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崇义县人民医院前列腺炎哪家医院最好赣州市蓉江区妇幼保健院不孕不育医院预约挂号If you look down from the pulpit, there is a little brass ball,如果你从讲道坛向下看,会看到一个黄铜球。thats the font in which Vincent was christened in 1853.这个黄铜球正是梵高在1853年出生时洗礼用的洗礼盘。A noisy little boy with red hair-Vincent William van Gogh-the first of six children, all christened in this church, all by their own father.红发吵闹的小男孩文森特?威廉?梵高是在教堂由父亲为他亲自洗礼的。We are actually in Catholic Brabant a tiny bit of Holland that pokes into Belgium.我们现在实际上是在“布拉班特教堂”。 这里是荷兰的一个小地方,但却延伸进了比利时。Its Belgium really.而现在实际上就是在比利时。So the van Goghs was surrounded by Catholics.因此梵高家周围的人都是天主教徒。The Protestant community here is tiny.他们所在的新教区很小,It kept them close, they were outcast together, pioneers.这使得教区的居民相互之间隔得很近,他们是最早被一起抛弃的开拓者们。That house behind me-the?bright、yellow one.我身后那栋亮黄色的房子,Thats the house Vincent grew up in, its not the real one, of course.就是梵高长大的地方,当然它并不是真的。Its on the recreated out of a half million dahlias.人们现在正在用50万大丽菊来对它进行重新建造,They like growing flowers here in Zundert.津德尔特这里的人们非常喜欢种花。But he did actually lived just a little bit up the road in that house there.不过沿着公路向前走一点儿,就会看到梵高曾经真正居住过的房子,就在那边。Thats been rebuilt too.这也是被重新改造过的。But it stands exactly the place that Vincent spent the first 16 years of his life.梵高在16岁之前一直住在这里。Thats rather touching to be here.这里会让人感触很深。And something I didnt know-I didnt realize till I got here.在来到这里之后,我才明白了一些事情。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/187748江西省赣州市医院男科专家 Some methods of preserving food are easy to understand. For example, its easy to see that freezing your food, or packing it in salt, would make it inhospitable to the microbes which would otherwise cause it to spoil. You might wonder, however, about jams, jellies, and preserves, all of which are protected from spoiling by a high concentration of sugar. Sugar is one of the most basic foods for all life--bacteria and mold like to eat it just as much as we do.有些保存食物的方法很容易让人理解。例如将食物冷藏,或者用盐水腌渍,这两种常见的方法都能改变食物内部环境,使其不利于微生物生存,否则就会导致食物腐烂。你也许会觉得奇怪,然而果酱、果胶还有蜜饯均采用高浓度的糖来保存。糖分是维持基本生命活动最重要的因素之一,因此细菌和真菌也像我们一样需要糖。On todays Moment of Science well learn how too much of a good thing can be deadly, at least for microorganisms. Sugar works not by poisoning the food-spoiling microbes, but by causing them to literally die of thirst. This is because sugar attracts water very well; the more sugar there is in any solution, the more water it tries to draw from its surroundings.在今日的科学时刻,我们会学习好的东西太多会如何造成致命的伤害,至少对微生物来说如此。糖可以使食物免于微生物的破坏,但是它还能引发口渴致死,毫不夸张! 这是因为糖吸水性极好,溶液中糖分浓度越高,从周围环境中吸收的水分越多。This is bad news for any microbe that happens to be inside a jar of jam. High concentrations of sugar will suck the microbes vital water right through its cell wall, causing it to dehydrate. This process is called ;osmosis,; and it can be deadly for bacteria and mold.这对寄生在罐装的果酱里的微生物来说可不是好消息。高浓度的糖会将细菌体内赖以生存的水分从细胞壁吸引出来,造成细菌脱水。这个过程就叫做“渗透作用”,它对细菌和霉菌有致命的威胁。In order for osmosis to work, the sugar concentration has to be quite high. If any water falls onto the surface of your jam, the sugar concentration at that spot might become low enough to allow mold to grow. Thats why its important to take the back up measure of refrigerating all jams, jellies, and preserves once youve opened them. Like an oasis in the desert, condensed water dripping from the jars lid can give a dehydrating microbe the relief it needs.为了让渗透作用发生,糖的浓度必须达到很高。如果你的果酱上落了一滴水,这一处糖的浓度可能就降低了,低到允许霉菌滋生的程度。这就是为何果酱、果冻和蜜饯一旦开封,就一定要放到冰箱冷藏的原因。如同沙漠中的绿洲一般,瓶盖上凝聚的水滴也能给微生物喘息的机会。原文译文属!201209/202229赣县人民医院预约

赣州包皮环切Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息,欢迎收看今天的Sci-tech Today。We are talking about a breakthrough in the battle against heart disease. Harvard and MIT scientists have developed a new technology that requires no surgery: its called Nanoburrs. And Dr. Brindha Muniappan joins us live from the Museum of Science in Boston and tells us about it. Thanks for being here.今天我们要聊的是心脏病抢救的新突破。哈佛和麻省理工的科学家们研发出一种不用开刀手术的治疗方法:Nanoburrs。老子波士顿科学馆的Brindha Muniappan士将向我们做详细介绍。Thanks Beth. Its nice to be here.谢谢Beth,很高兴来到这里。So explain to us a little bit about what a Nanoburr is?那么,请向我们解释一下Nanoburr是什么?Sure. So a nanoburr is a nanoparticle. So very very tiny particle we cant see with our naked eyes on such a small scale. But these particles have been designed to sort of be like burrs you might find out in nature. So if you are out on a walk for example, maybe youve aly encountered some of these burrs stuck to your socks or maybe to your pet. These nanoparticles were designed just like these burrs to stick but to a specific place in our body to damaged heart vessels.好的。nanoburr其实是纳米粒子,一种非常非常小用肉眼无法看到的微小分子。这些分子就像大自然中的细小毛一样。举个例子,如果你出门散步,也许就会有一些细小毛刺粘到你的袜子或是你的宠物身上。纳米粒子就像是这种毛刺,但是粘到了人类身体一个特殊的部位,引发心血管的病变。And how are they able to do that?这些纳米粒子是如何做到的呢?Well, the team of researchers that you mentioned earlier designed the nanoparticles to have a very special protein coding the outside of them. And that protein really just wants to bind to another protein thats only exposed when heart vessels are damaged.之前你提到过的研究小组的成员将这种纳米颗粒设计为含有一种特殊编码的蛋白质。而这种蛋白质只依附于另一种只存在心血管损伤处的蛋白质。And so, I have got a little demonstration here. If you imagine that this tube is like a blood vessel, the clear area is a normal tissue and the white area is a site of damage. We would inject the nanoburr and it will bind only to the site of damage. You can do that with multiple nanoburrs. There they stick only to the site of damage. And thats the high technology here.我在这里能展示出来。如果你想象这根管道是一根血管,透明部分是正常组织,白色部分是受损组织。我们注射的纳米粒子会附在受损的白色区域。我们放入多个纳米粒子,都会附在白色区域,这就是它的高科技所在之处。So once the nanoburr attaches to that tissue, how does it help improve the condition of the heart?一旦纳米粒子附着在受损区域,它是如何修复心血管的呢?Well, the inside of the nanoburr contains medicine. So once the burr is bond to the site of damage, it can very slowly release medicine to treat the site of damage. And thats another improvement of this particular technology: the ability to very slowly release the medicine over 12-14 days.在Nanoburr中包含有药物。一旦毛刺附在受伤的血管部位,它就能慢慢释放出来药物来治疗伤处。这项技术的另一个特殊之处就是释放速度可以很缓慢,慢至12到14天。So how is this improvement over conventional treatments for blocked or damaged arteries?那么,这一发明如何能取代传统方法治疗血栓和血管损伤?Well, in one way, as I mentioned, there is a slow release of drug. But also, these nanoburrs dont have to be surgically implanted, they can just be injected. And there is a little bit more of an advantage, there is a possibility of using this technology for treating other diseases, including cancer or severe inflammation.我刚才提到了一点,就是药物的缓慢释放。还有一点就是Nanoburrs不用外科手术植入,直接注射即可。还有另一个优点,那就是这项技术还能应用于治疗其他疾病,包括癌症或者严重的炎症。So a team of scientists at Harvard and MIT developed the technology. Where is it and its availability to patients?一只由哈佛和麻省理工科学家组成的小组研发这项技术。而,这项技术对换着来说可行吗?Well, this technology unfortunately is still in very early stages. Scientists have done some initial tests in rats in their laboratory.They are hoping to do a bit more tests in animals. Maybe within about five years, they might be able to do some small clinical tests in human patients.不幸的是,这项技术还处于起步阶段。科学家们已经在实验室用老鼠做一些基础实验。他们希望能在动物身上做更多的实验。也许在五年内,他们可以再人类患者身上做一些临床试验。So it sounds like the idea of this isnt just to treat a heart that has aly undergone something like a heart attack but more to prevent it from happening?因此,这项技术不仅是治疗得过心脏病的患者,更是预防心脏明的技术?Well, it certainly might be used before a heart attack, but it could also be used in conjunction with current treatments like stents that are currently used to keep open a previously blocked artery. So its possible that there are multiple uses for this technology.这项技术能用于预防心脏病,但也能同心脏架,一种使血栓过的心血管保持通畅的治疗方式相结合。Alright, Dr. Brindha Muniappan, thanks so much for joining us. Thank you, Beth.好的,谢谢你,Brindha Muniappan士。谢谢,Beth。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/183438上犹人民医院电话预约 于都妇幼保健院治疗尿道炎多少钱

赣州治疗龟头炎的专家Business商业Dual-class share structures双重股份结构The cost of control控制的成本The trouble with non-voting shares没有表决权的股票带来的麻烦SHAREHOLDERS in News Corporation have only themselves to blame.新闻集团的股东只能怪他们自己。When they entrusted Rupert Murdoch with their money, they knew he would not let them tell him what to do with it.当初他们信任鲁伯特·默多克,把自己的钱交给他时并没指望默多克会按照他们的意愿投资。The Murdoch family owns about 12% of the company but controls almost 40% of the votes, through a special class of shares which have superior voting rights.默多克家族拥有公司12%的股份,不过通过一个特设的控股阶层—该阶层有优先投票权—掌控着40%的选票。Such dual-class share structures are quite common, especially at media firms.如此这般的双重阶级”股份结构很普遍,尤其是在多媒体行业。They can shield managers from stockmarket short-termism and hostile takeovers. But they cause problems, too.这样经理人能避开短期券交易和不怀好意的接管,但问题也是有的。Two studies of American firms by Paul Gompers, Joy Ishii and Andrew Metrick, covering the years from 1994 to 2002, found that dual-class firms perform worse than comparable firms where all shares confer equal voting rights.1994年到2002年,从Paul Gompers,Joy Ishii 和 Andrew Metrick主持的两个关于美国公司的研究发现双重结构的公司比那些实行平等投票的企业,表现要糟糕。Dual-class firms are fonder of debt than equity, to prevent the dilution of controlling stakes.双重阶级公司比起普通股更热衷债权,以防止所控股被削弱。Yet surprisingly, their shares do not trade at a big discount on stockmarkets.但让人惊讶的是,他们的股票并未在券市场受到贱价售卖的待遇。A study by Chad Zutter and Scott Smart found that dual-class initial public offerings achieved only slightly lower price-earnings and price-sales ratios than comparable single-class IPOs.由Chad Zutter和Scott Smart所做的一项调查发现,双阶级公司首次公开发售的股份,比起单阶级公司,本益比和营收比只稍微低了一点点。Nor does this strange ownership model show any sign of going out of fashion.这种陌生的所有权形式也没显露出任何过时的信号。There were 12 dual-class IPOs in America last year, not far from the norm for the nine-year period in the 1990s studied by Mr Zutter and Mr Smart.根据Zutter 先生和 Smart先生的调查,去年在美国首次公开发行股票的公司里有12家是双级公司,与90年代的九年阶段标准差不多。Dual-class structures are not just a way for press barons to keep their hands on the hatchet with which they threaten governments.双阶级结构不仅是报业巨头依之拿捏政府的厉斧。Internet firms love them, too, since they allow founders brimming with self-belief to raise cash without surrendering control.因特网公司也爱他们,因为这种形式能使公司的创始人放手集资而不必顾及周遭的控制。Googles IPO in 2004 involved two classes of share.谷歌2004年首次公开发行股票是有两级股票,LinkedIn followed suit this year.今年LinkedIn也随之仿效。The IPO filings of Zynga and Groupon would also grant managers control over voting rights.而Zynga和Groupon首次公开发行股票的文件也给予了经理人大于控制投票权的权力。Investors who seek long-term gains may be happy to cede control if they think the boss is a genius.如果觉得那个企业的老板是个天才,那些追求长期盈利的投资者也许乐意放弃控制权。It worked for the holders of B shares in Warren Buffetts Berkshire Hathaway.手握Berkshire HathawayB型股票的投资者就是,该公司老板是Warren Buffett。It once worked for investors in Mr Murdoch, too.曾经默多克先生的投资者也是,But tech punters have not been so lucky.不过那些看好技术的就没这么好运了。The number of dual-class firms listed in America fell from 482 in 2000 to 362 in 2002 as the dotcom bubble burst.网络泡沫的破灭使美国的双级公司数量从2000年的482家减到了2002年的362家。If the current internet boom follows a similar path, News Corporation shareholders will not be the only ones feeling second-class.如果现今兴旺的因特网产业也是如此,那么新闻集团的股东将不会是唯一感到被看成二流的人。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201302/226692 Science and Technology Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Breaking down the barrier科技 克雅氏病 攻破屏障A glimmer of hope for a drug that treats disease caused by prions药物治疗朊病毒感染疾病的一线希望THE epidemic of mad-cow disease in people that some forecast in the 1990s has not, fortunately, come to pass.时至今日,疯牛病没有像上世纪90年代的某些预言说的那样在人群中流行,真是幸运。But Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), to give its proper name, is still a nasty illness that humanity would be better off without.这种严重损害人类性情的疾病的准确名称叫克雅氏病(CJD),治疗起来仍然棘手。It is also a strange illness.克雅氏病是一种奇怪的疾病。CJD and a handful of similar neurological conditions are caused by the misfolding of a particular protein that is found in the membranes of certain nerve cells.该病以及类似的一些神经症状是由于某种神经细胞的细胞膜上的一个特殊蛋白发生错误折叠所致。The strangeness is that the misfolded protein, known as a prion, somehow catalyses other molecules of the protein to misfold in the same way. The result is a chain reaction in which more and more protein ends up as prions.这种错误折叠的蛋白称为朊病毒,令人奇怪的是它可以催化其他蛋白分子发生相同的错误折叠,这个链式反应使越来越多的蛋白质变成朊病毒。Nerve cells containing the prions stop working. The sufferer endures memory loss, personality changes and spontaneous, jerky bodily movements.含有朊病毒的神经细胞失去正常功能,罹患者出现记忆减退、人格改变和自发的躯体急速抽动等症状,最后患者死亡。Eventually, the disease kills him.所以,能够治疗CJD的药物将大受青睐。A drug to treat CJD would therefore be welcome. And chemicals that seem either to prevent the misfolding, or to help the body clear away misfolded molecules, do, indeed, exist. The problem is turning at least one of those chemicals into an effective medicine.能阻止分子错误折叠或帮助机体清除错误折叠分子的化学药品似乎确实存在,困难在于如何用至少一种这样的化学药品进行有效治疗。Adam Renslo of the University of California, San Francisco, and his colleagues (who include Stanley Prusiner, the Nobel laureate who discovered prions) have been trying to do so.旧金山加利福尼亚大学的Adam Renslo与其同事(包括因发现朊病毒获得诺贝尔奖的Stanley Prusiner)一直在进行将化学药品用于治疗CJD的尝试,The chemicals they have lighted on are called aminothiazoles. These are quite effective in reducing the prion levels of cultured nerve cells.他们感兴趣的化学药品叫做氨噻唑,它能有效降低体外培养的神经细胞内的朊病毒水平。Testing aminothiazoles in Petri dishes is, however, rather different from testing them on living animals.但是,检验发现氨噻唑在活动物体内的作用与在体外培养细胞中的作用大不相同。A natural barrier exists between the bloodstream and the brain, to protect it from harmful chemicals. This barrier interprets many putative drugs, including aminothiazoles, as harmful, and thus keeps them out.生理状态下,血流与脑之间存在着一个屏障,使脑避免接触有害物质,可能有效的许多药物包括氨噻唑也被这个屏障当作有害物质阻挡在脑外。And if a molecule cannot cross the barrier, it will not make an effective neurological treatment.不能通过屏障进入脑的分子当然就无法完成有效的神经治疗。Dr Renslo and his colleagues have therefore been analysing and modifying the chemical structure of aminothiazoles to see if this can enable them to cross the blood-brain barrier.为此,Renslo士与其同事已经在分析并尝试修饰氨噻唑的分子结构,以使之能通过血脑屏障。As they report in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, they think they have now pulled off the trick.根据他们在药物化学杂志的报道,他们已经找到了突破口。They did it by removing groups of atoms called hydrogen-bond donors from the original molecules and adding a ring of carbon and hydrogen atoms.他们移除氨噻唑分子上一组提供氢键的原子,并加上一个碳氢环。That made the aminothiazoles look more like cholesterol—which despite its malign everyday reputation is an important component of brains and routinely crosses the blood-brain barrier.修饰后的氨噻唑分子看起来更像胆固醇分子。尽管胆固醇整天被认为是个对人体有害的物质,但它却是脑的重要成分,是通过血脑屏障的常客。It worked. When Dr Renslo fed mice a diet containing the improved aminothiazoles, he found that the most promising of them accumulated in the brain in concentrations nearly 25 times higher than those required to clear prions from cultured cells.成功了!Renslo士给小鼠喂食含有改进后的氨噻唑的饮食后,发现这些最有希望的分子在小鼠的脑内聚集,其浓度达到清除体外培养细胞内朊病毒所需浓度的25倍。The molecular changes did not, though, seem to change the aminothiazoles prion-killing attributes.氨噻唑分子的改变似乎并没有改变其杀灭朊病毒的特性。When tested in Petri dishes, the new molecules were as good as their precursors.在培养皿实验中,修饰后的分子与其前体一样有效。More importantly, preliminary results suggest they are effective at extending the lives of prion-infected mice. Such mice lived for 100 days longer when treated with the new molecules than they did when untreated.更重要的是,初步的实验结果提示这些分子能有效延长朊病毒感染小鼠的寿命,用这些新分子治疗的小鼠比不治疗的小鼠多存活100天。That is a significant fraction of the two to three years a healthy laboratory mouse might be expected to survive if it is not experimented on.考虑到实验室中未受试的健康小鼠的预期寿命是2到3年,染毒小鼠获得延长的这部分存活期显得很显著了。Trials in mice are, of course, just the beginning.当然,用小鼠进行的试验只是个开始。But breaching the blood-brain barrier in this way is a crucial step, and one that might be generalised to potential treatments for other brain diseases—Alzheimers, for example.但药物以这种方式突破血脑屏障确实是个关键步骤,在此基础上,人们还可能找到治疗阿尔茨海默尔病这样的其他脑部疾病的良方。If that came to pass, this small step on the journey of drug discovery might come to be seen, in retrospect, as a giant leap.在达到那些目标之后,回过头来看,实现药物通过屏障的这一小步将被视为一个巨大的跨步 /201301/218113在赣州做包皮手术多少钱江西省龙南县武当镇卫生院男科专家

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