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郴州泌尿科哪里好郴州在线医生咨询郴州妇幼保健院治疗阳痿早泄 Science and Technology科技Rare earths and climate change稀土与气候变化In a hole?陷入了危机?Demand for some rare-earth elements could rapidly outstrip supply某些稀土元素可能很快会供不应求MANY plans for reducing the worlds emissions of carbon dioxide-at least, those plans formulated by environmentalists who are not of the hair-shirt, back-to-the-caves persuasion-involve peppering the landscape with wind turbines and replacing petrol-guzzling vehicles with electric ones charged up using energy gathered from renewable resources. The hope is that the level of CO2 in the atmosphere can thus be kept below what is widely agreed to be the upper limit for a tolerable level of global warming, 450 parts per million.许多全球性减排二氧化碳的计划是要建造星罗棋布的风力涡轮发电机,并以再生能源发电为电动汽车充电,摈弃狂吞汽油的汽车。哦,至少那些并不坚决主张严酷节俭、回返穴居社会 [注] 的环保主义者是这样计划的。人们希望,这样一来,大气中CO2的含量可以保持在百万分之450以下。人们普遍认为,这就可以让全球气候变暖的程度处在可容忍的上限以下。Wind turbines and electric vehicles, however, both rely on dysprosium and neodymium to make the magnets that are essential to their generators and motors. These two elements, part of a group called the rare-earth metals, have unusual configurations of electrons orbiting their nuclei, and thus unusually powerful magnetic properties. Finding substitutes would be hard. Motors or generators whose magnets were made of other materials would be heavier, less efficient or both.但风力涡轮发电机与电动汽车都要靠镝与钕来制造对电机和发动机极为关键的磁铁。在这两种同属稀土金属的元素中,围绕原子核旋转的电子排列方式很不寻常,因此具有异乎寻常的强大磁性能。很难找到它们的替代品。用其它材料制造磁铁的发动机或电机或者更为沉重,或者效率不高,或二者兼有。At the moment, that is not too much of a problem. Though a lot of the supply of rare earths comes from China, whose government has recently been restricting exports (a restriction that was the subject of a challenge lodged with the World Trade Organisation by America, Europe and Japan on March 13th), other known sources, such as the now-abandoned Mountain Pass mine in California, pictured above, could be brought into play reasonably quickly. At current levels of demand any problem caused by the geographical concentration of supply would thus be an irritating blip rather than an existential crisis.这一问题当前还不甚突出。尽管大量稀土来自中国,而该国政府最近一直在限制出口(美国、欧洲与日本已就此于3月13日向世贸组织(World Trade Organisation)提起诉讼),但其它已知矿源,比如现在已放弃开采的加州帕斯山(Mountain Pass mine in California)(上图),可以在较短时间内重新开采供货。按照当前的需求水平,供应来源集中于某地的会引起的任何问题都只不过会让人烦恼一时,不会造成生存危机。But what if the environmentalists dream came true? Could demand for dysprosium and neodymium then be met? That was the question Randolph Kirchain, Elisa Alonso and Frank Field, three materials scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, asked themselves recently. Their answer, just published in Environmental Science and Technology, is that if wind turbines and electric vehicles are going to fulfil the role environmental planners have assigned them in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, using current technologies would require an increase in the supply of neodymium and dysprosium of more than 700% and 2,600% respectively during the next 25 years. At the moment, the supply of these metals is increasing by 6% a year. To match the three researchers projections it would actually have to increase by 8% a year for neodymium and 14% for dysprosium.但如果环保主义者的美梦成真了呢?到那时,镝与钕的需求也会得到满足吗?这就是麻省理工学院的三位材料科学家伦道夫?科尔臣、伊利莎?阿隆索和弗兰克?菲尔德(Randolph Kirchain, Elisa Alonso and Frank Field)最近向自己提出的问题。他们在最近发表在《环境科学与技术》(Environmental Science and Technology)的文章中给出的回答是:如果要让风动涡轮发电机和电动汽车以现有科技完成环境规划者赋予它们的二氧化碳减排使命,在未来25年间,钕与镝的供给量将需要分别增加600%和2500% 以上。这两种金属现在的年供给量增长为6%;要达到三位研究人员预计的水平,镝与钕的年供给量实际增长必须分别为14%与8%。 That will be hard, particularly for dysprosium. Incremental improvements to motors and generators might be expected to bring demand down a bit. But barring a breakthrough in magnet technology (the discovery of a room-temperature superconductor, for example) the three researchers figures suggest that the worlds geologists would do well to start scouring the planet for rare-earth ores now. If they do not, the mood of the Chinese government may be the least of the headaches faced by magnet manufacturers.这会是很困难的,对镝来说尤其如此。发动机和发电机的逐步改进可能会让需求有所下降。但这三位研究人员的数字说明,除非电磁技术发生突破(例如发现某种室温超导体),全世界的地质工作者还是现在就开始掘地三尺,全球搜寻稀土矿为妙。如果他们不这样做,在令磁铁制造商头疼的事情中,中国政府的心情可能是最微不足道的了。201207/192458Mr Clean清白先生Ian King wants to transform the way the worlds third-biggest defence company does business伊安·金想转变世界第三大军工公司的经营之道ON JUNE 27th last year, just six weeks after Mike Turner, the chief executive of BAE Systems, had been detained on arrival in America in connection with corruption allegations, Ian King was announced as his successor. Mr Turner and another of the firms directors were not held for long, and many felt that the Department of Justice, which seized their laptops and BlackBerrys, had acted heavy-handedly. But the incident, which stemmed from a long-running investigation into claims that BAE had lubricated the amp;pound;43 billion ( billion) “al-Yamamah” arms deal with Saudi Arabia with bribes to government officials and members of the royal family, was yet another embarrassment for the worlds third-biggest defence company. 去年6月27日,就在英国BAE系统公司的首席执行官Mike Turner抵达美国即因牵涉腐败案件而被拘留之后六周,伊安·金被宣布接替他的职务。Turner先生和另一位公司主管并没有被扣押太久,很多人认为,收缴了他们的手提电脑和黑莓手机的司法部出手过重。但这一事件使这个世界第三大军工公司又一次陷入尴尬。这一事件源于一个长期调查,旨在明BAE向沙特阿拉伯的政府官员和皇室成员行贿,以促成430亿英镑(合700亿美元)的“al-Yamamah”军火交易。In some ways Mr Kings appointment was a surprise. Dick Olver, BAEs chairman since 2004, has been on a mission to restore the reputation of a firm that has all too often found itself at the centre of corruption allegations. In 2007 he took the extraordinary step of asking a former Lord Chief Justice, Lord Woolf, to lead an independent inquiry into BAEs ethical standards. After he pushed Mr Turner into early retirement, it was assumed that Mr Olver would make a clean break with the past by choosing an outsider to carry forward his crusade. Indeed, several Americans were considered for the job (America is the British firms biggest market). So when Mr King, the only internal candidate, got the nod, some suspected that the British government had used its “golden share” to veto the appointment of a foreigner.从某些方面来说,金先生的任命出人意料。2004年上任的BAE主席Dick Olver一直都肩负着重塑公司声誉的使命,这个公司已过多地陷入腐败案件的中心。2007年他走出了不同寻常的一步,他请来前最高法院首席法官Woolf阁下展开对BAE道德标准的独立调查。在他迫使Turner先生提前退休之后,人们认为Olver先生将与过去做出果断的决裂,选择一位局外人来推动他的改革运动。的确,曾有几个美国人被考虑过担任这项职务(美国是这家英国公司最大的市场)。所以,当金先生,这个唯一的国内候选人,获得首肯的时候,有些人怀疑英国政府投出了它的“金票”来否决一个外国人的任命。BAE executives deny that happened, but the government must have been relieved that the countrys dominant defence contractor would be run by someone it knew well. Mr King began his career in 1976 as a trainee accountant with Marconi, a defence-electronics subsidiary of Arnold Weinstocks GEC, Britains biggest industrial conglomerate. In the late 1990s a wave of consolidation hit the defence industry on both sides of the Atlantic and Marconi Electronic Systems, as it had become, was taken over by British Aerospace to form BAE Systems.BAE的执行官们否定了这种说法,但英国政府一定为这个国家最重要的军工商由一个它了解的人来管理而感到放心。金先生于1976年在Marconi担任会计实习生,从而开始了他的事业,这是Arnold Weinstock建立的英国最大的工业联合企业GEC的军防电子子公司。1990年代后期,合并浪潮席卷了大西洋两岸的军工业,Marconi成了Marconi电子系统公司,并被英国航空航天公司兼并,成为BAE系统公司。John Weston, the abrasive boss of British Aerospace asked Mr King, who had been finance director at Marconi for several years, to handle strategy for the merged firm. A number of operational roles followed, which ultimately left Mr King running most of the business outside America. Mr Kings background at Marconi may well have counted in his favour when it came to appointing a new chief executive. British Aerospace, which did the first al-Yamamah deal in 1985, had a buccaneering culture very different from that of GEC, where, says Mr King, Lord Weinstock always demanded the highest standards of commercial behaviour.粗暴的英国航空航天公司老板John Weston要求担任Marconi财务主管多年的金先生来把握这个合并公司的战略。后续的几个运营管理角色接踵而来,最终让金先生掌握了除美国以外的几乎所有业务。到了任命新的首席执行官的时候,金先生在Marconi公司工作的背景也为他加分。英国航空航天公司在1985年做成第一单al-Yamamah生意,它海盗般的文化和GEC截然不同,金先生说,在GEC,Weinstock阁下一直都以最高的商业行为标准来要求他们。After nearly a decade of steadily growing profits and armed with a strong balance-sheet, BAE is in many ways in good shape. But the next few years are likely to be more testing. With the exception of Saudi Arabia, where the firm has recently completed another multi-year deal to sell and maintain fighter aircraft, BAEs major customers are pulling in their horns. Spiralling government debt in America and Britain means that “wars of choice” are no longer affordable and the search is on for cuts in big procurement programmes. The review recently undertaken by Robert Gates, Americas defence secretary, resulted in the cancellation of part of the Future Combat Systems programme, a big army-modernisation project for which BAE is a prominent contractor. In Britain, cuts to an aly overstretched defence budget are only being postponed until after next years election.拥有强有力的资产负债表,且保持近十年的利润稳步增长,从很多方面来说,BAE都状况良好。但接下来的几年可能会经受更多考验。除了沙特阿拉伯——BAE刚又跟它签署了一项多年的销售和维护战斗机的协议——之外,BAE的其他客户都在缩减开。螺旋上升的债务使得美国和英国无力承担“选择之战”,对于大额采购项目缩减方案的搜索行动也开始启动。美国国防部长Roberts Gates最近展开的调查,令美国取消了部分未来战斗系统项目,这个庞大的军队现代化项目最主要的承包商就是BAE。在英国,对已经过于铺张的国防预算的缩减计划被推迟到明年大选之后。Mr King appears unfazed. BAE is less dependent on big “platform” sales than it used to be and now sees itself as a provider of “through-life support” for complex systems, much like the aero-engine industry. He also believes that BAEs strength in army equipment, particularly armoured and mine-resistant vehicles, stands it in good stead for what he calls the “current fight” in places such as Afghanistan. It is all business as usual for an experienced operator like Mr King. What is not, however, is the companys effort to transform the way in which it does business. BAE admits to no wrongdoing over al-Yamamah, which was primarily a deal between governments, it says, nor over any of the other deals that are still under scrutiny (in 2007, the British government said BAE contracts in six countries were being investigated by the Serious Fraud Office). But BAE has promised not just to implement the 23 recommendations made by Lord Woolf in his report, but also to “embed” his ideas in its culture. To that end, Mr King has embarked on a huge training programme to inform all 97,000 BAE employees worldwide of their ethical responsibilities.金先生似乎并不担心。BAE已不再像过去那样依赖大的“平台”销售,它现在更将自己看作是复杂系统的“终身持”提供商,这很像航空引擎业。他还相信,BAE在军队设备方面的强项,尤其是装甲车和防地雷车,让它在发生在像阿富汗这样地方的他称之为“当前战斗”之中,处于有利地位。对于金先生这样一个经验丰富的管理者来说,这只是日常生意。而不寻常的,是这个公司转变经营方式的努力。BAE不承认在al-Yamamah中有任何过错,他说,这主要是政府之间的生意,它在其他任何仍在接受调查的案件中也没有过错(2007年英国政府指出BAE在六个国家的合同正在接受严重欺诈办公室的调查)。但是,BAE承诺,它不仅将实施Woolf阁下在报告中提出的23项建议,而且还将把他的理念融入公司文化。为了实现这个目的,金先生已经着手开展一个庞大的培训项目,向全球9万7千名BAE员工宣讲他们的道德责任。1-800-MORAL-FIBRE道德品质免费热线Mr King says he wants staff to be able to raise ethical issues in the same way they would an engineering problem—something to be discussed openly. Earlier this year BAE sent a 64-page code of conduct to each of its workers, with detailed advice on how to behave in every situation. With the booklet came a small card, to be carried at all times, with a list of toll-free numbers for the firms “ethics helpline”.金先生表示,他希望员工能够提出道德问题,就像他们提出工程技术问题一样,是可以公开讨论的事情。今年早些时候,BAE向它的每个工人发放了一本64页的行为准则,列明了各种情况下应该如何应对的详细建议。这个册子里还夹着一张便于随时携带的小卡片, 上面列有免费电话号码,可以打给公司的“道德帮助热线”。It is easy to scoff at the idea of an arms firm preaching ethics, particularly one that is still making money from deals concluded before its squeaky-clean rules were put in place. Nor is an industry veteran, such as Mr King, an obvious new broom. But he has all the fervour of a true convert. “You have to believe in it,” he says. “Its a journey you personally have to make.” Helpfully, a significant part of his own remuneration is, he says, linked to making BAE “a benchmark” for responsible behaviour in the industry. Shareholders, he claims, are supportive. They have accepted that it is better to lose business in some parts of the world than to expose BAE to reputational risk. As for the Saudis, Mr King says that they too now want to do things differently. And if a rival firm were to offer to do business with them in the “traditional” way? “Then the Saudis will have to make their choice,” he says.要嘲笑一个军火商去鼓吹道德是很容易的,尤其是这个公司在实施它一尘不染的规定之前达成的那些交易还在挣钱的时候。一个身经百战的业内老兵如金先生者也不是一个新官。但他拥有进行真正转变的所有热情。“你必须相信它,”他说,“它是一条你必须亲自踏上的旅途。”有帮助的是,他说,把BAE塑造成业内负责任行为的“标杆”这一目标将与他自己酬劳的很大一部分相关联。他表示,股东们很持。他们情愿接受在世界某地失去业务,也不愿BAE承受声誉风险。至于沙特人,金先生说,他们现在也想改变行事方法。那么如果一个竞争对手公司提出和他们用“传统”的方式做生意呢?“那么沙特人就必须做出他们的选择,” 他说。 /201209/197851郴州永兴县男科专家

郴州人民医院看男科好吗郴州安仁县男性专科 In many countries, white wines such as Chardonnay are the preferred choice when people have seafood or poultry dishes. And they certainly dont stain your teeth, tongue or lips like red wines do. However findings published in the journal of Nutrition Research, may come as a revelation to most drinkers. Its claimed that enjoying a glass of white wine on a frequent basis can damage your teeth, because of the high acidity levels in white wine it can erode the tooth enamel more quickly than red wine.在许多国家,人们食用海鲜或禽类菜肴时常与白葡萄酒(比如霞多丽)搭配。当然,白葡萄酒不会像红酒一样把你的牙齿、舌头或嘴唇染红。然而,一项发表在《营养学期刊》上的研究结果也许会对广大饮酒爱好者起到启示作用。这项研究声称频繁饮用白葡萄酒对牙齿有伤害,因为相比红葡萄酒而言,白葡萄酒的高酸度会更快地腐蚀牙釉质。The team of researchers examined the effects on teeth of eight red and eight white wines from different parts of the world. In the lab, adult teeth soaked in white wine for a day suffered a loss of both calcium and a mineral called phosphorus to depths of up to 60 micrometers in the enamel surface, which the researchers say is significant.研究小组检查了16种来自世界各地的葡萄酒对牙齿的影响,其中红白葡萄酒各八种。在实验中将成年人的牙齿浸泡在白酒里,一天之后发现从牙釉质表面到以下60微米的地方,钙和磷物质均有损坏,研究人员称这很严重。And the matter isnt helped by brushing your teeth soon after drinking, as excessive brushing action can lead to further loss of enamel. Also the effects can be made worse by how frequently you sip your wine.即使在饮酒之后立即刷牙也于事无补,因为过度刷牙会进一步导致牙釉质受损。频繁地小口啜酒也会使情况更加恶化。But the study wasnt all bad news for wine lovers. By having cheese or creamy desserts, the acid attacks can be reduced. “The tradition of enjoying different cheeses for dessert, or in combination with drinking wine, might have a beneficial effect on preventing dental erosion since cheeses contain calcium in a high concentration,; the scientists added.但对饮酒爱好者来说,研究结果并不完全是坏消息。饮酒时与奶酪和奶油甜点搭配,可以减轻酸性的攻击。科学家们补充道:“按照传统,人们会享用不同奶酪甜点、或与葡萄酒搭配食用,这可能对预防蛀牙具有益影响,因为奶酪里含有高浓度的钙。”Professor Damien Walmsley, of the British Dental Association recommended a 30 minute break between drinking and brushing and to drink wine with food. “Consuming wine alongside food, rather than on its own, means the saliva you produce as you chew helps to neutralise its acidity and limits its erosive potential.”英国牙医师公会的达民·华姆斯利教授建议喝酒之后,至少过三十分钟再刷牙,并且最好在用餐时喝酒。“酒应与食物一起消化,而不是单独消化,因为咀嚼时分泌的唾液可以中和酒的酸度,降低腐蚀的风险。”原文译文属!201301/223618郴州哪家男子医院比较好

郴州东方医院治疗阳痿多少钱 -Its wake-up call, saying, not only for the next two years but for the next five and ten years. It is going to be historic. It is gonna immediately occur. It is gonna be desirable. So lets do something about it, OK? Lets get those measures, those structural measures in place so that we can improve outlook so that we can have a better story and we have a better narrative, better positions that are going forward.-可以说,世界经济已经敲起了警钟,不仅是为对于未来两年,而是为未来5年或10年,这将成为历史性事件。这将很快发生,这将不可避免。因此,现在将讨论这个话题。让我们采取那些适宜的结构性措施,这样可能改善状况,从而有一个更好的结果,于是我们将来将处于更有利的位置。-They finally talked the decisions on Greece. Decisions that you knew they were always going to have to take, which was the cut, the debt burden. The only question is what took them so long.-他们最终谈到了关于希腊的决议。你知道他们将不得不实施的决定,即缩减债务负担。唯一的问题在于到底是什么让他们花费这么长时间来做决定?-Well, this has not been for the last few months. Weve been pushing for these for the last three years, Then you eventually atop for the first time last year that was not enough. And of course now because of law roads overall, you are having a Greece struggle so. But whats more important is you took integrate of you. You are asking efforts from the Greeks. Yes, but you’re giving a little bit more time in order to get their goals. And you’re giving lower interest rates, longer periods to repay the public debts and you have decided to go in by bank the private debt at a bigger discount. It’s time it’s uninteresting but. You’ve also giving them back the profits from the Central Bank. -噢,可不只仅仅是过去几个月,我们在过去的三年都在推行,因此说截止去年才首度开始是不准确的。因为一体化道路,目前是苦苦挣扎的希腊。更重要的是,你要采取整合策略。你要希腊做出更多努力,延长他们达到预期目标的时间,同时,给予希腊低利率,更长的公债偿还期,还决定由插手低价购回私人债务。这是一段乏味、漫长的时间,但是你还是要从央行向他们返还利润。-Im just posing you that because if they are dealing with Greece, its time to deal with Spain.-我这样问你,是因为他们目前正在解决希腊危机,现在是时候处理西班牙问题了。-No way. Absolutely nothing to do. Heres two different things. Spain has done its homework. Spain has much half the debt of Greece, OK, in terms of GDP. And Spain has five years of surpluses in their budgets before the crisis struck. So what Spain needs is unequivocal message from the Europeans and IMF to the market saying. If Spain decided to request support, because theyve done their homework, because they are performing, because they are viable economy, then they will be supported. And that request will be enough to detonate the ECB to go and buy their bonds in secondary market if need to be.-目前没有采取办法,没有任何补救措施。这是两种完全不同的情况。西班牙已做足自己的功课。西班牙的债务数量是希腊的一半,但是对于GDP来说,在危机爆发前,西班牙连续5年预算盈余。因此, 西班牙需要只是欧盟和IMF的明确信息:如果他们已经做足功课,因为执行效果不佳,因为经济的可变性,西班牙若决定要求持,那么将会给予他们持。他们的要求足以促使欧洲央行在需要的情况下,在二手市场购买他们的债券。 201212/214751郴州东方泌尿专科医院治疗前列腺疾病多少钱郴州包皮过长的费用要多少钱

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