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大沥狮山镇西樵镇治疗前列腺炎哪家医院最好佛山前列腺尿急大沥狮山镇西樵镇治疗阳痿早泄 5.Phones And Tablets5.电话和平板Of course, trouble sleeping isn#39;t helped by a smartphone buzzing through the night because you forgot to set it to silent—and that#39;s only the tip of the iceberg. Even if you seem to get enough sleep during the night, using bright electronics like phones, tablets, and e-ers right before bed can really mess with your body. Harvard Medical School conducted a study where people would a real book before bed for five days and then use an iPad for the next five days. Reading on an iPad made it substantially more difficult for people to fall asleep. Once they did nod off, they experienced less REM sleep and were thus less alert in the morning.当然,睡眠问题会因为你忘了给智能手机设置静音而在晚上嗡嗡作响变得更糟——而那只是冰山一角。就算你似乎在晚上得到了充分的睡眠,在睡前使用电话、平板或电子阅读器也真的会伤害你的身体。哈佛医学院做了一项研究,让人们连续五天在睡前阅读一本真正的书,接着换成连续5天睡前使用iPad。在iPad上阅读后人们更难以入睡。一旦他们真的睡着后,他们会经历更少的快速眼动睡眠期并因此在早晨更没精神。On a cellular level, participants who used an iPad before bed were found to have delayed the release of the sleep hormone melatonin by around 90 minutes. The specific kind of light given off by electronic devices confuses our internal clock by affecting the circadian pacemakers in our brains. According to PEW Research, 61 percent of Americans aged 18–29 reported keeping their cell phones next to the bed in order not to miss updates, calls, or texts during the night. But if you really do need a tech bump before bed, put down the smartphone and opt for something like the original Kindle, which doesn#39;t emit light.在细胞水平上来说,睡前使用了iPad的参加者被发现褪黑激素的释放被推迟了大约90分钟。电子设备发出的特有的光通过影响我们大脑里的生理起搏器而打乱了我们的生物钟。根据皮尤研究中心,61%的18-29岁的美国人被报告称将电话放在床边,以防错过晚上的更新、电话或短信。如果你确实在睡前需要什么学习工具,放下手机,选择像kindle之类的原始的东西吧,它不会发出光线。4.Suppressing Anger4.抑制怒气Being unwilling to engage in a constructive argument about something that#39;s bothering you can wreak havoc on your health. Holding in anger increases stress, which in turn shortens lifespans. There is such a thing as healthy anger and it can be an effective coping mechanism. Anger is also an adaptive trait that can encourage risk-taking. On the flip-side, chronic anger expressed in explosive bursts is linked to high blood pressure, a weak immune system, strokes, cancer, heart disease, and digestive issues. A study by the University of Michigan found that couples who suppressed their anger had a higher mortality rate than couples who argued their problems out.不愿意参加一场和你的烦心事有关的建设性争论会对你的健康造成严重危害。憋住怒气会增长压力,结果是缩短寿命。有种东西叫“有益健康的愤怒”,它是个有效的应对机制。生气也是一种会鼓励冒险行为的适应特性。另一方面,以爆炸性方式爆发来出的慢性愤怒与高血压、脆弱的免疫系统、中风、癌症、心脏病和消化问题有联系。密歇根大学的一项研究发现抑制住怒气的夫妇比针对问题吵架的夫妇有更高的死亡率。Learning to manage anger and conflict effectively is vital to health, but many people don#39;t understand how to deal with their anger, repressing it and effectively punishing themselves for their feelings. Psychologists say that it is not uncommon for people to experience low self-esteem because they deal with anger ineffectively—which can in turn have disastrous consequences for relationships, work performance, and mental health.学习有效控制住怒气与冲突对健康至关重要,但许多人不知道怎么应对自己的怒火,他们抑制住它并且实际上在用自己的感受来惩罚自己。心理学家说人们感受到自信心低的情况并不少见,因为他们用无效的方法应对自己的怒气——结果是在人际关系、工作业绩与心理健康上一团糟。3.Antibiotics Can Kill Helpful Bacteria3.抗生素会杀死有用的细菌The development of antibiotics in the 20th century was one of the most important breakthroughs in human history—but it came with some unintended side effects. Humans are far more dependent on bacteria than science realized until quite recently (there are 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells in your body) and antibiotics tend to kill off the good bacteria with the bad. For example, bacteria in the human gut helps to digest food and boosts the immune system. That#39;s why a course of antibiotics often results in diarrhea and other stomach problems.抗生素的发明是20世纪人类历史上最重要的突破之一——但它带来了一些意料之外的副作用。科学界最近才意识到人类有多依赖细菌(你的身体里的细菌细胞比人体细胞多10倍),而抗生素倾向于将好的与坏的一并杀死。举例来说,人类肠道里的细菌帮助人消化食物并增强免疫系统。那就是为什么一疗程的抗生素会引起腹泻和其它胃部问题的原因。Researchers from New York University have also found that giving antibiotics to newborn mice made them more likely to develop metabolic disorders later in life. At that age, their guts were still being colonized by bacteria and the antibiotics disrupted this process—with long-term implications. The study suggests that human babies who receive antibiotics might be more prone to obesity and diabetes once they grow up. Of course, in most cases, the potential consequences of using antibiotics are very mild compared to the alternatives. Used judiciously, antibiotics are still one of medicine#39;s most important tools.纽约大学的研究者们也发现给新生的小鼠注射抗生素会让他们更可能在今后生活中代谢紊乱。在那个年龄,它们的肠道还正被细菌占据中,而抗生素破坏了这一过程——这带来了长期的影响。这项研究表明接受了抗生素的人类婴儿长大后更可能患肥胖症和糖尿病。当然,大多数案例里,使用抗生素所致的潜在后果比起其他方面来说是十分温和的。明智而谨慎地使用的话,抗生素仍然是医治时最重要的工具之一。2.Noise Pollution2.噪声污染Obviously, a sudden loud noise could damage your hearing, but what about the constant hum of noise that surrounds us every day? Spinning hard drives, passing cars, sirens in the distance, whirling fans—it is almost impossible to escape noise pollution in the modern world. Every year, around 30 million Americans are exposed to dangerous levels of noise as part of their job. But even people who don#39;t experience occupational noise hazards suffer from secondhand noise pollution. Hearing loss can lead to communication issues, discrimination, poor performance at work and school, loneliness, and depression.很显然,一个突然发出的巨大声响会损害你的听力,那么每天包围我们的持续不断的噪音呢?旋转的硬盘,过往的车辆,远处的警报器,回旋的风扇——在现代社会里几乎不可能逃离噪音污染。每年,大概有3千万美国人在他们的部分工作中暴露在危险水平的噪音之下。但即使没有受职业噪音危害的人也遭遇了二手噪音污染。听觉丧失会导致沟通障碍、歧视、工作和学业困难、孤独和抑郁。Low-frequency sounds, such as vibrations caused by passing traffic, can have a direct effect on health. People living in areas with elevated noise levels have correspondingly high levels of stress hormones, and the World Health Organization has warned that noise pollution is a risk factor in developing heart disease. Noise pollution can also cause high blood pressure, sleeplessness, breathing problems, cardiovascular issues, increased heart rates, and even brain changes. Studies have also shown that high levels of noise can badly impact young children, having a significant negative effect on cognitive performance.低频的声音,例如由道路交通引起的振动,能对健康有直接的影响。住在噪音水平高的地区的人们相应的应激激素水平也会升高,而世界卫生组织已经警告过噪音污染是心脏病的一个危险诱因。噪音污染也能引起高血压、失眠、呼吸困难、心血管问题、提高心率、甚至引起大脑变化。研究也表明高水平的噪音会对幼儿造成很坏的冲击,在认知表现上有重大的负面影响。1.Retiring1.退休The dream for many Americans is to work hard enough to be able to retire and relax, but health-wise it isn#39;t that simple. Working a job you hate can damage your mental and physical health, which is pretty worrying when you consider that only 13 percent of Americans report enjoying their work. Even if you#39;re one of the lucky 13 percent, working too hard can still seriously damage your health. The average work week is now around 47 hours and a Gallup poll showed that 21 percent of full-time workers put in 50–59 hours a week, while 18 percent worked more than 60 hours a week.许多美国人都梦想着努力工作以在退休后过上舒适的生活,但在健康方面可没那么简单。做一份你痛恨的工作会对你的心理和生理健康都带来伤害,当考虑到报告称只有13%的美国人喜欢自己的工作时这一点尤其令人担心。即使你是这幸运的13%中的一员,过度工作还是会伤害你的身体。现今每周平均工作时间为47小时左右,而一项盖洛普民意调查发现21%的全职工作者一周有50~59小时在工作,而18%的人一周有超过60小时的工作时间。And while working hard for retirement might sound like a good tradeoff, retirement itself can cause a decline in mental and physical health. Compared to similarly aged people who are working, retired people are up to 40 percent more likely to suffer from clinical depression. They are also 60 percent more likely to have a diagnosed physical ailment, although it#39;s not clear if that#39;s because people with medical issues tend to retire earlier anyway. The lesson is that moderation is important and the healthiest choices involve a fair balance between rest and work.而当为了退休而努力工作听起来像一笔不错的交易时,退休本身就能引起心理和生理健康的衰退。与年纪相仿的在工作的人相比,退休的人有高达40%的可能患上临床忧郁症。他们也有60%的可能患上物理诊断疾病,然而并不清楚这是否是因为有医疗问题的人倾向于更早退休。这告诉我们适度是很重要的,并且健康的选择中包含了工作与休息的平衡。翻译:bansu 来源:前十网 /201510/405964Thanksgiving and the rest of the holiday season are famously ruinous to waistlines. But a new study suggests that we might be able to fend off weight gain and even drop a few pounds in the coming weeks by taking note of every time we put teeth to food or drink.常言道,逢年过节胖三圈。但一项新研究表明,如果我们在吃喝的时候能注意数数吃了多少口,或许在接下来的几周内体重非但不会增加,甚至还能减轻几磅。It’s scientifically established and also logical that to lose weight, we must consume fewer calories than our bodies burn on any given day. By doing so, we create an internal energy deficit. Deprived of sufficient fuel from that day’s meals, our bodies turn to stored energy, primarily in the form of body fat, to fuel themselves, and we lose weight.不论从科学还是逻辑上讲,要减肥,就得确保一天里的热量摄入低于消耗,人为地造成体内能源短缺。由于无法从当天的膳食中获取充足的燃料,我们的身体就会转而动用体内的储备能源(主要是脂肪)来给身体加油,于是我们就瘦了。But to produce this desirable situation, we must commit to counting calories, and “people hate counting calories,” said Josh West, an associate professor of health sciences at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, who led the new study, recently published in Advances in Obesity, Weight Management amp; Control.但是,要制造出这种理想情况,必须得对热量的卡路里数斤斤计较,而“人人都讨厌计算卡路里”,这项新研究的负责人,杨百翰大学(Brigham Young University,B.Y.U,位于美国犹他州普若佛市)的健康科学副教授乔希·韦斯特(Josh West)说道。该研究于近期发表在《肥胖、体重管理与控制进展》杂志(Advances in Obesity, Weight Management amp; Control)上。Counting calories is, after all, complicated and time-consuming, he pointed out, requiring that you know how many calories are contained in the foods you eat, how much of each food you are eating, and how many calories your body uses each day.韦斯特士指出,毕竟计算卡路里数既复杂又耗时,你需要知道你吃下的每种食物中包含了多少卡路里,这些食物你各吃了多少,以及你的身体每天又消耗了多少卡路里。“Most people don’t know those things and don’t really want to learn those things and are daunted by how complex it all seems,” Dr. West said.“大多数人都不了解这些东西,也不会真心想学,”韦斯特士说,“它们看起来太复杂了,让人望而却步。”So recently he and his colleagues began to consider alternative ways to spur weight loss, he said, a quest that led them to bite counting.因此,最近他和同事们开始考虑有什么替代的方法可以刺激减肥,他说,然后他们想到了咀嚼计数。Bite counting for weight loss is not a new idea. Many weight-loss programs suggest that people chew slowly and thoughtfully, paying close attention to the sensory experience of eating.利用咀嚼计数减肥并非什么新鲜主意。许多减肥方案都建议人们细嚼慢咽,尤其注意进食时的感官体验。But Dr. West wanted to do more than have people be mindful of their chewing. He wondered whether, by promoting bite counting, he might help people, almost unknowingly, to reduce their calorie intake.但韦斯特士想做的不止是教人专心咀嚼。他想知道,咀嚼计数能否帮助人们在不知不觉中减少热量摄入。To find out, he and his colleagues recruited 61 overweight or obese men and women from the campus community. They ranged in age from 18 to 65, and they all told the researchers they wanted to weigh less.于是,他和同事们共计从校区内招募了61名超重或肥胖的男性和女性。他们的年龄从18到65岁不等,且都告诉研究人员说他们希望能减轻体重。The researchers weighed and measured the volunteers and then provided them with a 10-minute introduction to bite counting.研究人员对志愿者们进行了称重和测量,并用了10分钟的时间为他们介绍咀嚼计数。As its name implies, bite counting involves numerically tracking how many times you chew or swallow. Every food or liquid should be counted, except water.咀嚼计数,顾名思义就是指数数你咀嚼或吞咽了多少口。除水以外的所有食物或液体都应计算在内。The researchers asked their volunteers to write down bite counts after each meal or snack and, at the end of the day, send the total to the researchers. They also asked them otherwise not to change their eating habits – at least at first.研究人员要求入组的志愿者们在每次用餐或吃点心之后都记下咀嚼次数,并在一天结束时将总数发送给研究人员;还要求他们不要改变自己的其他饮食习惯——至少一开始不要改变。After a week, the researchers calculated each volunteer’s average daily bite counts. By this time, 16 volunteers had quit. Several said that bite counting had been too difficult, and others cited medical or other personal issues.一周后,研究人员计算出了每个志愿者的日平均咀嚼次数。此时陆续有16名志愿者退出了研究。其中几人说咀嚼次数太难数了,其他人则称是因为医疗或其他个人问题而退出。The researched then asked half of the remaining group to reduce their daily bite counts by 20 percent, and the others to drop bite counts by 30 percent. The researchers counseled both groups to concentrate on eating foods that would fill them, since they would be eating less, but did not provide other nutritional advice.研究人员把剩余的志愿者们分成两半,一组将每天的咀嚼次数减少20%(即达到原来的80%就不再进食了),另一组减少30%。研究人员建议两组志愿者吃东西的时候要专心,因为他们的食量可能会有所减少,但并没有提供其他营养建议。Each day for the next month, the volunteers reported their bite counts, and each week, they reported to the laboratory for a weigh-in.在接下来的一个月里,志愿者们每天报告自己的咀嚼计数,并每周到实验室称量体重。At the end of the month, the participants in both groups had lost an average of about 3.5 pounds.当月的月底,两组参与者都平均减重约3.5磅(约合1.6千克)。Interestingly, the weight loss was about the same whether someone had cut his or her daily bites by 20 or 30 percent. That result suggests, Dr. West said, that those in the group asked to chew 30 percent less had turned to higher calorie foods to satiate themselves.有趣的是,无论参与者将每天的咀嚼次数减少了20%还是30%,他们的体重减轻量都差不多。韦斯特士说,这表明在被要求少吃30%的那组参与者中,有人选择了热量更高的食物,以满足口腹之欲。He said the volunteers in both groups did report that bite counting had seemed “do-able and tolerable,” although, he added, anyone who had found the process particularly onerous likely quit during week one.两组志愿者都报告“咀嚼计数”似乎“不难办到且可以忍受”,不过,他又补充说,嫌麻烦的人很可能早在第一周就退出了。The study also was small and short-term, and doesn’t show whether people willingly would continue to count bites over a longer period and sustain their weight loss.而且,该研究规模较小,为期较短,也并没显示出人们是否乐意将咀嚼计数长期继续下去,维持减肥效果。But the findings do suggest, Dr. West said, that bite counting is worth trying if someone wishes to lose weight and is intimidated by calorie counting.但是,韦斯特士说,研究结果表明,如果有人想要减肥又不愿意去纠结卡路里数,咀嚼计数值得一试。He has practiced bite counting for three years, he said, without regaining the pounds he lost at the start of this routine and without curtailing his enjoyment of food.他还说自己亲身实践这一做法已有三年,不但一开始时减掉的体重没有反弹,而且也没有影响他享受美食。To deploy bite counting during the holidays, however, you must first determine how many bites you take during a normal day. Ideally, start now. Note every time you chew or swallow. Then during the upcoming feasts, maintain or reduce that number, with a reduction of 20 percent seeming the most efficacious for weight loss, Dr. West said.然而,要想在假日期间实施咀嚼计数,你必须先确定你平时每天吃多少口。最好现在就开始,每次咀嚼或吞咽都数一数。在即将到来的节假日里,维持那个咀嚼次数或者将其减少20%,韦斯特士说,这似乎是最有效的减肥方法。Bite counting does not, of course, free you from paying attention to basic nutrition, he added. Concentrate on eating primarily fruits, vegetables and lean meat.当然,教你计算咀嚼次数并不代表你可以不注重基本的营养,他补充道。要注意多吃水果、蔬菜和瘦肉。“Fewer bites won’t help you lose weight,” he said, “if every one of those bites is dessert.”“如果你只吃甜点,少吃多少口都是无法帮你减肥的。” /201512/414876顺德区大良医院地址

佛山包茎手术佛山那个医院可以割包皮 Qing Dynasty清朝Rise of the Manchu满族的崛起In the early 1600s Aixinjueluo Nurhaci formed the nomadic Manchu State known as Manchuo (满洲).17世纪早期,爱新觉罗努尔哈赤建立了以游牧为生的满洲国。He united four of the Manchu Flagged Factions that and later collected power of all eight of the flagged factions.他统一了满洲四旗并掌控了八旗的所有权力。In the later periods of his reign, he moved the capital to Shenyang.在他执政的末期,他将都城迁到了沈阳。When Lindan Khan, the last grand-Khan of the Mongols, died on his way to Tibet in 1634, his son Ejei surrendered to the Manchu and gave the great seal of the Yuan Emperor to Huangtaiji.当蒙古族最后的大汗林丹汗在1634年前往西藏的路途中去世后,他的儿子额哲臣于满洲国并将元朝的国玺交给了皇太极。As a result, Huangtaiji established the new dynasty of Qing as the successor of the Yuan Dynasty in 1636.因此,皇太极于1636年建立了清朝,也就是元朝的后一任帝国。After years of civil unrest, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by one Li Zicheng (李自成).经历了多年的国内动乱,明朝的都城北京被李自成带领的起义军洗劫一空。The Ming Dynasty officially came to an end when the last Ming Emperor committed suicide by hanging himself on a tree on the hill overlooking the Forbidden City.当明朝的最后一任皇帝在遥望着紫禁城的山头上吊自杀时,明朝正式结束了。After taking Beijing in April 1644, Li Zhicheng led an army of 60000 strong to confront Wu Sangui (吴三桂), the general commanding Ming’s 100000 strong garrison stationed at ShanhaiPass(山海关).1644年4月,李自成占领北京后带领着60000强军与吴三桂对垒,吴三桂统领着明朝100000强大的驻军驻扎在山海关。ShanhaiPass is the pivotal northeastern pass of the Great Wall of China located fiffy miles northeast of Beijing and for years its defenses were what kept the Manchus at bay and out of China.山海关是长城东北部关键的关口,它位于北京东北方50英里的地方,多年以来,它将满族人阻挡在中国之外,使他们陷入困境。Wu caught between two enemies decided to cast his lots with the Manchus and made an alliance with Dorgon, regent to the then six-year old Shunzhi, son of Huangtaiji who had passed away the year before.吴三桂被夹在两个敌人中间,最终决定将赌注下在清朝身上并与6岁顺治帝的摄政王多尔衮结成联盟,顺治帝是皇太极的儿子,皇太极于前一年驾崩。Together the two armies met Li Zhicheng’s rebel forces in battle on May 27, 1644.1644年5月27日,吴三桂与清军联军和李自成的起义军开战。Even though the rebel forces were routed, Wu’ s army was so weakened by the day’s fighting that he had no choice but to join the Manchus forces as they captured Beijing on June 6 and began their conquest of the whole of China.尽管李自成的军队已溃不成军,吴三桂的军队也因连日征战过于虚弱,无奈只得在满洲国的军队攻占了北京征了中国之后加入他们的军队。The process took another seventeen years of battling Ming loyalists, pretenders and rebels.满洲军队又花了17年与反清复明者、伪政权以及起义军作战。The last Ming pretender Prince Gui sort refuge in Burma but was turned over to a Qing expeditionary force headed by Wu Sangui who had him brought back to Yunnan province and executed in early 1662.明朝伪政权的最后一任皇帝桂王在缅甸避难,后来又被移交给了吴三桂带领的清朝远征军,吴三桂把他带回云南省,并在1622年早期将其杀害。 /201512/412268顺德新世纪医院男科挂号

佛山新世纪医院滤尿外科好吗Northern and Southern Dynasties南北朝General概况Southern and Northern Dynasties(420—589) followed Jin Dynasty and preceded Sui Dynasty in China and was an age of civil wars and disunity.南北朝(420——589)上乘晋朝下启宋朝,是一个充满内战与分裂割据的年代。During this period the process of sinicization accelerated among the non-Chinese arrivals in the north and among the aboriginal tribesmen in the south.在这个时代期间,北方的外族移民和南部的原住民内部的汉化进程加快。This process was also accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism (introduced into China in the first century A. D.) in both north and south China.过程中还伴随着南北方佛教的兴起(于公元1世纪传入中国)。Despite the political disunity of the times, there were notable technological advances.尽管这个时代中国并没有取得政治上的统一,却出现了一些著名的科技进步。The invention of gunpowder (at that time for use only in fireworks) and the wheelbarrow is believed to date from the sixth or seventh century.火药(在那个时候仅用于烟火)和独轮手推车在16到17世纪间被发明。Advances in medicine, astronomy, and cartography are also noted by historians.史学家们还发现了在药品、天文学和制图学上的进步。 /201510/398410 Agriculture in the Eastern Han was more advanced than that of the Western Han, for iron farm tools and ox plough were popular, which was not only used in the central plain, but in the remote areas, like Gansu and Guangdong, as well.东汉时期的农业生产较西汉更有发展,这和铁农具、耕牛更加广泛的使用有密切关系。不仅中原地区在使用牛耕,远至甘肃、广东等边远地区也已使用牛耕。In most cases were two oxen drawing a plough, while occasionally one ox was used.大多数是二牛抬杠,也有少数用一牛的。In the earlier years of the Eastern Han, the government had attached importance to constructing water conservancy, in the reign of Emperor Ming, the noted specialist Wang Jing and Wang Wu organized the huge project to repair and harness the Yellow River and the Bianqu canal, in which hundreds of thousands of people were recruited.东汉初年,官府已注意水利的兴修。明帝时,命民间水利专家王景和将作谒者王吴主持修治黄河和汴渠,并为这项工程而征调数十万人。As a result, major breaks in the dykes or changes in the river course did not occur through the following 800 years.黄河经过这次整治后, 大约有800多年的时间,未再发生决堤改道之事。Many magistrates also paid attention to the local water conservancy.有些郡守县令也重视本地区的水利兴修。A lot of canals and ditches were rebuilt or dug, which contributed to the agricultural irrigation and water transport.沟渠的修复或开凿,对于农田灌溉和交通运输都起了很大的作用。Water power had been applied to the production activities in the early Eastern Han.东汉初年,各地已在利用水力进行生产。Besides the hydraulic water lifting devices, winnowers and water-powered mills were introduced, which raised efficiency by a wide margin.除先进的汲水工具外,风车、水磨坊亦投人使用,极大地提高了生产效率。Landlord manors came into being gradually in this period.东汉时期地主庄园逐渐形成。A landlord possessing a large-scale field was a manor landlord, while the manor county estate.拥有大范围田地的地主可称为庄园地主,庄园就是田庄。Manors included arable fields, mountain forests as well as rivers and pools, which were all in the possession of landlord.庄园中不仅有耕地,其中的山林川泽也为地主所霸占。Most of peasants on the manors were renders ,who engaged in agriculture or sideline activities under the instruction of landlords or his agents.在地主庄园内,绝大多数农民是地主的佃户。佃农们在地主或其手下的指挥下,从事农业或副业生产。The tenant farmers did not pay taxes to the state but only pay rental money to the landowner.佃户不必向国家交税,但要向地主交租。The farmsteads comprised not only the huge buildings for the living of the noble family but also farm buildings, mills and factories, which were surrounded by a wall that made the farmstead a small fortress.庄园中不仅有供贵族家庭居住的高大建筑,还有农舍,磨坊和作坊。庄园主筑起围墙将整个庄园围起来,使得庄园有如城堡一般。A few large estate owners also possessed a private army to defend their possessions.少数的庄园主还拥有武装,用以保护自己的私产。Generally speaking, a manor was a self-supporting economic unit in landlord economy.Salt-making, iron-smelting, bronze-casting, Lacquer wares and cloth-weaving were principle handicraft trades, most of which were privately running and superior in technology to that of the Western Han.东汉时期的重要手工业有煮盐、冶铁、铸铜、漆器、纺织等,以私营为主,生产技术都较西汉进步。The iron-smelting industry was kept freely.冶铁业自由经营。The state-owned one was engaged in the making of weapons, chariot and horse gears as well as other implements of production and living.国家或官府经营的冶铁业以制造国家或官府需要的兵器、车马具及其他生产、生活用具为主。To meet the demands of market, the private industry focused on the production of commodities, including farm tools, manual instruments and living appliances.民营的冶铁业以生产商品为主,以供市场上的需要。产品以农具、手工工具及生活用具为最多。Pottery objects found their way into the daily life of the common people as they were in the families of privileged aristocrats.陶器不再是达官贵族家中的稀罕之物,也开始进人寻常百姓之家。A great progress was made in the technique of smelting, like the invention of steel making at a low temperature.东汉的冶炼技术有很大的进步,发明了低温炼钢法。With the sp of this technology, steel was more popularized.这一技术的发明和推广, 使钢的使用更加普遍。Thus, iron and steel replaced bronze in making principal weapons like swords.于是,铁兵器如刀、剑等最后完全代替了铜兵器。With an enlarged planting of mulberry and hemp, sericulture, silk and flax fabrics weaving industries grew rapidly, and the weaving technology was also improved.东汉的桑、麻种植的范围比西汉扩大,养蚕和丝织业、麻织业都有很大的发展,纺织技术也有进步。Modern Shandong and Sichuan Provinces were the major producing area of silk.主要丝织品产地在今山东、四川等省。Business was booming, for the growth of agriculture and handicraft industry brought about more products in the Eastern Han Dynasty.东汉时期,由于农业和手工业的发展,商品较多,因之商业也在发展。In 40, Liu Xiu decreed to recast 5-zhu -coin with the abolition of the old currency, which got rid of the disordered currency and promoted the economic development.建武十六年(公元40年),刘秀下令重铸五铢钱,废除了一切旧币,消除了货币混乱的局 面,促进了商业的发展。Luoyang became the commercial center of the whole country. Other cities, such as Yangzhou (present Yangzhou City in Jiangsu Province), Jingzhou (present Shashi City in Hubei Province) ,and Yizhou (present Chengdu City in Sichuan Province) all witnessed prosperities in their handicraft industry and commerce. The urban population increased argely.洛阳成了全国商业中心,南方的扬州(今江苏扬州一带)、荆州(今湖北沙市一带)、益州(今四川成都一带)的手工业商业也都很兴旺,城市人口大量增加。During the reign of Emperor Zhang and Emperor He, silk from China was becoming familiar to people as far away as the Roman Empire. In return, China received variety of exotic goods.章帝、和帝统治时期,中国的丝绸已为罗马人所熟知,而大量的异域商品也不断涌人。The increasing transaction sped up the development of traffic.陆路与海外贸易的发展,促进了交通事业的发展。The thousand-mile-long plank road leading to economically important region of Ba Shu (modern Sichuan) was repaired many times, and many official roads were built, along which there were post stations to secure the safety of businessmen and travelers, provide accommodation and facilitate traffic.自关中通向巴蜀的千里栈道多次得到整治,又修筑多条官道。这些找道、大道的沿途,多筑有亭障、邮驿,以保卫商旅,安顿食宿,便利交通。 /201512/413043顺德医院在哪个区佛山妇幼保健医院男科医生

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