他们压根不睡觉。”(英国人往往在傍晚和夜里购物,尽管他不想说同胞的坏话,但从他的面部表情上可以清楚看出,意大利人喜欢在办公室网购。)西班牙人对红色青睐有加,而意大利人最爱紫色。男性的品牌忠诚度更高,而65%的交易是女性完成的,不过中国是个例外,那里的情况是相反的。It’s a game I could play all day. “It’s a sociological dream,” he agrees. It’s also valuable. For example: “We found out that when women buy shoes, in two-thirds of cases they only buy shoes, they don’t mix the cart with anything else. It’s a very focused category. Which means that, after analysing 8m orders with shoes, we launched a website for shoes only [shoescribe.com], because we knew what women want. The power of information is huge.”这个小游戏我能玩上一整天。“这是社会学梦寐以求的信息,”他也赞同。这些信息也很有价值。比如:“我们发现,当女性买鞋时,2/3的情况下她们只买鞋,她们不会在购物车里加入其它商品。这是一个非常专注的种类。这意味着,在对800万个鞋履订单进行分析后,我们推出了一个只卖鞋的网站(shoescribe.com),因为我们知道女性购物者想要什么。信息的力量太大了。”If I were a luxury CEO, I would insist Marchetti be at every meeting. But, he says, luxury has been fairly reluctant to harness the power of his data. “Historically, it’s an industry that drops down from creativity to the customer — data have not been so essential. But I do my bit and I’m sure that they will come.”如果我是一个奢侈品CEO,我会坚持让马尔凯蒂参加所有会议。但是,他说,奢侈品牌一直挺不愿意利用其数据的力量。“从历史角度来说,这是个从创意沦落到迎合消费者的行业——数据一直没那么重要。但是我会做好分内之事,我敢肯定他们会来找我的。”Perhaps it’s just as well. If all we were being offered were things based on web sales, our wardrobes would probably be directed by housewives in Texas. Besides, while Marchetti knows what sells, he still doesn’t know why.也许这也是公平的。如果市面上售卖的所有装都是基于互联网销售情况决定的,那么我们的衣柜很可能会由德克萨斯州的主妇说了算。此外,尽管马尔凯蒂知道哪些商品卖得好,但他仍然不知道这是为什么。“There’s a very common risk with data that you can become lost in it. At Yoox we still use a good part of commercial instinct for the buy. It’s a mix. Using data is a piece of information but that doesn’t necessarily mean that we are led by it. It’s the sociological point of view that I’m missing. Why do women buy only shoes when they buy online? I don’t know. I just know that they do.”“运用数据有一个非常普遍的危险,那就是你可能会迷失其中。在Yoox,我们仍然很大程度上利用商业直觉决定进哪些货。两者要结合起来。利用数据是获得一种信息,但是未必意味着我会被它左右。我不知道的是社会学上的观点。为什么女人在网上购物时只买鞋?我不知道。我只知道她们就是这样。”In a commercial world dominated by chatter about Applebot and Silicon Valley evangelists, Marchetti is an exception. He’s not especially tech-obsessed: he couldn’t care less about the Apple Watch, and he’s less dogmatic about the omnipotence of the tech age than one might assume. He doesn’t believe, for example, that the internet will kill print media, nor the fashion show. “I’m a hybrid type of guy,” he says. “I’m not a fanatic who thinks the world will only go online, or that there will be no more fashion shows, or e-commerce will be 100 per cent of sales...I really think the fashion shows are a very efficient way to make business.”在这个由关于Applebot(苹果(Apple)的网络爬虫——译者注)的议论和硅谷(Silicon Valley)狂热者主导的商业世界里,马尔凯蒂是个异类。他并不是特别沉迷于科技:他一点都不关注Apple Watch,对科技时代的无所不能也没有人们所认为的那样武断。例如,他不相信互联网会干掉纸媒和时装秀。“我是那种比较兼容并包的人,”他称,“我不是那种认为整个世界只会日益转移到线上的狂热者,也不认为不会再有时装秀或者销售将100%通过电子商务完成……我真的认为时装秀是一种非常有效的做生意的方式。We walk together up the hill towards his temporary home until the mill is complete. It’s an unassuming house, albeit one with a tower in the garden and extra houses for two housekeepers. Otherwise, it’s full of the normal jumble of a family home. Nothing fancy. Neither is his new boat, an old wooden knockabout called La Dolce Vita he picked up because he thought it would be nice “to bring my ladies out”. He suddenly looks a bit doleful. “The next three years won’t be la dolce vita, that’s for sure,” he says suddenly, as he considers the implications of his “perfect merger”.我们一起向山上走向他在工厂改装完成前的临时住所。这是一栋朴实无华的房子,尽管花园里有一座高塔,还有额外的房子给两名管家住,不过除此之外就像普通人家的房子一样,一点儿都不浮夸。他新买的船也很朴实,是一艘名为“甜蜜生活”(La Dolce Vita)的旧木船,他买它的理由是觉得用它“载着我的美女们出航”会很美妙。突然间他看起来有点沮丧,“接下来的3年不会是甜蜜的生活,这是可以肯定的。”说话间他在琢磨“完美合并”带来的影响。In spite of this, he’s very happy. “I’m a bit Calvinist, I think, in a country that is very Catholic,” he explains. “Even when I took the company public I was distant. I just came home and ate a bowl of minestrone. No champagne. No holiday. Nothing. I think it’s a problem — I always then think what’s next? I’m never satisfied. But when I did the merger I was very, very, happy.”尽管如此,他还是很开心。“我觉得,在一个天主教影响很大的国家,我有点像个加尔文教徒,”他解释说,“即使是在我的公司上市的时候,我也是很淡然的。我只是回家吃了一碗意大利蔬菜浓汤。没有开香槟。没有去度假。什么都没有。我觉得我有这毛病——总是会想接下来怎么办?永不满足。但是当我完成合并时,我非常非常开心。”No minestrone then? “No, no,” he laughs. “No minestrone that night...”那天晚上没吃意大利蔬菜浓汤吗?“没有,没有,”他笑道,“那天晚上没吃……” /201509/400247

Warring States period thinkers created four social classes that should be the theoretical framework for political thinking for the next two thousand years: scholars, peasants, craftsmen, and merchants.战国时期的思想家提出了士、农、工、商(四民)的划分理论,为其后2000多年的政治思想提供了理论框架。As we can observe from these four categories, peasants, by far the largest section of the Chinese population still today, played an important role in political thinking.在这些人中,农民对政治统治发挥着巨大的作用。The peasantry did not only contribute the most part of the state income by taxes, but also served as laborers for state projects and as militia in the ever larger infantry units.他们不仅要交租税,保障政府的财政收人,还要因国家大兴土木而徭役,在日趋扩大的军队中兵役。The heaviest burden thus lay upon the shoulders of the farmers that were not only exploited by their own ruler but also had to suffer the inflictions of the intense warfare campaigns between the contending states.他们不仅受到统治者的剥削,还要饱受战乱之苦,负担沉重。In years of famine, peasants gave up their fields and engaged as craftsmen, petty traders or sold their labour force as day-la-borers. In the worst case, the whole peasant family sold themselves as slaves.饥荒之年,农民无法种田,往往改做手艺人、小商贩或出卖体力作佣工,最糟的情况下甚至还会卖身为奴。While during the Spring and Autumn period, only the state and the aristocracy owned slaves——either debt slaves or war prisoners—it was now possible for every wealthy household to acquire slaves.春秋时期还只有国家和贵族才能拥有奴隶(包括债务奴隶和战争奴隶),战国时每个富有之家都可以有奴隶。It was especially the class of merchants that was able to accumulate extraordinary wealth by purchasing cheap and selling expensive.特别是商人, 他们通过贱买贵卖积聚了大量财富。The inter-state trade was of great importance and contributed to the cultural and economic flourishing at the end of the Warring States era.战国末年,诸侯国之间的贸易极为重要,为繁荣经济、文化的发展做出了巨大贡献。The new class of rich merchants even gained access to important political posts that were hitherto reserved to members of the aristocracy.新兴的商人阶级甚至可以谋取重要的官职。The best example is the case of Lu Buwei, a wealthy merchant with an exceptional education background who helped to promote Prince Yiren of Qin who was exiled in Zhao to become heir apparent and later king of the state. Lu Buwei, member of the despised class of merchants, became chancellor of Qin.吕不韦就是一个最好的例子。他凭借自己特殊的教育背景帮助流亡在赵国的秦国公子异人成为太子,后又成为秦王,而吕不韦一一一个备受歧视的商人最终成为秦的相国。During the Warring States Period, iron farm tools were in common use, replacing wooden and stone implements, which not only helped to fell trees, construct water conservancy, reclaim wastelands and practice deep ploughing and intensive cultivation, but to promote the agriculture greatly as well.战国时,铁制农具已代替木、石农具普遍用于生产之中,不仅有利于砍伐树林、兴修水利、开垦荒地和深耕细作,而且促进了农业生产的大发展。When weeding, peasants paid special attention to tell the differences among various types of soil, so that they could select the suitable crops.在深耕除草的同时,农民们注意识别土壤性质,因地制宜地选择不同的作物进行种植。The technique of fertilizing was improved, and a variety of manure, ranging from animal droppings to green manure and wood ashes was applied widely.施肥技术提高,懂得用肥汁拌种,粪便、绿肥和灰肥被普遍施用。At the same time, they began to give their attention to seeds selection, and plant disease and insect pets prevention. A new kind of farming method was introduced, which was convenient to ventilate the fields, and prevent water-logging. Peasants were good at breeding, weeding, intercropping and commanding farming season.开始注意选择籽种,防治虫病,实行畦种法,便于通风排涝;善于培根、除草、间苗和掌握农时季节。The system of twice ripeness in a year was sp,which raised the output per unit enormously.普遍推广一年两熟制,大大提高了单位面积的年产量。To assure the moisture of soil,Chinese farmers since oldest times built dykes and canals with small sluices, while the rulers of all states also took the development of water conservancy as one of the important measures to enrich countries. They would usually organize the digging of great canals from the rivers to the fields around the capital, like King Lianghui from Wei who had built a canal from the Yellow River to the capital Daliang (near modern Kaifeng in Henan).为保持土壤的水分,中国劳动人民很早就开始修筑带有水阀的沟渠。各国的统治者也把水利事业的发展看作是富国之道的重要措施之一,他们通常会组织人力开渠引水灌溉都城附近的田地。In Sichuan (part of Qin state then), canals and waterways dotted the Chengdu Plain. Around the capital Xianyang (modern Xianyang in Shaanxi), the Qin King had built canals to fertilize the central region of Qin with the help of Zheng Guo, a famous water-work architect.梁惠王开通了连接黄河与都城大梁(今河南开 封附近)的水渠,在四川(秦的蜀郡)的成都平原上沟渠星罗棋布。秦又用水工郑国在都城咸阳外筑渠,灌溉秦中部地区。These canals contributed to the richness of Qin.郑国为秦的富强做出了重大贡献。Many rulers of various states employed political advisors who proposed methods for a successful eco-nomic policy, like the legist politician Guan Zhong in Qi , Li Kui in Wei, Shang Yan-gin Qin, and many advisors whose methods are described in the book Lushi Chunqiu .各国国君还纷纷聘请谋士,他们都提出了发展经济的成功政策,例如齐国的管仲,魏国的李悝,秦国的商鞅。他们的改革措施在《吕氏春秋》中都有记载。The enhanced productivity of the peasant household allowed them even to sell some surplus on the markets.生产力的提高 使农民有剩余产品可交换。The handicraft industry of the Warring States Period also got a rapid development with the significant technology improvement in iron-smelting, bronze wares casting, lacquer and cloth-weaving.战国时,手工业大大发展。冶铁、青铜器铸造、漆器、丝织业的生产水平都有显着的提高。Having mastered the casting technique of pig iron, in which high temperature water was used to deoxidize iron, handicraftsmen could forge high-carbonic steel applied to swords.已经较好掌握了高温液体还原法的生铁冶铸技术,能锻打出用于剑身的高碳钢。Bronze wares were made in the method of smelting and welding.青铜器的制作普遍使用熔铸、焊接。New techniques came up that covered the surface of the vessels with beautiful ornaments made of inlaying gold and silver. Exceptionally wonderful appearance of Warring States bronze vessels were created by the lost wax technique. All of these wares were light, small and exquisite with delicate and complicated patterns. The technique and art had reached a rather high level.也出现了和金银嵌错和失蜡法等新工艺,产生了在铜器表面涂金、鎏金和刻纹工艺,器型轻薄灵巧,花纹细致繁复, 具有高超的技术和艺术水平。Glass composed of lead and barium was produced.铅钡琉璃业已产生。Lacquer-work had grown into an independent section. A wood roughcast was painted with a variety of bright and beautiful patterns in more than ten paintings like black, red, yellow, blue, purple and white etc.漆器制造业成为独立的手工业部门,所造漆器以木为胎,有黑、红、黄、蓝、紫、白等十多种颜色的漆,在器物上绘出各种光泽美丽的花纹。Woven textiles of the Warring States period show a wide diversity in patterns and coloring, but also in weaving technique.编织物的颜色和花纹以及编织工艺更为多样化。With the development of handicraft industry, private entrepreneurs in some businesses were a-ble to acquire wealth and finances, like the salt producer Yi Dun of Lu, Widow Qing in the state of Qin owned mines producing cinnabar, ironworks of the families Kong and Zhou in Wei,and Guo Zong in the State of Zhao.随着手工业的发展,出现了一些私营大手工业主,如鲁国煮盐的猗顿,秦国巴地开采丹砂的 寡妇清,冶铁业如魏国的孔家、卓家和赵国的郭纵等。Increasing productivity and wealth led to a likewise rising marketability of agricultural and industrial goods that were offered and purchased in the markets in the large cities.随着生产力的提高和财富的增加,大城市的市场中可供交易的农产品、手工业品越来越多。Goods from all over the country were traded along the canals and trade routes often passing through several different states before being sold in shops in capital markets.全国各地的商品通过水路、陆路源源不断地涌人都城中的市肆。These shops were observed by a government official who had to collect taxes and to care for law and order.市场中设有专人收税,并维护治安。Even estate like fields and houses were tradable.各种不动产,如土地、房屋也可以买卖。The existence and the development of a market economy made it necessary to produce more coins and a standardized currency.经济的存在与发展需要更多的货币和统一的货币制度。The old cowry shells (Beibi) were replaced by spade-shaped copper coins (Bubi), large specimen were used in the Central Plain while smaller types of the spade coins were produced in the state of Jin and its three successors(Zhao, Wei, Han ). In the states of Yan and Qi coins in the shape of a knife (Daobi) was issued.布币取代了旧时的贝币。中原地区使用大的铲形布币,晋及其后的赵、卫、韩三国使用的是小的铲形布币,齐、燕两国主要是用刀形的刀币。On most coins the name of the mint was given where the coins were cast.大多数钱币上都铸造有地名。Until the 19th century coins in China were not minted but cast. The states of Zhou,Zhao,Wei and Han were the first to issue round coins with a round hole (yuankong yuanqian), from the 3rd century B. C. Qi and Yan issued round coins with a square hole (fangkong yuanqian ), a shape that became popular four bronze (copper) coins until the end of the empire in 1911.周、赵、卫、韩 四国是最早使用圆形圆孔钱的。公元前3世纪,齐国和燕国开始使用圆形方孔钱,这种圆形方孔钱后来相当流行,一直使用到1911年,中国的封建王朝结束。In the southern state of Chu a different kind of coin was in use, a round type with a protruding “ant nose”(Yibiqian).南方的楚国主要是用形似贝壳的蚁鼻钱。Larger sums were paid or stored as gold bars (jinding) or lt;4gold cakes^ (jinbing), especially in the state of Chu. Merchants like Bai Gui and Zi Gong could accumulate exorbitant wealth from the interstate trade with different goods.大量的金锭和金饼被用于流通或贮存,特别是楚国的商人白圭和子贡更是通过诸侯国间的货物交易积聚了万贯家财。The most prosperous cities were seen at Linzi (modern Zibo in Shandong), capital of Qi and home for about seventy thousand households, and Ying (modern Jiangling in Hubei), capital of Chu.当时最为繁华的城市是楚国的都城郢(今湖北江陵)和齐国的都城临淄(今山东临淄),其居民多达70000户。Many new towns were founded like Handan (modern Handan in Hebei), capital of Zhao.同时许多新城市也出现了,如赵国的都城邯郸。 /201511/407446

Remember learning about cell structure in high school biology? You probably had to memorize that the mitochondria is the part that powers the cell, kind of like a battery. Turns out, an enzyme created in the mitochondria — mitochondrial complex II — just might do the same for you skin, according to a study published this week in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.还记得在高中生物中学习的细胞结构吗?你可能还记得线粒体是细胞供能系统的一部分,像块电池一样。根据本周皮肤学研究杂志出版的一项研究表明,线粒体内部的一种线粒体复合酶二号也和线粒体一样,对皮肤供能。As skin ages, it naturally begins to wrinkle and lose elasticity. And the cause is twofold, according to Mark Birch-Machin, lead researcher and professor of molecular dermatology at the Newcastle University Institute of Cellular Medicine in England.随着皮肤老化,它开始自然地起皱纹和失去弹性。而英国纽思卡尔大学细胞医学学院的首席研究员和教授Mark Birch-Machin表示,这其中有双重原因。Reason number one: Free radicals increase as you age, and those free radicals will degrade the skin, making it less elastic. And this part, he explains, is easily countered by slathering on antioxidant-rich products, and eating fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants. The second component, Birch-Machin says, is a decline in bioenergy, or renewable energy produced by your body. And that can be a bit more tricky to overcome.第一个原因:在你年龄渐长之际,自由基的数目也会增加。而这些自由基会使皮肤状态变差,减少它的弹性。他解释说,而这一部分的衰老可以由厚涂富含抗氧化剂的产品和食用抗氧化物含量高的蔬果抵消。Birch-Machin说,第二个原因是生物能的减退(生物能是身体自己制造的再生能源)。而要克这道难关更加困难。As you get older, your skin#39;s bioenergy declines, making it look duller and causing fine lines and sagging. In his team#39;s research, Birch-Machin found that supporting and restoring energy to the mitochondrial complex II enzyme could increase bioenergy, keeping skin wrinkle-free.当你渐渐不再年轻,你皮肤的生物能也在下降,导致皮肤看上去愈发黯淡,并且生出细纹和下垂。在他团队的研究中,Birch-Machin发现负责供给和恢复能量的线粒体复合酶二号能够增加生物能,使皮肤不会发皱。Now skincare companies are jumping at the chance to create new, mitochondrial complex II-enhancing creams and potions, the researcher notes, which means you#39;ll likely soon be able to find them in pharmacies. And the scientists, meanwhile, are looking into ways to achieve enzyme-boosting results through diet. ;We#39;ve done previous work before that shows that the diet can benefit skin,; Birch-Machin says, noting the new findings prove promising for keeping other organs healthy, ;so it#39;s potentially possible to do this from the inside out.;研究人员表示,如今护肤公司们正急切地抓住机会来开发新的线粒体复合强化酶面霜和药剂。这表明你很有可能很快就在药房里看见这些产品。同时,这些科学家正在寻找通过饮食来催化酶的方法。Birch-Machin说:;我们之前做的一些工作表明,合理饮食对皮肤有益。;这些新发现能够让其他器官也保持健康。;所以很有可能可以由外而内抵抗衰老。; /201603/429528

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