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2019年09月21日 23:14:47
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Debating辩论This house believes本方认为Some schools are teaching children how to think for themselves有些学校正在教孩子们如何独立思考Sep 14th 2013 | SHANGHAI |From the print editionIN CHINESE classrooms, students rarely question teachers—part of a broader deference to authority in Chinese society. So the growth of Western-style debating in schools and universities, in which participants sometimes argue against prevailing Communist Party policies, can seem incongruous. But interest in such debates is growing.在中国的课堂上,学生们很少质疑教师,这是中国社会尊重权利更广泛的体现。因此,学校和大学里西式辩论的增多,有时会反对共产党出台的政策,显得很不协调。但是对于此种辩论的兴趣越来越高。Many schools, especially in the big cities, have teams that debate, in English and Chinese. Educators say the aim is to develop some of the skills they know are lacking: critical thinking, spontaneity and public speaking. Many students also believe taking part in debating as an extra-curricular activity can help with applications to universities in the West.许多学校,尤其是大城市里,有中英文辩论团队。教育工作者说目的在于开发他们已知的中国学生所缺乏的技能,批判性思维,自发性和公开演讲能力。许多学生也相信在课余时间参与辩论活动对他们申请西方大学有帮助。Chinese universities have debating teams but there are more political sensitivities at higher levels of education so the debates tend to be less wide-ranging, says Gavin Newton-Tanzer, an American who founded the National High School Debate League of China. Last year more than 200 schools took part in the group’s tournaments. Top debaters from the organisation have been invited to compete at Harvard and Stanford universities in America.创办中国高中辩论联盟的美国人Gavin Newton-Tanzer表示,中国大学有辩论队,但是在更高等的教育中有更多的政治敏感性,因此辩论范围稍小。去年超过200所学校参与了辩论联盟的比赛。顶级辩手已经被邀请去参加美国哈佛和斯坦福大学的比赛。The debates are chosen carefully. “We are culturally sensitive,” says Mr Newton-Tanzer euphemistically. A motion deemed too political might be rejected, and the students themselves have strong views. At a tournament in the central city of Wuhan, students refused to debate whether China should forgive Japan for its wartime atrocities, insisting that they could never forgive Japan.论题是仔细挑选的。Newton-Tanzer委婉的说,我们对文化很敏感。政治性太强的辩题可能被拒绝,学生们观点也很明确。在中部城市武汉的一次比赛中,学生们拒绝辩论中国是否应该原谅日本战时的暴行,坚持表示他们永远不会原谅日本。Gao Wenbing is a member of a school debating team in the coastal city of Qingdao. He says he knows there are certain “red lines” he can never cross, such as mentioning some sensitive issues. “But basically,” he says in flawless English, “I feel quite free.”高文冰是海滨城市青岛的一名学校辩论队成员。他说他知道有他无法逾越的红线,比如说提及一些敏感话题。但是基本上我觉得很自由,他用流利的英语说到。At one competition at Peking University, in which Mr Gao took part in May, students debated whether China’s rise is good for America or not. The debate went back and forth, with one participant, speaking for America, concluding: “we are the lighthouse of…liberty and democracy. Why do you think this ideology can’t prevail over the Chinese version of communist ideology?”小高五月在北京大学参加的一次比赛中,学生们辩论中国的崛起对美国是利还是弊?辩论来来回回,有一个参与者为美国说话,总结到,我们是自由和民主的灯塔。为什么你们觉得这个思想无法战胜共产主义意识形态的中国版呢?201309/257837惠城治疗睾丸炎哪家医院最好惠州人民医院有没有做包皮切割手术Finance and economics财经商业Civil servants and austerity公务员与财政紧缩The times they arent a-changin不曾变革的时代Civil-service payrolls have held up surprisingly well一直以来,公务员的薪酬都出奇地好AFTER the party, the hangover.盛宴之后,宿醉来临。When debt-fuelled economic growth came to a crashing halt in the financial crisis of 2008, governments across much of the rich world sought to cut spending.在2008年的经济危机中,由债务推动的经济增长模式彻底崩溃,随后许多富裕经济体政府则力图缩减开。One obvious target was the states payroll.而其中一个明显的着手点便是公务员薪酬出。Leviathans minions are certainly costly.利维坦仆从们的耗费当然不菲。In the European Union public-sector wages and salaries take up about 10% of GDP.在欧盟国家当中,公共部门的薪水出大约占国民总收入的10%。The Initiative for Policy Dialogue, based at Columbia University, reckons that since 2010 almost 100 governments have set out plans to cut their payrolls.据哥伦比亚大学的政策对话倡议组织估计,自2010年以来,已有接近100个政府着手削减他们的公务员薪酬开。Some cuts may be savage.一些裁员计划或许能用残忍来形容。The headcount in many British government departments may fall by as much as 40% by 2019 from current levels, says a recent report from the Institute for Fiscal Studies, a think-tank.近期一篇来自英国政府智囊团财政研究院的报告表明,英国许多政府部门将于在2019年之前裁减目前总数40%的员工。Relative to its 2012 level Italy plans to jettison 20% of public-administration managers by 2016.而意大利政府则计划于2016年之前裁减相当于2012年总量20%的公务员。However, aggregated data on public-sector headcounts offer some surprises.然而,公共部门员工的统计数据却有些出人意料。Whereas Britains public-sector workforce has aly contracted by 8% since 2007, in Germany and France the number has increased.自2007年起英国政府公务员人数已缩减了8%,与此相反的是德国与法国方面却在增加。More intriguing still is what has happened to compensation costs—the amount governments pay bureaucrats in wages and salaries, but not pensions.更耐人寻味的是官僚薪酬待遇变化情况,而不是津贴方面的问题。Of the 30 countries in a Eurostat database, half are spending more after inflation on public employees than they were in 2007, even in cases where headcount has fallen.据欧盟统计局的资料显示,有半数国家公务员薪酬开与2007年的水平相比有所提升。The euro zone as a whole spends only 1.7% less on government wages than it did six years ago.其中部分国家甚至已经着手削减了其公务员规模。以欧元区国家作为整体来统计,其公务员薪酬开仅比6年前减少了1.7%。Belgium spends 10% more, Luxembourg 24%.与此同时,比利时政府反而增加了10%,卢森堡增加了24%。And since 2007, 21 countries, including Cyprus, Italy and France, have not cut the proportion of GDP that they devote to public servants wages.自2007年以来,有21个国家仍未削减公务员薪酬,这其中包括塞浦路斯、意大利和法国。Finding explanations for dearer public payslips is tricky.要为日益高昂的政府工资单找理由,不是一件容易的事情。One reason might be wage drift—the automatic increases in salaries that can occur as civil servants are granted annual promotions in seniority, simply for having been in their jobs for another year.其中一个原因或许可以总结为工资浮动—这一机制确保了公务员薪酬随着职位的逐年提升而增加,而职位的提升往往并不需要什么理由,仅仅在自己的岗位上又待了一年的公务员便可获得提升。In 2012, for example, more than 600,000 staff from Britains National Health Service received rises averaging 3.5%, despite a pay freeze.例如,除了一次薪金冻结之外,英国国家医疗卫生务系统超过60万名员工,在2012年得到了平均3.5%的薪金涨幅。In 2010 Barack Obama also decided to freeze government pay, yet the median salary for federal employees climbed by over ,000 during the following two years.在2010年,美国总统奥巴马虽然同样地实施了薪金冻结,然而在其后的两年内,公务员薪酬中位数则突破了3000美元的大关。Wage drift could outweigh the effect of reduced headcount, which is likely to be concentrated in the lower echelons of the civil service.工资浮动机制的影响,可能远比裁减人员的作用更大,而这是由于政府的裁员计划主要面向低层公务员。Another possibility, suggests Alberto Alesina of Harvard University, is that governments simply failed to implement planned spending cuts.哈佛大学的艾尔波托?艾莱斯那表示还有另一种可能:简单地说,那就是政府没有去执行早已制定好的开削减计划。At the end of January Greeces highest administrative court ruled that pay reductions for the armed forces and emergency services were unconstitutional: the government now faces a heavy bill in back pay.在一月底,希腊最高行政法院宣布,政府对军队以及应急务部门的经费削减行为是违宪的:这意味着政府现在要面对的是堆积如山的欠薪账单。Portugals constitutional court also opposed the scrapping of Christmas bonuses for civil servants on similar grounds.同样地,葡萄牙宪法法庭也反对其政府取消相关部门公务员圣诞节奖金的计划。These data are worrisome.以上种种数据令人十分不安。The implicit trade-off of austerity was pain now, prosperity later.如今交由政府当局权衡的利弊是自己能否忍受开削减的痛苦,以换取将来的经济繁荣。Yet as growth in advanced economies picks up, many civil services seem no more streamlined than before.但随着发达国家经济增长复苏,许多公共务将愈发臃肿不堪。 /201403/279136惠州中医院泌尿科咨询

河源东源县妇幼保健人民男科中医院割包皮多少钱惠东县阳痿早泄价格惠州治疗生殖感染哪家医院比较好Science and technology科学技术Meteorology气象学Counting raindrops雨量计算How to use mobile-phone networks for weather forecasting怎样利用移动手机网络预报天气FORECASTING the weather requires huge quantities of data.天气预报需要大量的数据信息。Many of these data are collected by high-tech means such as satellites and radar, and then crunched by some of the worlds fastest supercomputers into predictions that are far more accurate than they were 20 years ago.大部分数据是通过高科技产品,比如卫星和雷达收集起来,然后,由世界上运算最快的超级计算机来处理这些数据后进行预测,现在的预报已经比二十年前准确多了。But low-tech tools are important too—especially old-fashioned rain gauges, which are nothing more than tubes with funnels fixed to places such as rooftops.但是,技术层次较低的工具也同样重要—特别是老式的雨量计,其实只是把带有漏斗的量管固定在类似屋顶的位置。Each technique has its upsides and downsides.每种技术都有优缺点。Radar and satellites can cover swathes of land, yet they lack detail.雷达和卫星可以覆盖很多地带,但是缺乏细节性。Gauges are much more accurate, but the price of that accuracy is spotty coverage.相比较而言,雨量计更加准确,但是这种覆盖面准确度的价值却参差不齐。Now, though, Aart Overeem of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and his colleagues reckon they have come up with another way to keep an eye on the rain.但是,现在荷兰皇家气象研究所的阿尔特-欧维姆和他的同事们认为,他们已经提出了另一种可以监测雨量的方式。It offers, they believe, both broad coverage and fine detail.他们认为,这种方式既能够实现大范围的覆盖,又可以提供具体的细节。Best of all, it relies on something that is aly almost omnipresent—the mobile-phone network.最重要的是,这种方式所依赖的现在已经无所不在—那就是移动手机网络。Their scheme starts from the observation that rain can make it harder for certain sorts of electromagnetic radiation to travel through the atmosphere.他们提出的新方式起始于一种观测—当某些特定的电磁辐射穿越大气层时,下雨会增加穿透的难度。Measure this impedance and you can measure how rainy it is.衡量这种阻力,你就可以测试出雨量的多少。The researchers do not measure the strength of mobile-phone signals themselves.研究者并没有测量移动手机信号本身的强度。Instead, they piggyback on something that mobile networks aly do, and measure the strength of the microwave links that base stations use to talk to each other.相反,他们增加了移动网络已有的某些物质,然后测量用于双方通话基站的微波链接强度。The idea itself is not new, and there have been trials in recent years.这种方式本身并没什么新意,最近几年一直都在进行类似的试验。But, as they report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr Overeem and his colleagues have successfully applied the technique to an entire country.但是,就像他们向美国国家院报告中提到的,欧维姆士和他的同事已经在一个国家成功地实现了它的全国性应用。Using data from around 2,400 links between base-stations belonging to T-Mobile, one of the Netherlands three mobile-phone operators, they were able to generate a rain map of the whole kingdom every 15 minutes.通过分析荷兰三大移动运营商之一:T-Mobile所属的2,400个基站产生的数据,他们能够每十五分钟就制作出一个全国的雨量分布图。Like all the best science, the idea is both technically elegant and practically useful.就像所有最好的科学一样,这种方式在技术上很简练,而且很有实用性。Dr Overeem points out that simply coming up with another way to measure rainfall is handy by itself, since it allows better cross-checking of existing methods.欧维姆士指出,简单地用另一种方法测量雨量本身就很方便,因为这种方法可以对现有的方式进行再次核查。There are other advantages, too.这种方法也有其它方面的优势。Coverage is one.覆盖面就是其一。Even in rich countries with well-financed weather forecasters, there are likely to be far more mobile-phone base stations than rain gauges.甚至在天气预报配备方面资金充足的发达国家,移动手机基站的数量也可能远远超过雨量计的数量。That is truer still in poor countries, where rain gauges are scarce and radar often nonexistent, but mobile phones common.而这种现象在贫困国家则更加明显,在那里雨量计很稀少,往往根本没有。The GSM Association, a mobile-phone trade group, estimates that 90% of the worlds population lives within range of a base station.但是拥有移动手机却很普遍。全球移动通信系统协会—一家移动手机贸易组织—估计,全世界有90%的人口居住在基站所覆盖的范围内。Another boon is that network operators tend to keep a close eye on their microwave links.另一个福音就是网络运营商们往往都会密切关注他们的微波链接。Although the researchers were able to obtain data only every 15 minutes, some firms sample their networks once a minute.尽管研究者只需要十五分钟就能收集到数据,但是有些运营商能在一分钟内对他们的网络进行抽查。That means rainfall could, in principle, be measured almost in real time, something that neither gauges nor radar nor satellites can manage.从原理上来讲,那就是说雨量可以进行实时测量,而这点是雨量计,雷达或者卫星都无法做到的。The technology is not perfect: snow and hail are harder than rain for microwaves to spot, for example.这种技术也不是完美无缺的:比如,相比较下雨,要想在下雪和冰雹时探测到微波的可能性更小。And there are other caveats.而且还有些其它注意事项。Mobile networks are densest in urban areas, which are also the places most likely to have meteorological equipment aly.城镇地区是移动网络最密集的,而那里也是最有可能已经配备了气象设备的地区。Even in the rich, urbanised Netherlands, coverage outside cities was noticeably patchier.甚至在富有的,城镇化的荷兰,城市外移动网络的覆盖也是零星点点。But that might eventually prove to be a boon, for if the technology becomes widesp then weather forecasters might contribute to the cost of installing base stations in coverage blackspots.但是,这可能最终也会转为有利条件,因为,如果这种技术能够被广泛应用的话,那时天气预报可能会对在无覆盖地区安装基站有所帮助。something for which the 10% of humanity not yet within range of a mobile-phone mast might be thankful.而那些至今还未生活在移动电话覆盖区域中的10%的人可能会对此心存感激的。 /201309/258155河源连平县妇幼保健人民男科中医院男性专科

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