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楼主:丽互动 时间:2019年07月19日 22:43:33 点击:0 回复:0
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It is a proud personal achievement for Campbell and a landmark moment for science.这对坎贝尔而言是一个值得骄傲的个人成就,而对科学而言则是具有里程碑意义的时刻。The Lick party finally succeeds, gets extraordinarily good results and resounding the cooperates Eddingtons 1919 measurements.里克党最后成功,与爱丁顿1919测量法的完美合作得到了非常好的结果。Now who is the first person that Campbell sent a cable to with the result?现在坎贝尔发送会第一位给谁发电文呢?Albert Einstein. He wanted Einstein to know, boy did we vindicate you, boy did we show that Eddington was right, despite what all the scoff was foreseeing.阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦。他希望爱因斯坦知道,我们的确明你是对的,我们的确表明,爱丁顿是正确的,尽管预见到所有的嘲笑和讥讽。For Einstein this was a tremendous triumph.对于爱因斯坦而言这是一个巨大的胜利。The eclipse expedition gives us an amazing proof of something that looks theoretical and yet its very much part of our lives.日食探险为我们提供了一个了不起的理论明,而它来源于我们日常生活的一部分。They show that space time around the sun was curving.他们表明,环绕太阳的空间时间是弯曲的。Thats a whole new way of thinking about how gravity works.这是一种全新的方式来思考万有引力是如何运作的。How strange is that thats completely against our intuition, but its what the data showed.多么奇怪,这完全是跟我们的直觉唱反调,但这数据就是这样显示。And you can not argue with the data.而你不能驳斥数据。Nature agrees, yes, Einstein, thats a beautiful theory, you are right.大自然也同意,是的,爱因斯坦,那是一个美丽的理论,你是对的。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/186009For most of the 20th century Turkish authorities were happy to lend their treasures for foreign exhibitions and ignored the provenance of most pieces in Western collections. Today, however, the government argues that any object without the correct permissions or with gaps in its provenance has been stolen and so belongs to Turkey.二十世纪的大部分时间里土耳其当局乐意把他们的文物借到国外展出,他们并没有关注西方物馆大部分藏品的出处。但是今天的土耳其政府主张任何没有得到正规许可或来源可疑的文物,都是被从土耳其偷走的,所以这些文物理应属于土耳其。Growing economic power and stalled talks over EU membership make many Turks feel that it is time to turn their backs on the West. Amid the turmoil of the Arab spring Turkey believes it can become the leader of the region. “A new Middle East is about to be born,” Ahmet Davutoglu, the foreign minister, told parliament last month. “We will be the owner, pioneer and the servant of this new Middle East.”由于经济实力不断增张而且加入欧盟的会谈陷入了僵局,因此很多土耳其人感到放弃西方的时候到了。看到阿拉伯之春的动荡土耳其认为自己可以成为这一地区的领导者。外长艾哈迈德·达武特奥卢在议会发表讲话指出:“一个崭新的中东即将诞生,我们将成为新中东的主人,我们要引领新中东,我们要为新中东务。”Turkey has been inspired by the success of Italy and Greece in confronting the illicit trade in classical antiquities. Officials also cite the tough stance taken by Zahi Hawass, a colourful former Egyptian minister, against museums with dodgy holdings. “We will make life miserable for museums that refuse to repatriate,” he pronounced at an international 2010 conference in Cairo about looted artefacts.意大利和希腊在古董在非法交易的诉讼案件中获胜鼓舞了土耳其。官员引用个性鲜明的前埃及部长札西·哈瓦斯采取过的强硬立场来反对那些收藏来源不正的文物的物馆。“那些拒绝归还文物的物馆,我们会让他们活的很惨”这是2010年他在开罗一个关于被掠夺文物的国际会议上的发言。Turkey has been emboldened by two important successes. Last September the Boston Museum of Fine Arts bowed to public pressure and returned the top half of an 1,800-year-old statue called “Weary Herakles”, which came from southern Turkey. Left to the museum by an American couple, its documented provenance went back no more than 30 years, which suggests it was looted, probably in the late 1970s. Mr Erdogan himself brought this trophy back to Turkey, reuniting the head and torso with the statue’s bottom half.两个重要的胜利让土耳其咄咄逼人。去年九月波士顿美术馆迫于公众压力归还了一座叫“疲倦的赫拉克勒斯”的雕像(有一千八百年历史)的上半截,这座雕像来自土耳其南部,人们认为上世纪七十年代后期它被从土耳其盗走。埃尔多安亲自护送这个战利品返回土耳其,这个雕像的头部躯干和下半部重新被合为一体。Mr Gunay also forced the German government to return a massive sphinx (pictured) that had been removed in 1917 from Hattusa, the Bronze-Age capital of the Hittite empire. The sphinx is one of a pair. The first was sent back to Turkey in 1924. Its twin had long been part of the permanent display at the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Germany maintained it had obtained the sphinx legally, whereas Turkish authorities argued that it had merely been sent to Germany for repair. Documentation about the sphinxes was destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin in the second world war.居纳伊也督促德国政府归还1917年他们从青铜时代的赫梯帝国之都哈图沙拿走的一个巨型狮身人面像(见文章附图)。狮身人面像原来是一对。第一个已经在1924年还给土耳其。因为其中一个被柏林佩加蒙物馆永久展览,这对宝物长年千里遥望。德国坚持说这个狮身人面像是他们合法获取的,然而土耳其当局辩称当时把这尊文物运到德国只是做修复。这对狮身人面像的文件在二战期间毁于袭击柏林的炸弹。Early last year Turkey stepped up the pressure, indicating that it would not renew the licences of the German archaeology institute, the biggest foreign group working in Turkey, unless the sphinx was sent home. In May 2011 German and Turkish culture officials signed an agreement to return the sphinx as part of a wider accord on training curators, exchanging research and enabling loans of Turkish objects. But German curators now complain that as soon as the sphinx went back to Turkey the rest of the agreement was quietly shelved.去年年初土耳其增大了压力,明确指出除非归还狮身人面像,否则就不会更新德国考古研究所(土耳其最大的外国工作团)的执照。2011年5月德国和土耳其的文化官员签署了归还狮身人面像的协议,这个协议是馆长培训计划的延伸,也是考古研究和土耳其出借文物的交换条件。但是德国物馆馆长抱怨说一旦狮身人面像归还土耳其,协议的其他部分很快就会被束之高阁。The Turkish authorities then turned their attention to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In September 2011 a delegation led by Murat Suslu, the director-general for cultural heritage and museums, flew to New York to discuss loans for a 2014 exhibition. Mr Suslu, who has a reputation as a table-thumper, opened the meeting with a declaration of intent. Before any further loans could be discussed, he wanted information about 18 works in the Met’s collection. “It certainly came as a surprise to us,” says the Met’s director, Thomas Campbell, “especially in light of the collaborative spirit we have always enjoyed with our peer institutions in Turkey.”接着土耳其当局将注意力转移到纽约大都会艺术物馆。2011年9月文化遗产和物馆主管穆拉特·叙斯吕率领的代表团飞赴纽约商讨2014年展览文物的出借事宜。很多人都知道开会的时候叙斯吕喜欢敲桌子,喜欢发表宣言。在进一步谈论出借事项之前,他想得到大都会艺术物馆18件藏品的信息,这让我们非常震惊,大都会艺术物馆的馆长托马斯·坎贝尔说,“出于协作精神,我们一直乐意和土耳其同仁分享信息。”Within weeks, the focus was on the BM. The Topkapi Museum had agreed to an important loan for an exhibition about the Haj that the BM was planning for January 2012. The 35 pieces under discussion had been removed from Mecca by the Ottoman authorities in the 19th century. At the last moment, Mr Suslu and Mr Gunay refused to allow the loan to go ahead on the grounds that the BM had a stone tablet dating from the first century , known as the Samsat Stele, that originally came from Turkey. The stele had been in the BM’s collection for almost 90 years (and had been exhibited, without complaint, at a Tokyo exhibition in 2005 alongside loans from the Topkapi).几周之后,焦点对准大英物馆。托普卡匹物馆先前同意向2012年1月大英物馆的哈吉展览借出一件重要文物。这次讨论的35件文物是19世纪被奥斯曼帝国当局从麦加搬走的。最后一刻叙斯吕和居纳伊拒绝以后出借文物,因为大英物馆收藏的一个公元前1世纪的石桌,就是萨姆萨特石碑原来出自土耳其。大英物馆收藏这方石碑将近90年(已经被展出过,没有人提出质疑,2005年东京的展览活动中它就被放在土耳其出借文物的旁边)。201206/185210Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, second son of Ilya, was born in this house in Votkinsk on 7th, May, 1840.伊利亚的第二个儿子彼得·伊里奇·柴科夫斯基,在1840年5月7日出生在沃蒂斯克的这所房子里。His father, a hard working chief inspector of mines, was both liked and respected in the local community.他的父亲是一位努力工作的矿山总监察, 在当地社区受人尊敬和爱戴。Ilya Tchaikovsky had no particular musical talent, although he had played the flute in his youth and has an interest in a theatre.伊利亚·柴可夫斯基并没有特定的音乐天赋,虽然在年轻时代曾喜欢吹笛子并且喜欢去剧院。But he was even tempered and fair minded and enjoyed a warm and committed relationship with his second son throughout his life,但他甚至有些脾气并且想法公平, 终其一生他和自己的第二个儿子并保持着温暖及坚定的关系,supporting him and guiding him through many difficult crisis.这持他并引导他渡过很多困难的危机。注:听力文本来源于普特 201210/204430

The Eye of the Dung Beetle屎壳郎的眼睛A number of animals, including honeybees and butterflies, use sunlight’s polarization in their navigations, but the dung beetle is the first animal ever discovered to use moonlight’s polarization to guide its travels. Polarization happens when some of the light from the sun interacts with particles in the atmosphere, causing the light to vibrate along a single plane. Polarized light is invisible to the human eye.很多的动物都根据阳光的自然偏振作用来为自己寻找方向,这些动物甚至包括蜂鸟和蝴蝶。然而,大千世界无奇不有,科学家们发现屎壳郎很不一样——它们依靠月光的偏振来完成它们的“旅行”。这种偏振现象是由于阳光与大气中的粒子相互作用,使光在一个单一的平面上振动而产生的。在这里必须提及的是——人眼是感受不到光的偏振的。It’s been known for some time that the eyes of some insects are sensitive to polarized sunlight, but what is remarkable about the dung beetle is that moonlight is one millionth the strength of sunlight and requires a good deal more of a pair of eyes.人们很早就发现了一点:动物的眼睛很是敏感,它们能够感受到光的偏振。这就不足为奇了,屎壳郎最值得让我们去注意的是——月光的强度仅仅是阳光强度的百万分之一,必须要多很多对眼睛才能够感受得到。There are many dung beetles competing for a limited amount of food at a dung pile, so when an individual is finished rolling a ball of dung it is in its best interest to make a quick escape. And the fastest way to travel is in a straight path. Scientists noticed that when the moon was visible, these dung beetles did just that; they traveled in straight paths. But when it was a cloudy night, the beetles’ paths became shaky and erratic.屎壳郎之间食物的竞争很激烈,往往是很多只屎壳郎齐齐盯上一堆粪。因此,当一只屎壳郎滚好了一个粪球后最好就是尽快离开。当然,最快的就是走直线了。科学家们发现,在月明星稀的夜里,屎壳郎就是这样做的,它们都走直线。但是,如果是在乌云密布的夜里,无法看到月亮,这个时候的屎壳郎所走的路线就会歪歪扭扭。To be sure the beetles were indeed using the moon’s polarization and not the moon itself, the researchers used a filter that changed the pattern of the polarized moonlight by 90 degrees. The beetles responded by changing their course by 90 degrees.为了确定屎壳郎是凭借着月光的偏振作用而不是月光来看路,研究者们使用了一个滤光器,这个滤光器将月光的偏振改变了90度,这个时候他们发现,屎壳郎的路线也随之改变了90度。Scientists suspect that the dung beetle isn’t the only animal to navigate by the moon’s polarization and that more such creatures will soon be discovered.科学家们还推测,屎壳郎并不是唯一一种凭借月光偏振作用为自己“导航”的动物,相信很快也会发现其它的此类生物。 /201302/224718

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