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2019年10月18日 04:45:27

Books and Arts; Film Review;The Cannes film festival; Subtle story;文艺;影评;戛纳电影节;微妙的故事;Abdellatif Kechiches film, “La vie dAdele”, carries off the top prize;阿布戴·柯西胥执导的电影《阿黛尔的生活》摘得桂冠;At A time of national collective depression in France, the Cannes film festival is a precious moment: an occasion to show the world that it can still host the most prestigious film festival, throw star-studded parties and draw the best Hollywood talent. Over the years, Cannes has also become a chance for the industry to make a point, and it was easy to see one in this years winner of the Palme dOr, the festivals top prize. It went to “La vie dAdele” (“Blue is the Warmest Colour”), a three-hour erotic lesbian drama directed by a Tunisian-born director, Abdellatif Kechiche. “A perfect symbol,” mused Libération.在法国举国笼罩在阴郁之下时,戛纳电影节成为其最闪耀的一刻:法国向世人明了自己仍旧可以举办世界上最具盛名的电影节、众星云集的晚会,同时也吸引着每一位好莱坞明星。多年来,戛纳一直都是电影业界阐述观念的舞台,而今年的金棕榈奖——戛纳电影节最高奖项的获奖得主,也能够看出这一点。今年的获奖影片是由出生在突尼斯的导演阿布戴·柯西胥执导、以三小时时长讲述了女同性恋故事的《阿黛尔的生活》(《蓝色是一种暖色调》)。法国解放报这样写道:“这是一个完美的象征。”Adele, a pupil at a multicultural school in Lille, wants to become a teacher. Played by the 19-year-old Adele Exarchopoulos, an acting revelation, she is thrown into disarray, then ecstasy, then melancholy by an explosive love affair with Emma (Léa Seydoux), an art student from a liberal-intellectual milieu, with gamine looks and blue-dyed hair. It is an unsentimental coming-of-age film about womanhood, a tale of passion and anger, and an unapologetically graphic love story.影片主角阿黛尔是法国里尔市一所多文化学校的一名学生,她的梦想是成为一名老师。这个角色由演技颇具启示的阿黛尔·艾克阿切波洛斯扮演,在影片中因她与出身自由而又学术的、一头蓝发散发着假小子气质的艺术学生艾玛(由蕾雅·赛杜扮演)的恋情,而使得她的人生陷入混沌,继而狂喜,继而忧郁。影片对于女性的刻画真实且成熟,就像是一个充斥与激愤的故事,也像是一段清楚直白不做作的爱情故事。Steven Spielberg, an American director and this years jury president, dismissed any political symbolism. “Politics”, he said, “was not in the room with us.” Yet the Palme dOr was awarded on a day when protesters took to the streets in Paris for a mass demonstration against a new law that has legalised gay marriage in France, and after a period marked by homophobic violence. By exploring a love affair between two women, the Franco-Tunisian Mr Kechiche has also made a bold point about female liberty. And he dedicated his prize to youth in both France and Tunisia, “so as to inspire them to live in freedom.”作为今年电影节的评审团主席,美国导演史蒂文·斯皮尔伯格拒绝任何形式上将电影同政治相关联。他说:“政治,绝不是我们考虑的因素。”然而,金棕榈奖颁发前,是一段充斥着反同性恋暴力的时间,在这个奖颁发时,法国反对同性婚姻合法化法律的示威者正在巴黎街头举行游行抗议。突裔法国导演柯西胥通过探索女性之间的爱情,在女性自由解放中迈出了坚定的一步。他把他的奖献给所有法国和突尼斯的青年人,“为了让他们能够更加自由的生活。”Does Cannes need to shock? Past juries have delighted in making mischievous political choices. When Michael Moore won the 2004 prize for “Fahrenheit 9/11”, his anti-George Bush documentary, he got a 20-minute standing ovation. In recent years, the gong has often gone to films that grasp nettlesome subjects, such as Cristian Mungius “4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days” (abortion) or Ken Loachs “The Wind that Shakes the Barley” (Irish independence).戛纳会不会对此感到震惊?以前的评审团经常做一些与政治相关的选择。当麦克·尔2004年凭借批判乔治·布什总统的纪录片《华氏911》获奖时,人们起身为他喝了20分钟。而近年来,获奖的总是些围绕着恼人事件的电影,比如说克里斯蒂安·蒙吉的《四月三周两天》(有关堕胎)或者是肯·洛奇的《风吹稻浪》(爱尔兰独立)。Yet, judging by the near-unanimous critical approval, “Adele” has married both political importance and artistic merit. Libération called it “dazzling”, a “film that floated above all the others”. Le Monde described it as “an emotional, erotic shock”. Variety labelled it “a searingly intimate character study”. Better known for his gritty but charming dramas set in heavily immigrant France (“LEsquive”, “La Graine et le Mulet”), Mr Kechiches latest film is also in many ways a product of the French mainstream: a risqué movie, shot in close-up, celebrating independence and passion, starring two white leading actresses, and with minorities as mere extras. For all his north African sensibility, Mr Kechiche now looks every bit a part of the French film-making establishment.然而,从一致的中可以看出,《阿黛尔的生活》是政治因素和艺术价值的结合体。法国《解放报》称其“乱花渐欲迷人眼。”,是“一部领先的电影”。《世界报》将电影描述为“情感丰富,充满情欲”。《综艺》给它贴上了“炽热的亲密关系研究”的标签。导演柯西胥更多的是知名于他那些描述法国移民的坚毅、颇具魅力的电影(《躲闪》、《谷子和鲻鱼》),而他的新作品在很多方面也都紧贴潮流:淫秽电影、近景拍摄、欢庆独立与、两名白人女主角而民族仅作为附加部分。他对于北非的感受力,让现在的他成为了法国电影史成就的一部分。 /201306/244238东风汽车公司襄樊医院妇产科医院襄阳市第三人民医院几点营业襄阳市中心医院耳鼻喉科

枣阳市康复医院要预约吗襄阳第四人民医院泌尿科咨询Asset-management companies in China中国的资产管理公司Lipstick on a pig看上去很美China is still dealing with the mess left by previous bank bail-outs中国仍在收拾金援留下的烂摊子Aug 24th 2013 | SHANGHAI |From the print editionNEWS surfaced this week that Cinda, an asset-management company (AMC) created during China’s last round of banking bail-outs, is talking to bankers about a stockmarket flotation. That raises an intriguing question: how would the Chinese government handle its next banking crisis? If experience is a guide, it will be through a combination of enormous injections of public money, the creation of complicated structures and the obfuscation of data.本周新闻,创建于中国上轮金援期间的资产管理公司信达正在对话家,讨论发行股票。这引起了一个有趣的问题:中国政府如何处理下一次危机呢?如果以经验为指导,中国政府会通过注入大量的公共资金,创造复杂体系,模糊处理数据等一系列措施。In the 1990s the government shut down many inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs). That forced banks to acknowledge loans to those entities as duds. Non-performing loan (NPL) ratios soared, so officials engineered an elaborate bail-out. Central Huijin, an SOE capitalised by the central bank and finance ministry, put money into the banks. On one estimate, these equity infusions topped 0 billion.上世纪90年代,中国政府关闭许多低效率的国企。这使得被迫接受贷给关闭国企的贷款作废。不良贷款率陡升,于是官方启动了复杂的金援。由央行和财政部注资成立的中央汇金向注入资金。据估计,这些企业注资高达1500亿美元。NPLs were hived off into four new AMCs: Huarong, China Orient, China Great Wall and Cinda. From 1999 to 2004 loans worth over 2 trillion yuan (2 billion) were transferred. Though mostly bad, the loans were usually sold at full face value. They were paid for with ten-year bonds, backed by the finance ministry, that the AMCs issued to the big state-owned banks. But since most NPLs failed to recover in that time, these bonds were extended another decade. In short, the bail-out is still going on.不良贷款被分离成了四个新的资产管理公司,分别是华融,中国东方,中国长城和信达。从1999年到2004年,超过两万亿元人民币(2420亿美元)的贷款被转让。尽管大部分是不良贷款,然而这些贷款通常是以全额票面价值卖掉。它们在财政部的持下以十年期债券的形式卖掉,这些资产管理公司将其发行给大型国有。但是因为当时大多数的不良贷款无法偿还,这些债券又延期十年。总之,金援还在继续。What the AMCs have done with their assets is unclear, as they have not released proper accounts. Some NPLs have been sold but reportedly at only 20% of face value. To deal with the resulting cash crunch, Cinda sold bonds to the finance ministry. Anne Stevenson-Yang of J Capital, a research firm, observes that these bonds have since been wiped clean from its balance-sheet without any explanation for where they went: “The AMCs seem to be virtual holding-tanks where the debt doesn’t stay and doesn’t depart either.” Some think they may be insolvent.这些资产管理公司用他们的资产做了什么不得而知,因为他们没有公布资产账户。一些不良贷款被出售,但是据报只有面值的20%。为了解决资金短缺,信达将债券卖给了财政部。调查公司J Capital的Anne Stevenson-Yang说,这些债券已经在没有对去向做出任何解释的情况下从资产负债表中抹去了。这些资产管理公司实质上似乎是掩盖债务的幌子,债务既不在这些公司也没有分发。一些人认为这些公司资不抵债了。That hasn’t stopped the AMCs expanding into other areas. They have gobbled up small banks and expanded into fund management, broking, commodities trading and insurance. Cynics speculate that all this has been done to give an illusion of rounded prosperity, perhaps as a prelude to a wave of public offerings.这没有让这些资产管理公司停下扩张的脚步。他们吞并了小型,,将业务扩展到基金管理,经纪业,商品交易和保险业。怀疑者推测所有这些都是都是全面繁荣的假想,或许是一波公开发行股票行动的前奏。In preparation for Cinda’s flotation on the Hong Kong exchange, the government poured 15 billion yuan into the firm in 2010 as it became a joint-stock company. Another 10 billion yuan was invested in it last year by strategic investors (including Standard Chartered, UBS and Citic Capital, a private-equity firm). Huarong is also rumoured to be seeking strategic investors, ahead of a possible listing next year.为了准备信达在香港股市上市,政府在2010年向该公司注资150亿元人民币成立合资公司。去年包括渣打,瑞银集团和私募股权公司中国中信在内的战略投资者去年向信达投资了100亿元人民币。也有谣言称华融也正在寻找战略投资者,争取明年上市。Why now? With loans soaring and bad debts likely to follow suit (see chart), Chinese officials realise that the next banking crisis may be near. They may well be hoping to lure in fresh investors, to draw a line under previous bail-outs and raise capital for new ones. Huarong and Cinda now claim to make profits, but given their murky accounts, that is hard to verify. A headline in the South China Morning Post sounded this warning: “China’s insolvent toxic-waste dump Cinda for sale”.为什么是现在呢?随着贷款的增加,坏账可能随之而来(见表),中国政府意识到下一次危机可能不远了。他们可能希望吸引新的投资者,与上次的金援划清界限,为新的金援募集资金。华融和信达现在宣称在盈利,但是鉴于他们含糊的账户,这一说法难以实。南华早报的头条发出警告:无力偿还债务的坏账回收站信达待售。 /201308/254012Financial-technology firms金融技术公司Apps at the gate应用近在咫尺Tech start-ups promise to transform finance, if regulators will let them如果监管者允许,技术创业公司希望改变金融业Aug 3rd 2013 |From the print editionTWO millennia after the Temple was cleansed of money-changers, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, plans to open his churches to moneylenders. This is no capitulation in the struggle between God and Mammon. It is an effort to “compete out of existence” payday lenders that offer expensive loans by supporting not-for-profit credit unions.在寺院与金钱交易撇清关系两千年之后,坎特伯雷大主教Justin Welby计划开放教堂给放贷者。这不是选择上帝或者贪婪之间的妥协。这是通过持非盈利信用合作社让高利息贷款失去市场。The archbishop is right that more competition is needed, but old-fashioned credit unions are unlikely to be able to beat the slick systems and snappy service of online providers, like Wonga. A more effective way of pushing down rates would be lighter regulation to allow more lenders to flourish.大主教是对的,确实需要加强竞争,而这些老古董也不太可能被像Wonga之类的拥有更加灵活的系统和快速的务的网上金融务提供商击败。推低利率更有效的方法是放松监管,允许更多放贷者进入市场。Digital communications have given birth to a new generation of finance companies (see article). Money-transfer agents such as Xoom have drastically cut the time and costs for migrant workers to send money home. Peer-to-peer lenders are matching savers and borrowers, slashing fees and delivering a better deal to both. New foreign-exchange firms are giving travellers access to the prices ed on wholesale currency markets. Card companies such as Square and iZettle let anyone from yoga teachers to plumbers accept payments by credit card. Firms such as M-Pesa have given millions of people in developing countries access to mobile money.线上交流已经催生出了新一代的金融公司。像Xoom这种转帐机构大大减少了外国务工人员汇款回家的时间和费用。点对点借贷配对债权人和借债人,降低费用,给双方最好的选择。新的外汇公司让旅行者以大型外汇市场的汇率兑换现金。诸如Square和iZettle这样的信用卡公司让从瑜伽老师到管道工的客户都能使用信用卡消费。M-Pesa这类公司已经让发展中国家数百万的人民使用上了移动钱包。Heavy regulation of financial companies means many firms stick to small niches to skirt the boundaries of banking regulations. Peer-to-peer lenders do not offer savers the security of deposit insurance or the convenience of guaranteed instant access to their cash. This limits their appeal. Other firms that take deposits such as Holvi, a Finnish start-up that offers group accounts, are not allowed to lend. Those that do lend, such as Wonga, cannot take deposits.金融公司严格的监管制度意味着许多公司许多坚持小利基的公司要绕过监管的局限。点对点借贷不提供给债权人存款保或者直接取钱的便利。其他的公司像Holvi,一个位于芬兰提供集体账户的初创公司,只提供存款,但不能借贷。而像Wonga这样能借贷的公司则不能存款。Creating a financial-tech company is arduous. Whereas it takes less than a day to register a company in Britain, it takes months or years and can cost millions to get authorised as a bank. The number of new banks started over the past decade can almost be counted on one hand. Even those that have started, such as Metro Bank or Aldermore, are penalised by regulation: rules on capital favour large and complex firms. In America the Dodd-Frank Act is an imposing barrier to all but the biggest firms. And regulation is closing in on some existing firms. M-Pesa has struggled to grow much beyond Kenya, partly because authorities stand in its way. The market for remittances has been a hothouse for start-ups in Britain, partly because it was lightly regulated. Yet almost half the country’s money-transfer firms may be shut as banks close their accounts to comply with money-laundering rules.创建一家金融科技公司很费力。在英国一家普通公司可能不到一天就注册完成了,而要是成立一家则有可能经历长达数月甚至数年的审批,而且可能要花费上数百万的费用。过去十年里成立的数量一只手就能数过来。即使是成立了的像Metro Bank和Aldermore,都被监管部门处罚过。关于资本的规定更有利于大型公司。在美国,多德弗兰克法案对所有非大型公司是一个障碍。对很多公司的监管很严。M-Pesa努力在肯尼亚之外发展,部分原因就是政府出面阻碍其发展。在英国,汇款市场在初创公司中很火,部分原因就是其监管相对较松。但是如果以违反洗钱规则关闭它们的账户,那么近一半的转帐公司将会关门大吉。Banks need to be more heavily regulated than other firms because of their central role in the economy. However, governments could regulate more smartly, raising capital requirements for big and systemically important banks while easing the burden on smaller ones. Regulators should be even more relaxed about many of the new entrants to the market, most of which simply provide quicker and simpler ways of shifting money around. Most of these start-ups avoid the alchemy of banking—the transformation of short-term deposits into long-term loans—so pose little systemic risk.比其他公司的监管更严厉,原因是它们在经济活动中至关重要。但是,政府能更聪明地管理业。提高对大型系统性的监管,放松对小型的管理。监管人员应该对新入行的公司放轻松,这些公司只是提供更方便快捷的转账方式。大多数初创公司避开业的核心业务--将短期存款转换成长期借贷--这样系统性风险就很小了。The idea of lighter-touch regulation will seem to many an anathema after the financial crisis. It would certainly lead to more failures by small banks and start-ups. This would also impose some costs on society and deposit-guarantee schemes. Yet these costs would be outweighed by the enormous benefits to consumers and businesses of a far more competitive financial system.对很多人来说,金融危机之后放宽监管很危险。当然,放松监管会带来很多小和初创公司的失败。这也会给社会以及存款保计划带来很多代价。但是这些代价会被消费者的获利和金融系统更激烈的竞争所抵消。 /201308/251564襄阳妇保医院治疗子宫内膜炎多少钱Business商业报道Patent reform in America美国专利法改革Trolls on the hill山上的巨魔Congress takes aim at patent abusers国会瞄准了滥用专利权者IN SCANDINAVIAN folklore trolls were dumpy with grotesque faces and uncontrollable hair.在斯堪的纳维亚半岛的民间传说里,巨魔们都是长着丑脸、披着乱发的矮胖形象。These horrifying creatures have given their name to patent trolls, who buy up lots of vaguely worded patents and then use them to extract cash from unsuspecting victims—who pay them off rather than risk a pricey lawsuit.这些令人恐惧的生物已经将名头赋予那些专利流氓们了,这些人收购大量含糊名称的专利并用来赚无辜受害者的钱,而这些受害者宁愿肤浅给流氓们也不愿意冒险打官司花更多的钱。It is not hard to identify the obvious ones, but writing laws to catch them without endangering everyone else is.现在不难去定义这些很明显的案例,但是立法去抓这些流氓们而不伤及无辜就有难度了。Having tried once with the America Invents Act of 2011, Congress is having another go.既2011年的美国发明法案的尝试后,国会正在尝试另一种方法。The Innovation Act looks set to become law by the end of the year, after attracting an unusual amount of support from both parties.创新法案在引起了两党内部不寻常的持率之后,看似会在年底确定成为正式法律。Over the past few decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of lawsuits over intellectual-property infringements.在过去的几十年里,侵犯专利权诉讼的数量持续快速增长。According to Jim Bessen of BostonUniversity, since the early 1980s the number has increased sixfold.根据波士顿大学的Jim Bessen的数据,在20世纪80年代早期,诉讼就已增加了六倍。That might merely be a sign that there has been lots of innovation, but the threefold increase in the number of lawsuits per patent filed over the same period suggests that something else is going on.这可能是出现很多创新产品的迹象,但是在同时期在平均每项专利上申请的诉讼增加了三倍就说明滋生了其他的问题。Many patent cases involve companies defending real innovations from copycats.很多公司在涉及侵犯专利案时都是为了保护真正的创新不被剽窃。But a large number are pure shakedowns, says Josh Mendelsohn of Engine Advocacy, a lobby group for startups.但是来自Engine Advocacy的Josh Mendelsohn说,很多案例都是纯粹的敲诈。 Engine Advocacy是一家为创业公司开办的游说团体。He says some venture capitalists have to give extra cash to the firms they have backed just to fight off trolls.他认为一些风投家必须投资更多的钱给那些公司以便持他们摆脱专利巨魔的侵袭。Since patent lawsuits can be filed against the end users of new technologies, startups can find that customers will only deal with them if they are indemnified against future infringements.因为专利诉讼只能被新技术的终端使用者申请,创业公司能发现,消费者们只会在一种情况下使用这申请,那就是如果在未来的侵权案例被要求赔偿专利者损失。It is often cheaper and quicker to pay up.这种情形通常比付专利费更加便宜、便捷。Though the patent system touches all areas of business, the problem is concentrated in software.虽然专利系统涉及商业的所有领域,但是问题主要集中在软件专利上面。Such patents are often abstract, dealing in descriptions of what the software does rather than in lines of code.这类的专利总是抽象的,它们描述软件处理的工作而不是具体的编码。Timothy Holbrook of EmoryUniversityinAtlantadoubts that fixing the problems caused by these abstract patents requires a new law.亚特兰大埃默里大学教授猜想需要一部新的法律来修复这类由抽象专利引起的问题。Todd Dickinson, of the American Intellectual Property Law Association, says that the 2011 law has provisions to deal with such problems and just needs time to settle in.美国知识产权法协会说,2011年的法律就有专门规定处理类似问题并且只需要时间去判定。Those arguments have been brushed aside, for two reasons.因为两个理由,那些争论就被搁置一边了。First, the troll problem faced by tech investors is not getting better.第一,技术投资者面临的专利流氓问题没有起色。Second, the sending of threatening patent-infringement letters has become speculative.第二,散发专利侵权的威胁信已经令人们怀疑。Even restaurants and grocery shops have received letters threatening them with a patent lawsuit, over such things as offering Wi-Fi to customers or mapping their locations online.甚至餐馆和杂货店都收到了类似于他们侵犯了专利权要提起诉讼的信件,例如将免费无线网提供给顾客或者在网上标明他们的方位。Not all congressmen have tech startups in their districts, but most have constituents who have had letters telling them to pay 0.不是所有国会议员在他们的选区里都有技术型创业企业,但大部分都有选民遇到过被要求付500$专利费的信件。Those threatened with lawsuits must pay just to find out about their alleged infringement and can run up large legal bills even when they win.这些诉讼威胁里必须付所谓侵权的钱和即便专利流氓们赢了所花的诉讼费是差不多的。By shifting the costs of litigation on to the loser and forcing patent holder to disclose what the infringement is, the Innovation Act hopes to change this.创新法案希望改变一个现状,就是转移这些诉讼费到输家身上,并强迫专利持有者揭露侵权的集体行为是什么。There is probably no perfect equilibrium that protects inventors without stifling new inventions.可能没有完美保持平衡的法律,既能保护发明家们权利又能不揭露新发明。At the moment the scales are weighted in one direction.现在,天平还是倾向一个方向。The new act would add some balance.新的法案会增加一些平衡性。 /201312/268342襄樊红十字医院药房

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