明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月18日 16:44:53
Gone Shopping购物Our supermarket had a sald on boneless chicken breasts,and a woman I know ontended to stock up .我们的超级市,场在廉价拍卖无骨鸡胸,我认识的某位女士打算去多买一些。At the store,However,she was disappointed to find only a few skimpy prepackaged portopns of the poultry,然而,到了这家肉店的时候她感到很失望,因为只找到一点点事先就包装好的鸡肉,so she complained to the butcher.所以她就向这位肉店老板抱怨。;don#39;t worry,lady,; he said.他说:“,别担心,;I will pack some more trays and have them y for you by the time you finish shopping.;我会替你多包几盘,在你买完东西的时候把它们准备好。”Several aisles later ,my friend heard the butcher#39;s voice boom over th public-address system:逛完几个走道之后,我的朋友听到肉店老板的声音透过公共广播系统隆隆地说;Will the lady who wanted bigger breasts please meet me at the back of the store?;“那位想要大胸部的请到本店后方来见我好吗?” /201503/361458Six of Europe’s biggest oil and gas companies have banded together to ask the UN to let them help devise a plan to stop global warming.欧洲六大油气企业联合请求联合国(UN)让它们帮助设计一项遏止全球变暖的计划。In a sign of the rising pressure on fossil fuel companies ahead of a UN meeting in Paris to seal an international climate deal, the chief executives of groups including Royal Dutch Shell and Britain’s BP have sought direct talks with governments on creating a global carbon pricing system.包括荷兰皇家壳牌(Royal Dutch Shell)以及英国石油(BP)在内的6家欧洲油气企业的首席执行官已寻求就创建一个全球碳定价体系与各国政府直接对话。这一迹象表明,在联合国在巴黎召开会议签订一项国际气候协议之前,化石燃料企业面临的压力日益上升。“We owe it to future generations to seek realistic, workable solutions to the challenge of providing more energy while tackling climate change,” the executives say in a letter to the Financial Times revealing their plan.这些首席执行官在写给英国《金融时报》的一封透露其计划的信中表示:“为了未来的世代,我们要针对在应对气候变化的同时提供更多能源的挑战,寻求切合实际且可行的解决方案。”The six European companies say shunning use of coal in electricity generation in favour of cleaner burning natural gas, a big source of their revenues, would sharply curb carbon emissions. The chief executives wrote to the top UN climate official, Christiana Figueres, on Friday asking for “direct dialogue with the UN and willing governments” on designing a carbon scheme.这6家欧洲企业表示,淘汰燃煤发电,转向燃烧更清洁的天然气(这些企业的一大营收来源)将大幅缓解碳排放。这些首席执行官上周五致函《联合国气候变化公约》秘书处执行秘书克里斯蒂娜#8226;菲格雷斯(Christiana Figueres),请求就设计一项碳计划“与联合国以及有意愿的政府直接对话”。“We have important areas of interest in and contributions to make to creating and implementing a workable approach to carbon pricing,” said the company chiefs, who include the heads of France’s Total, Norway’s Statoil, Italy’s Eni and Britain’s BG Group.这些首席执行官表示:“在创建以及实施一个可行的碳定价方案方面,我们对重要领域感兴趣而且可以做出贡献。”这些商界领袖包括法国道达尔(Total)、挪威国家石油公司(Statoil)、意大利埃尼集团(Eni)以及英国天然气集团(BG Group)的首席执行官。Energy companies and their trade association representatives have typically preferred to lobby politicians in private meetings rather than via public pronouncements. This highly public proposal marks a shift in the way they typically approach UN climate talks, which they usually attend as observers.能源企业及其行业协会代表一般更愿意在私下会面时游说政治人士,而不是发表公开声明。这一高度公开的提议标志着,这些企业对待联合国气候谈判的方式发生转变,他们通常是作为观察员参加这些谈判的。It comes as nearly 200 countries prepare to sign a global climate pact at a UN conference in December. Some countries want the deal to include a deadline for phasing out fossil fuels that scientists say must be curbed to avoid potentially dangerous levels of global warming.目前近200个国家准备在联合国12月会议上签署一项全球气候协议。一些国家希望该协议将包括逐步淘汰化石燃料的最后期限,某些科学家表示,必须限制使用化石燃料,才能避免全球变暖达到潜在危险的程度。Pressure from politicians and some investors for energy companies to do more has led to splits between European and US energy groups.政治人士以及能源企业的一些投资者要求采取更多措施的压力,导致欧美能源企业出现不同立场。 /201506/378296

In a 2009 , a prominent Egyptian denounced the venality of rulers in the Islamic world. “Popular awareness,” he said, “is more convinced, now, that these corrupt and rotten regimes are the reason behind economic injustice and corruption, the political oppression and social detachment.”在2009年的一段视频里,一位名头很响的埃及人痛斥伊斯兰世界的统治者贪污成性。他说:“人民大众现在更加确信,这些腐朽、糜烂的政权就是经济不公与腐败、政治压迫和社会分裂背后的原因。”This was not one of the secular idealists who would ignite revolt across the Middle East. It was Ayman al-Zawahiri, then al-Qaeda’s second-in-command, now its leader. His words go to the heart of Sarah Chayes’ argument in Thieves of State : that graft begets insecurity. A former adviser to the US military in Afghanistan and Washington, Chayes skewers US iness to support kleptocrats in exchange for “counterterrorism co-operation”. Rarely has my enemy’s enemy been cut so much slack for so dubious a return.如果说话人是个世俗理想主义者,他会希望在整个中东掀起一场起义,然而他不是。视频中的人是艾曼#8226;扎瓦希里(Ayman al-Zawahiri),基地组织当时的二号首领,现在的头号人物。他的话呼应了萨拉#8226;蔡斯(Sarah Chayes)所著《窃国者》(Thieves of State)一书的中心思想:腐败造成安全威胁。蔡斯担任过美军在阿富汗和华盛顿的顾问。她一针见血地指出,美国准备持窃国者,以换取“反恐合作”。敌人的敌人如此可疑地回归,却被如此纵容,这是鲜少见到的。Anyone who has suffered the indignities it yields — the roadblocks impassable without a bribe, the sight of the fine villas beside slums — knows the sheer hair-pulling rage corruption can produce. I have heard a Jamaican spit that his country’s politicians were “so corrupt they corrode”, and Nigerian militiamen threaten to resume armed campaigns because payments promised under an amnesty were being creamed off.你可曾遇到过不贿赂就不许通过的路障,可曾见过贫民窟旁优美的别墅?但凡受过这种侮辱的人都了解,腐败会让人愤怒到何等程度。我曾听一个牙买加人忿忿地说,牙买加政客已经“腐败到整个人都腐烂了”,还有尼日利亚民兵威胁要恢复武装运动,因为特赦时允诺的款项正被人中饱私囊。We hear few such voices from Chayes. To support the link between state corruption and the Afghan insurgency, she chiefly offers an anecdote about a former policeman so incensed by being fobbed off when he reported graft that he vowed not to warn his former colleagues should he spot a Taliban roadside bomb, as well as a summary of what Taliban detainees are said to have told their American interrogators.我们在蔡斯的书中很少看到这种言论。为了明国家腐败与阿富汗叛乱之间的联系,蔡斯首先讲了一个前警察的个人遭遇,这位警察因举报腐败而遭到免职,他愤怒已极,发誓就算发现塔利班埋在路边的炸弹也绝不会提醒他以前的同事们。除了这段真人轶事以外,蔡斯还刊出了一份对话摘录,据说是落网的塔利班分子吐露给美国审讯者的口供。What becomes clear from Chayes’ recollections is that former Afghan president Hamid Karzai’s government abandoned national stewardship for self-enrichment. His regime is “best understood not as a government at all but as a vertically integrated criminal organisation”. US officials hung the Afghan proponents of a nascent anti-corruption drive out to dry rather than irk Mr Karzai. Chayes depicts a secret CIA agenda “enabling the very summit of Afghanistan’s kleptocracy”.蔡斯这本回忆录清楚地表明,前阿富汗总统哈米德#8226;卡尔扎伊(Hamid Karzai)政府为了敛财而荒废了国家治理。他的政权“是垂直一体化犯罪组织的最佳范例,毫无政府的样子”。美国官员宁可置阿富汗持新反腐败运动的倡导者于不顾,也不愿惹恼卡尔扎伊。蔡斯描述了中情局(CIA)的一个秘密议程,这个议程“帮助阿富汗盗贼统治到达巅峰”。Chayes takes her thesis on the road, journeying through the Maghreb amid the Arab uprisings and charting systems of rule-by-theft. In Egypt, Hosni Mubarak’s kleptocracy was rooted in the army; the civil service was at the heart of Zein al-Abidine Ben Ali’s Tunisian version. Nigeria, maybe the most corrupt of all, has produced Boko Haram, an Islamist insurgency with few peers in barbarity.蔡斯在书中娓娓道来,她叙述了阿拉伯起义期间马格利布的情形,她描绘了盗贼统治的种种体制。在埃及,胡斯尼#8226;穆巴拉克(Hosni Mubarak)的盗贼统治根植于军队;在突尼斯,行政机关是扎因#8226;阿比丁#8226;本#8226;阿里(Zein al-Abidine Ben Ali)盗贼统治的核心。最腐败的也许要算尼日利亚,伊斯兰反叛组织科哈拉姆(Boko Haram)便出自该国,该组织的残暴罕有人匹敌。Kleptocracy blossomed in the late 1990s, Chayes reckons, “as governing cliques turned economic liberalisation policies — along with a newly indulgent public morality — to their personal advantage”. As the title indicates, her focus is states. But kleptocracy — like finance or jihadism — increasingly knows no borders. Its most obvious manifestations may be the national ruling classes of places such as Angola or Russia or, as Chayes argues, in western states such as Ireland in the run-up to the financial crisis. Yet venal regimes are also cogs in a worldwide system.蔡斯认为,二十世纪九十年代末,“随着统治集团利用经济自由化政策为个人谋取利益,加之公共道德滑坡”,盗贼统治兴起。如其书名所示,蔡斯的重点是国家。但盗贼统治——就像金融或伊斯兰圣战——越来越没有国界之分。最明显的例子可能是安哥拉、俄罗斯等国的国家统治阶级,或者如蔡斯所认为的,还包括像爱尔兰这种西方国家在金融危机爆发前的情形。不过腐败政权在全球盗贼统治体系内也是少不了的一个存在。Chayes nods to this when she points out the role of Dubai in Afghanistan’s kleptocracy, of Switzerland in Egypt’s, or of London in Nigeria’s. She could go further. Those who oversee the offshore banking system have shown themselves equally y to serve secular dictators such as Chile’s Augusto Pinochet and exporters of fundamentalism such as Iran or the House of Saud, not to mention itinerant terrorists and arms-dealers. Chayes warns “direct enablers” including banks, accountants, PRs and lobbyists that take the kleptocrat’s shilling that they “bear some of the moral — if not currently much material — responsibility, not just for the criminal behaviour, but for the often dramatic and destabilising and expensive reaction it sparks”. Ultimately the foreign collaborators of kleptocrats, be they bankers, business partners, political allies or occupiers, are what insulates them from being called to account by those in whose name they rule. “People think you want corruption,” a Kandahar friend of Chayes told her, summarising Afghan sentiment towards Americans. It is an understandable conclusion.蔡斯也认可这一点,她在书中指出了迪拜之于阿富汗窃国者的作用,瑞士之于埃及窃国者的作用,以及伦敦之于尼日利亚窃国者的作用。其实她还可以更进一步。离岸系统的监管者已经表明,他们同样也准备好了务那些世俗独裁者,比如智利的奥古斯托#8226;皮诺切特(Augusto Pinochet),又比如伊朗或沙特王室这样的原教旨主义输出者,至于流窜的恐怖分子以及军火商更是不在话下。蔡斯警告说“直接推动者”包括、会计师、公关,以及为窃国者有偿代言的游说者,她说“这群人即使现在还没有承担较大实质责任,也需承担一定的道德责任,不仅是对犯罪行为,还对犯罪行为往往引起的剧烈、破坏稳定、代价高昂的反抗”。最后,窃国者在外国同伙——包括家、商业伙伴、政治盟友或占领者——的协助下,得以免于遭到人民的问责——他们正是以人民的名义治理国家的。蔡斯在坎大哈的一位朋友对她说:“人们认为你们就是想要这种腐败的景象”,一言概括了阿富汗人对美国的感想。这一结论可以理解。 /201503/365366

  TAURUS and ARIES:金牛-白羊:This union is better as a hot passionate affair. Your possessiveness will cramp the Aries#39; free-loving nature.金牛座的你占有欲极强,这很容易伤害到崇尚自由的白羊座爱侣。TAURUS and TAURUS:金牛-金牛:This union is somewhat dull in other areas of life. You will have a tendency to grow fat together. Visualize two couch potatoes eating in front of the television.这对情侣档在生活的某些方面有些无聊。金牛座的你有急增脂肪的趋势,可以想像2个电视迷坐在电视前狠吃猛喝是多么的可怕吧。TAURUS and GEMINI:金牛-双子:Gemini#39;s lack of respect for possessions and stability will drive you up a wall. You aren#39;t spontaneous enough for the versatile Twin. Not really a likely combination.挥霍无度、缺乏安全感的双子座让你很不放心;你对多才多艺的他/她也并不感冒。这真的不是一个好的组合。TAURUS and CANCER:金牛-巨蟹:Good partnership. You will enhance one another. You offer the Crab the necessary security and, in return, you receive the affection and loyalty you desire.你们是好的伙伴关系。你俩在一起可以相互促进,共同提高。你能给蟹子需要的安全感,同样地,你也能从巨蟹座那里得到渴望的和忠诚。TAURUS and LEO:金牛-狮子:This is not only an unlikely connection but one that is built on deception. If your financial position is good you will attract the Lion; however, this partner will want the freedom to roam.你们不但不太可能在一起,而且即便在一起也是建立在欺骗的基础上的。如果你经济实力雄厚,当然能吸引狮子。然而,这个家伙却是个花心大萝卜。TAURUS and VIRGO:金牛-处女:Problems usually arise in the bedroom, but in all other areas, you and your Virgoan will do remarkably well. You are both practical and hard working.除了在卧室里会经常发生矛盾外,在其它的任何地方,你俩都能相处地很好。金牛座的你是个脚踏实地且工作努力的人。TAURUS and LIBRA:金牛-天秤:Compromise is a necessity if you want this union to work. Your Libran mate will be far too indecisive for you, and you lack the sophistication that the Scales demand in a partner.如果你想让彼此的关系持久,必须学会让步。在深沉老练的天秤座面前,你还嫩了点,还远远达不到他/她理想的标准。TAURUS and SCORPIO:金牛-天蝎:Polarity attraction, but you are both fixed signs that can cause difficulties. Your stubbornness and the Scorpion#39;s jealousy will result in a no win situation.彼此都有着巨大的吸引力,但双方都是固定星座,这也势必会产生矛盾。牛儿的固执加上蝎子的嫉妒心让这段恋情无果而终。TAURUS and SITTARIUS:金牛-射手:This combo is better left as friends. The archer likes to gamble, be free-spirited and take each day as it comes.You, on the other hand, could never live without routine and would frown upon the Sagittarians irresponsibility.这对组合最好还是做朋友比较好。射手座的人喜欢冒险,热爱自由;而你从不打没把握的仗,一切事情都依计划实施。你是很难忍受射手座的缺乏负责感的。TAURUS and CAPRICORN:金牛-羯:This is not a bad alliance, as you both have the same interests where money, possessions and security are concerned.The biggest drawback is the old ;all work and no play; syndrome.这对搭档看上去不错,你俩志同道合,无论在经济、财产还是安全感上的看法都非常一致。但“全是工作没有”却是存在于双方间的最大的隐患。TAURUS and AQUARIUS:金牛-水瓶:You are both fixed signs with a totally different concept of life. The Water-bearer is too much of a loner and you always want to own or possess your partner.都是固定星座的你俩有着完全不同的生活理念。水瓶座的一方太过孤僻,而你占有性过强,真有点水火不容的驾势。TAURUS and PISCES:金牛-双鱼:This combination can work; however, the Fish lacks practicality, which can be a deterrent for you. On the other hand, your Pisces mate may leave if you become too domineering.这一组合还凑合。然而,成日沉溺于幻想中的鱼儿不免让你有些招驾不住;另一方面,如果你太专制,鱼儿肯定就游走了哦。 /201507/386439

  7.Advertisers Design Anthropomorphic Products7.拟人产品:拉近距离One of the most fascinating ways that advertisers get you to buy things is through anthropomorphism. The meaning of the word is simple: it means to give human qualities to an inanimate object. And the way this concept influences product design is that people are more likely to buy something if some sort of personal connection can be made to the object. Giving a product human qualities helps a consumer form a better bond with something they#39;re about to buy whether it#39;s a can of soda or a bed sheet. An article on Wired explains this concept as described by a pair of social psychologists named Rick Baaren and Matthijs van Leeuwen.拟人化是广告商诱使你买东西的极好办法。这个词的意思很简单,就是赋予静物以人类的特性。这一概念之所以能够影响产品设计,是因为一旦消费者与某种商品建立了个人联系,那他购买的可能性就会大大增加。不管是一罐汽水还是一个床单,商品拟人化都能使其与消费者更好地联系起来。在《连线》(Wired)杂志的一篇文章中,社会心理学家瑞克#8226;拜仁(Rick Baaren)和马泰斯#8226;万#8226;莱文(Matthijs van Leeuwen)就很好地诠释了拟人化这一概念。The psychologists explain that many of the choices that people make are based upon unconscious feelings rather than rational motivations. Because of this tendency to act on subconscious signals, humans are quite vulnerable to being fed subliminal messages in advertising. Apparently, humans are introduced to anthropomorphic advertising at a very young age when things like blankets and childhood accessories are turned into cartoon characters. Then as adults, consumers act the same way they did as children by forming an emotional response to something that#39;s clearly inanimate like a household cleaning product or a vehicle.心理学家表示,人们所做的很多选择都是基于潜意识而非理性动机,因此,广告所蕴含的潜在信息很容易吸引受众。其实,人们在很小的时候就开始接触拟人化广告,比如做成卡通人形的毯子和儿童装饰。成年以后,消费者仍会像小时候一样,与诸如家居清洁产品或小车之类的静物有着一定的情感交流。It seems fantastic that someone could bond with an inanimate object, but just consider how children love their toys, particularly when they#39;re an action figure or a doll. Then, when someone tries to take that toy away, they have a significant emotional response to that loss. As adults, we form those same bonds with inanimate objects as if a bottle of detergent was a good friend or a barbecue was an old buddy from college.人与静物交流,听起来有点不可思议,但是只要想想小孩子对玩具,尤其对人形玩偶或者洋娃娃爱不释手就明白了。一旦有人把玩具拿走,他们的情绪反应会非常强烈。我们作为成年人,也会对一些静物产生类似的情绪,仿佛清洁剂是我们的挚友,而烤肉则是我们大学时代的老伙伴。6.Stores Offer “Handy” Baskets That Actually Lead You To Buy More6.购物小篮:购物没完Advice columns are full of ways that you can spend less at the grocery store, and one of the most popular pieces of advice is to use a small, hand-held basket instead of a cart to do your shopping. The wisdom goes that you#39;ll buy fewer products because you#39;ll have less room to carry them in your basket. Well, apparently this advice is terrible because a new study reveals that the exact opposite of what you expect happens when you choose to use a small basket at the grocery store. Time Magazine shared the results of this European study that showed that shoppers make some rather bad decisions when they use a small basket.建议专栏里都是教你在杂货店少花钱的方法,其中最普遍的建议就是在购物时使用小手提篮而不是手推车。这个“好方法”的原理在于,篮子的空间更小,放不下太多商品,这样你就会买得更少。然而,这似乎是个馊主意,因为最新的研究显示,当你在杂货商店选择使用小购物篮时,完全会事与愿违。《时代周刊》刊登了这项欧洲研究的成果,研究表明,购物者在使用小购物篮时会做出一些相当糟糕的决定。The oddest part of the study is why we behave as we do when using a small basket. Apparently, the weight and inconvenience of carrying a basket influences us to make hasty decisions when buying products rather than carefully considering each purchase. Shoppers are more likely to buy products like candy and soda when they#39;re holding a heavy basket than they are when pushing a cart that doesn#39;t put any real strain on the person#39;s muscles. To come to this conclusion, the researchers actually conducted a number of studies. The first was to simply observe people who were shopping with carts and baskets and the sorts of products they were buying.这项研究最令人不可思议的就是,为什么我们在使用小购物篮时会买得更多。显然,提着一个篮子又重又不方便,导致我们在购物时不经过慎重思考,便匆忙做决定。相比推着购物车,提着一个沉甸甸的篮子,购物者购买糖果和汽水之类商品的可能性会更大一些,因为购物车可不会让人的肌肉紧张。这是研究人员进行多项调查后所得出的结论。其中第一项便是观察用购物车和购物篮进行购物的人,以及他们选购的商品种类。Another interesting study was conducted by giving shoppers a list that had choices of healthy items like fruit, as well as candy items, and the people holding small baskets were more likely to choose the candy over the healthy items than the people shopping with carts. So, when a grocery store provides you with a convenient basket, you might just end up buying more than you expect.另一项有趣的调查是向购物者提供一张清单,上面列有水果等健康产品,也有糖果商品,与用购物车的人相比,提着小购物篮的人更愿意选择糖果而不是健康产品。因此,当一个杂货商店为你提供了一个方便的购物篮时,你最终买到的东西可能会比预想的更多。5.Holding an Item May Influence You To Buy It5.手握商品:购买原因Beautiful and colorful displays in advertising are common, but customers are often warned that they shouldn#39;t touch the merchandise for fear of having to buy it if something is accidentally broken. Interestingly, touching an item could actually have a positive effect on the likelihood that someone might make a purchase. According to research conducted by scientists at Ohio State University and Illinois State University, holding an item for just a few minutes could make someone more likely to buy something.广告宣传中常见华丽多的陈列品,但消费者往往会被警告不许触碰商品,唯恐一不小心碰坏了自己就得买下来。有趣的是,触摸商品事实上可能会对人们的购买意愿产生积极影响。俄亥俄州立大学与伊利诺伊州立大学的学者进行了一项研究,结果表明,把商品拿在手里几分钟可能会让人更想购买。An article published at Ohio State University revealed that people who held an item for just a few seconds could form an emotional attachment to it. This attachment formed even if the object was something banal like a coffee cup. Apparently, a feeling of actual ownership of an item can occur after holding it for about 30 seconds. The results of this study show how essential retail stores are to companies who haven#39;t yet given up their “brick and mortar” stores for a fully online existence despite the incredible popularity and growth of internet shopping.在俄亥俄州立大学发表的一篇论文中称,人们把产品拿在手里几秒钟,就会对它产生一种情感依恋。即使是对一些平常的物件,比如咖啡杯,也会形成这种依恋。显然,把一件商品拿在手里30秒钟,可能会产生一种实际拥有它的感觉。这项研究的结果表明,尽管网上购物急速普及和发展,但对于那些没有放弃“实体”店铺专营网店的公司来说,零售商店是多么重要。In the realm of marketing, this concept is called “multisensory design,” and it#39;s part of a style of marketing known as tactile marketing. This idea is influenced by a variety of scientific specialties including cognitive neuroscience and psychology, which help marketers create unique advertising campaigns that may not only influence the design of a product, but even the design of its packaging. When creating an advertising campaign that features tactile marketing, touch is often combined with sight and sound to utilize multisensory design. A product that looks good, sounds good, and feels good offers an unbeatable advantage for a business looking to convince a buyer to make a purchase.在营销领域,这一理念被称为“多感官设计”,是触觉营销的一部分。这个概念受多个学科的影响,包括认知神经学和心理学,它不仅会影响产品设计,甚至还会影响其包装设计,可以帮助营销者打造独一无二的广告活动。在设计以触觉营销为特点的广告活动时,为了利用多感官设计,通常会将触觉与视觉、听觉结合。一件产品悦目、悦耳又悦心,那么商家就有了一项无可比拟的优势,能够说顾客掏腰包。4.Advertisers Use Special Packaging to Make You Buy More4.特殊包装:销量之光Participants were offered a variety of drink s with varyingly sized drinks on them ranging from 12 ounces to 32 ounces. When a with bundles of small drinks was offered, participants ordered more ounces in total than they did when presented with the single, larger sizes. The researchers conducting the study concluded that reducing the size of sodas or other unhealthy items for the purposes of reducing overall soda consumption could have the opposite effect and encourage people to buy more ounces in the long run.有项研究,在参与者面前有份饮料清单,饮料的大小在12盎司到32盎司不等。面对含有成捆小份饮料的清单,参与者订购的饮料总量比单独大份的饮料更多。研究者总结,为了减少汽水的消耗总量而减少汽水或其他不健康饮料的尺寸大小,结果会适得其反。因为从长远来看,减少饮料尺寸大小的做法会促使人们购买饮料总量上升。Soda manufacturers are aly using this technique to boost sales. Soda and alcohol manufacturers like Coca-Cola and Heineken are offering small versions of their regular drinks. A recent statement made by Heineken revealed a dramatic increase in sales of their small cans. In fact, sales were so good that the growth of that size was outperforming growth in all other areas. Despite efforts in some cities, like New York City, to ban the sale of drinks over a certain size, companies can simply use the tactic of bundling smaller sizes while also enjoying a boost to overall sales.汽水制造商已经使用这种方法来促进销售量了。汽水制造商和酒精制造商,如可口可乐公司和喜力公司都提供了一种比常规包装要小的饮料酒水。喜力公司最新报告显示,小瓶饮料使销售额急剧增加。事实上,这种小瓶饮料的销售额的增长,远远超出其他销售领域的增长。尽管在像纽约这样的一些城市,已尝试禁止销售超过一定规模的饮料。但是一些公司只要实行简单的捆绑消费,就可以享受整体销售的提高。审校:假微信 校对:落花生 Freya然 /201507/385018。

  A new economics paper has some old-fashioned advice for people navigating the stresses of life: Find a spouse who is also your best friend.新近发表的一篇经济学论文,给正面临生活压力的人提了一个有些老派的建议:找最好的朋友做你的配偶。Social scientists have long known that married people tend to be happier, but they debate whether that is because marriage causes happiness or simply because happier people are more likely to get married. The new paper, published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, controlled for pre-marriage happiness levels.社会科学家向来知道,已婚人士往往更幸福,但对于这是因为婚姻带来了幸福,还是说越幸福的人越可能走进婚姻,他们意见不一。美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)新近发表的一篇论文,将婚前的幸福水平作为控制变量。It concluded that being married makes people happier and more satisfied with their lives than those who remain single – particularly during the most stressful periods, like midlife crises.文章的结论是,婚姻使人们比孑然一身者更幸福,对生活更满意,特别是在压力最大的时期,如中年危机。Even as fewer people are marrying, the disadvantages of remaining single have broad implications. It’s important because marriage is increasingly a force behind inequality. Stable marriages are more common among educated, high-income people, and increasingly out of reach for those who are not. That divide appears to affect not just people’s income and family stability, but also their happiness and stress levels.尽管结婚的人减少了,但单身的弊端影响广泛。这一点颇为重要,因为婚姻越来越成了不平等背后的一个因素。稳定的婚姻在受过教育的高收入人群中更普遍,而情况与之相反的人则越来越难获得稳定的婚姻。这一差异影响的似乎不仅是人们的收入和家庭的稳定,还有他们的幸福和压力状况。A quarter of today’s young adults will have never married by 2030, which would be the highest share in modern history, according to Pew Research Center. Yet both remaining unmarried and divorcing are more common among less-educated, lower-income people. Educated, high-income people still marry at high rates and are less likely to divorce.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)称,当下的年轻人中,有四分之一不会在2030年前结婚,这一比例将是现代历史上的最高水平。但在受教育较少、收入较低的人群中,未婚和离异都更普遍。受过教育的高收入人群结婚的比例依然较高,离婚的可能性也更小。Those whose lives are most difficult could benefit most from marriage, according to the economists who wrote the new paper, John Helliwell of the Vancouver School of Economics and Shawn Grover of the Canadian Department of Finance. “Marriage may be most important when there is that stress in life and when things are going wrong,” Mr. Grover said.这篇文章的作者是两名经济学家,分别是温哥华经济学院(Vancouver School of Economics)的约翰·赫利韦尔(John Helliwell)和加拿大财政部的肖恩·格罗弗(Shawn Grover)。他们认为,生活最困难的人从婚姻中的受益最大。“当生活中出现了压力,有了问题时,婚姻可能是最重要的,”格罗弗说。They analyzed data about well-being from two national surveys in the ed Kingdom and the Gallup World Poll. In all but a few parts of the world, even when controlling for people’s life satisfaction before marriage, being married made them happier. This conclusion, however, did not hold true in Latin America, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.他们对英国的两项全国性调查,以及盖洛普全球民意调查(Gallup World Poll)中和幸福有关的数据进行了分析。全世界除少数几个地方外,即便将婚前的生活满意度作为控制变量,婚姻也会让人们更幸福。然而,这一结论对拉美、南亚和撒哈拉以南的非洲来说不成立。Intriguingly, marital happiness long outlasted the honeymoon period. Though some social scientists have argued that happiness levels are innate, so people return to their natural level of well-being after joyful or upsetting events, the researchers found that the benefits of marriage persist.有趣的是,婚姻带来的幸福远比蜜月期更长久。一些社会科学家称,幸福感是与生俱来的,因而在令人高兴或苦恼的事情过后,人们会回归天生的幸福感,但研究人员发现,婚姻带来的益处会持续下去。One reason for that might be the role of friendship within marriage. Those who consider their spouse or partner to be their best friend get about twice as much life satisfaction from marriage as others, the study found.原因之一或许是婚姻中的友谊所起的作用。研究发现,视配偶或伴侣为至交的人,从婚姻中获得的生活满足感大约是其他人的两倍。The effect of friendship seems to be the result of living with a romantic partner, rather than the legal status of being married, because it was as strong for people who lived together but weren’t married. Women benefit more from being married to their best friend than men do, though women are less likely to regard their spouse as their best friend.友谊的这种影响,似乎源自和一个浪漫的伴侣一起生活,而非法律上的已婚身份,因为它对那些未婚同居的人的影响同样大。和男性相比,女性从与至交结婚中受益更多,不过女性视配偶为至交的可能性更低。“What immediately intrigued me about the results was to rethink marriage as a whole,” Mr. Helliwell said. “Maybe what is really important is friendship, and to never forget that in the push and pull of daily life.”“相关结果立即引起我的兴趣,让我重新从整体上考虑婚姻,”赫利韦尔说。“或许真正重要的是友谊,并且永远不要在日常生活的波折起伏中忘了这一点。”Marriage has undergone a drastic shift in the last half century. In the past, as the Nobel-winning economist Gary Becker described, marriage was utilitarian: Women looked for a husband to make money and men looked for a woman to manage the household.过去半个世纪,婚姻经历了剧变。从前,就像获得了诺贝尔奖的经济学家加里·贝克尔(Gary Becker)所描述的那样,婚姻是功利的:女性为了找个丈夫挣钱,男性为了找个妻子持家。But in recent decades, the roles of men and women have become more similar. As a result, spouses have taken on roles as companions and confidants, particularly those who are financially stable, as the economists Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers have discussed.但近几十年,男女的角色变得更加相似。结果,就像经济学家贝特西·史蒂文森(Betsey Stevenson)和贾斯汀·沃夫斯(Justin Wolfers)讨论的那样,配偶承担起了同伴和知己的角色,特别是那些经济状况稳定的人。The benefits of marital friendship are most vivid during middle age, when people tend to experience a dip in life satisfaction, largely because career and family demands apply the most stress then. Those who are married, the new paper found, have much shallower dips – even in regions where marriage does not have an overall positive effect.人到中年,往往会经历生活满意度的下降,主要是因为这时职业和家庭需求带来的压力是最大的。这个时候,婚姻中的友谊益处最为明显。新发表的这篇文章发现,即便是在婚姻总体上未产生积极影响的地区,已婚者生活满意度下降的幅度也要小得多。“The biggest benefits come in high-stress environments, and people who are married can handle midlife stress better than those who aren’t because they have a shared load and shared friendship,” Mr. Helliwell said.“最大的益处出现在高压环境中,和单身或离异者相比,已婚者能更好地应对中年压力,因为有人和他们一起承担压力,分享友谊,”赫利韦尔说。Overall, the research comes to a largely optimistic conclusion. People have the capacity to increase their happiness levels and avoid falling deep into midlife crisis by finding support in long-term relationships. Yet those relationships seem to be less achievable for the least advantaged members of society.总的来说,这项研究得出的结论基本上是乐观的。人们有能力通过在长期关系中找到持,来增强幸福感,避免深陷中年危机。但对最弱势的社会成员而言,形成这种关系的可能性似乎更小。 /201501/354737

  There are plenty of different ways to protect your car from theft, but one owner of a Volkswagen Transporter van decided to protect it in a novel way – by covering the new vehicle in rust-like vinyl to make it look like a hunk of junk!咱都知道要给汽车防盗的方法有很多。但是,一位大众T型车的车主却想到了一个神奇的办法 ——给车身贴上了生锈图案的乙烯膜,让车看起来如同一堆废铁。The artwork for the vinyl wrap, done by Clyde’s Wraps in Glasgow, involved taking exact measurements of the entire van。这一件乙烯膜作品来自格拉斯哥(苏格兰最大城市)的Clyde’s Wraps工作室。制作这样一副贴膜需要对整体车身进行测量。This allowed their artists to realistically model rust as if it had been formed by water running down from the vehicle’s handles, mirrors and frames。这样,艺术家们就可以逼真地模拟出生锈的效果,就像是通过水从把手,反光镜,窗框流下所形成的锈迹。“It only took 3 days for the police to pull him over to ask what was going on with all the rust,” Clyde’s Wraps write on their website. “Please note that there is nothing illegal about going to town with graphics on your vehicle but it may confuse others!”“车子上路后仅仅3天时间,警察就在路上把车拦了下来,询问这车子为何锈迹斑斑。” Clyde’s Wraps的官网上这样写道。“请注意,在车身上放一些图案不违法,但是的确会对他人形成一定的困扰。”That’s true, but in this case, it seems like that was exactly the point – and it worked!这个说法没错。但在这件事上,却恰恰达到了目的 —— 真的起到了迷惑作用! /201507/384147Stories like the virgin birth lack freely given female consent. Why don#39;t they bother us more?故事就像被大多数女人认为的那样-处女生育会缺乏自由。只会给我们带来很多麻烦?Powerful gods and demi-gods impregnating human women—it#39;s a common theme in the history of religion, and it#39;s more than a little rapey.强大的神和半神血统的人类女性-这是在宗教史上的一个共同的主题,就非常怪异了。Zeus comes to Danae in the form of a golden shower, cutting ;the knot of intact virginity; and leaving her pregnant with the Greek hero, Perseus.宙斯看到了达那厄后乘她睡觉的时候化做一阵金雨与达那厄交配(结束了达那厄童贞)并生育了珀耳修斯。Jupiter forcibly overcomes Europa by transforming himself into a white bull and abducting her. He imprisons her on the Isle of Crete, over time fathering three children.宙斯变成了一头白牛并且说了欧罗巴,绑架了她。他禁锢她在克里特岛,随着时间的推移,他们生下三个孩子。Hermes copulates with a shepherdess to produce Pan.赫尔墨斯交配牧羊女生下潘。The legendary founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus are conceived when the Roman god Mars impregnates Rea Silvia, a vestal virgin.罗马传奇的创始人,罗穆卢斯和瑞斯是当时罗马战神让西尔维亚公主怀(一个处女)的结果。。Helen of Troy, the rare female offspring of a god-human mating, is produced when Zeus takes the form of a swan to get access to Leda.特洛伊的海伦,当宙斯化妆成天鹅勾引丽达时,一个罕见人神交配的雌性后代产生了。In some accounts Alexander the Great and the Emperor Augustus are sowed by gods in the form of serpents, by Phoebus and Jupiter respectively.在有些传说中,伟大的亚历山大和奥古斯塔斯大帝各自是由日神菲斯和宙斯化身蛇播种生下。Though the earliest Christians had a competing story, in the Gospel of Luke, the Virgin Mary gets pregnant when the spirit of the Lord comes upon her and the power of the Most High overshadows her.即使最早的基督教,也流行着一个故事,即在卢克福音中,上帝遇到圣母玛利亚,并且使圣母成功受。The earliest accounts of Zoroaster#39;s birth have him born of a human father and mother, much like Jesus,; but in later accounts his mother is pierced by a shaft of divine light.最早的传说中,拜火教圣人是人类父母的儿子,很像耶稣。但随后流传的故事中讲到他母亲是由神灵受而产下了他。The Hindu god Shiva has sex with the human woman Madhura, who has come to worship him while his wife Parvathi is away. Parvathi turns Madhura into a frog, but after 12 years in a well she regains human form and gives birth to Indrajit.印度教中的造物主席尔瓦令人类女孩马杜拉受。在他的妻子帕尔瓦蒂离开时,马杜拉基于对席尔瓦的崇拜使两人处在一起。之后帕尔瓦蒂将马杜拉变成了青蛙。但12年后在一口井中,她又恢复人形,并生下了因陀罗。The Buddha#39;s mother Maya finds herself pregnant after being entered from the side by a god in a dream.释迦尼的母亲玛雅夜里梦见与一个神仙交欢后怀。Underneath this remarkably enduring and widesp trope lie two assumptions that, in their most primitive form, may trace their roots all the way back to evolutionary biology.在这些不同寻常并且广为流传的故事中,存在两个假设,即以最原始的方式,追寻生物进化论的根源。The biology hypothesis, much oversimplified, goes something like this: Males and females of each species have instincts that maximize their genes in the next generation. Among humans, females seek the highest quality sperm donors that they can attract. They maximize the quality and survival of their children by mating with high status, powerful males. Males, on the other hand, maximize the quality and quantity of their offspring by seeking young fertile females (with beauty signaling fertility), controlling some females and fending off other males while also sping their seed around if they can get away with it.很多关于进化论的假说都过于简单,大体上都这样表述:每个物种的雄雌两性都具备本能,最大程度地把他们的基因传递给下一代。在人类中,女性追求她们所能吸引到的最高质量的精子贡献者。通过与强壮俊美的男性交配,保繁衍出最佳质量的下一代。另一方面,男性通过寻找年轻的生殖能力出众的女性(美丽容貌象征着生育能力),从质量和数量两方面保繁衍出自己的最佳后代。他们控制住某些女性,并且防止周边其他男性的介入。Biology may be the starting point, but over time, human impulses are embellished and institutionalized and made sacred by culture and religion. The mythic trope of gods mating with human females embodies powerful cultural and religious beliefs about sexuality. Familiar stories of this type derive from male dominated societies, which means they legitimize male reproductive desires: Powerful men not only want to control the valuable commodity of female fertility, they should. Gods ordain it and model it. And they prescribe punishments for those—especially females—who violate the proper order of things.进化论或许是起点,但历经沧桑,人类的本性冲动受到修饰和系统化加工,并且被文化和宗教赋以神话论。神话中的上帝与人间女子的交合便体现出强大的文化和宗教对性本身的信念理解。类似的故事从父系社会中流传下来,意味着子承父业的繁衍。强大的男子希望控制女性的繁殖权,他们也能够做到。上帝赐给他们权力并且成为典范。他们为此建立了惩罚机制,尤其对于妇女,那些要违反正确规律的人。The miraculous conception stories I listed may have roots in pre-history, in early religions centered on star worship and the agricultural cycle, but they emerged in modern form during the Iron Age. By this time in history, most women were chattel. Like children, livestock and slaves, they were literally possessions of men, and their primary economic and spiritual value lay in their ability to produce purebred offspring of known lineage. The men at the top owned concubines and harams, and virgin females were counted among the spoils of war. (See, for example, the Old Testament story of the virgin Midianites in which Yahweh commands the Israelites to kill the used women but keep the virgin girls for themselves.)我列出的这些神话故事或许扎根于史前时代,早期的宗教以人神崇拜和世代农耕为中心,但在石器时代融入了现代的形式。在那段历史时期,大多数妇女作为货品,像儿童、工具和奴隶一般,他们几乎是属于男性的财产,他们基本的经济和意识形态价值在于是否具有能够为名门望族进行生育的能力。高高在上的男人们妻妾成群,处女们被当做战争中的战利品。(例如,旧约故事中,耶和华命令以色列士兵杀死米甸人中已为人妇的女子,而留下处女为其享用。)It was also a time when gods picked favorites and meddled in the affairs of tribes and nations, and great men were born great. Small wonder, then, that so many powerful men claimed powerful paternity. In the tradition of the ancient Hebrews, this took the form of an obsession with lineage and pure, favored bloodlines. Writers of the Hebrew Bible trace the genealogy of King David back to Abraham, for example, and the genealogy of Abraham to the first man, Adam. In the Greek and Roman worlds, entitlement claims took the form of assigning supernatural paternity to public figures. The Christian tradition, somewhat awkwardly, tries to lay claim to both of these—tracing the lineage of Jesus through his father Joseph back to King David, while simultaneously denying that he had a human father.还是在那个时期,上帝来挑选喜欢的东西,并且插手部落和宗族事务,使得伟大男人天生便伟大。因此,很多强权男人们可以凭借父辈拥有权力。在古老的希伯莱传统中,以血统和纯粹的天赋血脉而拥有权力。希伯莱圣经的作者们将戴维大帝的族谱追溯到亚伯拉罕身上。例如,亚伯拉罕传承到下一代是亚当。在希腊和罗马世界,皇权天赋凌驾于普通大众之上。基督传统有些尴尬,试图将耶稣的血统追溯到其父亲耶和华以及戴维大帝的身上,而同时否认耶稣有一个人类父亲。This is the context for the miraculous conception stories, and in this context, the consent of a woman is irrelevant. Within a society that treats female sexuality as a male possession, the only consent that can be violated is the consent of a woman#39;s owner, the man with the rights to her reproductive capacity—typically her father, fiancé, or husband. Many Christians are surprised when told that nowhere in the Bible, either Old Testament or New, does any writer say that a woman#39;s consent is necessary or even desirable before sex.这构成了这些神话的背景。在这种背景下,取得妇女同意无关紧要。在一个把妇女的性权利当做男人财产看待的年代,唯一需要同意的便是妇女的主人,男人们有权主宰妇女的生育,通常是她的父亲、未婚夫或丈夫。很多基督徒感到吃惊,因为在圣经中,无论是旧约还是新月,没有任何作者写道在与妇女交欢前需要取得他们的同意。This omission is more than regrettable, it is tragic. Two thousand years after Hebrew and Aramaic texts were assembled into the modern Jewish Bible, 1600 years after a Roman Catholic committee voted books in and out of the Christian Bible, 1400 years after Muhammad wrote the Koran (which draws heavily on the moral framework of the Judeo-Christian tradition), we still struggle with the question of female consent. Our struggle is made immeasurably harder by the presence of ancient texts that have become modern idols— texts that put God#39;s name on men#39;s desires.这种疏漏非常令人遗憾,造成了悲剧。希伯莱和阿拉伯教义合并成现代犹太圣经后已经过去了2000年,罗马天主教委员会表决选用圣经已经过去了1600年,穆罕穆德完成古兰经(很大程度上借鉴了犹太教与天主教的共同道德经典)已经过去了1400年,我们还在为征求妇女同意这一问题而苦苦斗争。古老的经文直到今天也是崇拜的对象,它们以神的名义为男人的欲望背书,这使得我们不得不付出多得多的努力。The most extreme example may be a document published by the Islamic State, outlining rules for the treatment of sexual slaves, rules drawn from the Koran. Closer to home for most Americans is the awkward but widesp existence of Christian leaders who teach that a woman#39;s glory is in childbearing, and that a woman who fails to service her husband whenever he desires is failing to serve God.最为极端的例子莫过于伊斯兰国家颁布的法令,古兰经的条文规定对待性奴的处理方法。说到底,大多数美国人会有些尴尬,但基督教领袖们广泛宣扬妇女们最高荣耀是生育子孙,而且没能在丈夫有需求的时候侍好丈夫的女人,也是对上帝的忠实。But even closer to home for many is the shocking prevalence on college campuses and in society at large of sexual manipulation and coercion perpetrated by males who otherwise seem morally intact. One can#39;t help but notice that a large number of high-profile cases involve high-status males: fraternity members, a famous actor, a radio host, small-town football stars and big-league professional athletes—men, in other words, who think they are gods. These men are so convinced of their own deific qualities, they believe the object of their attentions has gotta want it—and if she doesn#39;t, well, that#39;s fine too, because when a god wants a woman, consent isn#39;t really part of the story.但进一步触及痛处,令很多美国人震惊的是放眼国内,美国高校和社会中存在大量男性性侵和强制猥亵事件,而且实施者表面上看却并非作恶多端,行为下流之人。我们不禁要注意到,大量广受注目的案件发生在知名男性身上,包括:大学兄弟会成员、著名演员、广播主持人、小镇足球明星以及大联盟球星。换句话说,认为自己是上帝的男人们,非常自信自己具备神一般的素质,以至于他们相信自己所关注的目标会愿意让他们为所欲为。如果她不愿意,那么好吧,因为传说中上帝需要女人时是不需要征得同意的。 /201501/351850

  An expert group recommended on Tuesday that the Food and Drug Administration approve a powerful new drug to protect against heart attacks. If approved, it would be the first in a major new class of medicines in a generation that significantly lower levels of cholesterol, the leading cause of heart disease.周二,一批专家建议美国食品与药品(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)批准一种预防心肌梗死的强效新药。如果获得批准,该药物将成为一个新的重要药物类别中,最近二三十年获批的首例药物。此类药物能大幅降低胆固醇水平,而胆固醇是心脏病的主要诱因。Dr. Joshua W. Knowles, a Stanford cardiologist, called the medicines “a triumph of the modern genetic revolution.”斯坦福大学(Stanford)的心脏病学专家约书亚·W·诺尔斯(Joshua W. Knowles)士称,这些药物是“现代基因革命的一次胜利”。The idea for such drugs arose from genetic studies about a decade ago and has tantalized cardiologists ever since. Early results of clinical trials raised hopes that the therapies would be critical new additions to the treatment arsenal for those at risk of heart disease, the biggest killer of Americans.研制这类药物的想法来自于约10年前的基因研究成果,此后一直令心脏病学专家可望而不可即。初步的临床试验结果带来了希望,这些疗法可能为心脏病高危人群的治疗方法提供新的重要补充。心脏病是美国人的头号杀手。People who have taken them have seen their LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad cholesterol, plunge to remarkably low levels. But definitive evidence of the drugs’ effectiveness in reducing heart attacks and deaths will only come after large clinical trials are completed in 2017.用这些药物的人已经发现体内的低密度脂蛋白(LDL)胆固醇显著下降,LDL胆固醇也就是所谓的“坏胆固醇”。不过,这种药物降低心梗和死亡风险的确凿据,要到2017年大规模临床试验完成后才可能出现。The panel, in a 13 to 3 vote, recommended the approval of Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals’ drug, alirocumab. On Wednesday, the committee will turn to Amgen’s drug, evolocumab. The F.D.A. usually follows the recommendations of its advisory panels, but not always. The agency says that if it approves the drugs based on their effects on cholesterol, the approval will not be rescinded even if trials now underway fail to show the drugs reduce the risk of heart attacks and deaths.这个专家委员会以13比3的投票结果,建议批准赛诺菲(Sanofi)和瑞泽恩制药公司(Regeneron Pharmaceuticals)的药物alirocumab。周三,这个委员会将开始评估美国安进公司(Amgen)的药物evolocumab。FDA通常会听取咨询委员会的建议,但也并非总是如此。该机构表示,如果根据它们降低胆固醇的效果而批准了这些药物,那么即使目前进行的试验无法明它们能降低心脏病和死亡风险,批准的决定也不会被撤销。Once a drug is approved doctors can prescribe it to patients other than those for whom it was intended, although insurers generally will not pay.一旦某种药物获得批准,医生就可以向该药物目标人群之外的其他患者开出该药物的处方,不过保险公司一般不会买单。The drugs are injected every two weeks or once a month, depending on the formulation. The companies are asking that they be approved for use in three groups: patients with high levels of LDL cholesterol who cannot lower it enough with statins, the mainstay drug for cholesterol lowering first introduced in the late 1980s; people at very high risk because they have aly had a heart attack or have diabetes and cannot get their levels low enough with statins; and people with high levels of LDL who cannot tolerate statins. Doctors often aim for LDL levels of 70 for people at high risk.这种药物需要每两周或每个月注射一次,取决于具体的处方。这些企业正在要求批准三种人使用该药物:LDL胆固醇水平较高、且用他汀类药物(主流的降胆固醇药物,上世纪80年代末推出)无法充分降低其水平的患者;已经患有心梗或糖尿病、且无法用他汀类药物充分降低胆固醇水平的高危人群;LDL胆固醇水平较高且无法耐受他汀类药物的的人群。医生通常认为,LDL胆固醇水平达到70即为高危人群。The problem for the expert group was to decide if there was enough evidence to approve the Sanofi drug without waiting for results from the large clinical trials. Those who voted no said drugs should not be approved until clinical trials establish their efficacy, and voiced the worry that people participating in the trials would drop out once the drugs were approved so they could be sure to get the medicine, not a placebo.专家组面临的问题是,在不等待大型临床试验的结果的情况下,判断目前是否有足够的据持批准赛诺菲(Sanofi)。投反对票的人认为,除非临床试验实了其功效,否则任何药物都不应该被批准。他们还表达了这样的担忧,即一旦药物被批准,参加临床试验的人们就会退出试验,因为这样他们就能够确保自己用的是药物本身,而不是安慰剂。“We need clinical outcomes,” said Dr. Peter Wilson of Emory University.“我们需要临床结果,”埃默里大学(Emory University)的皮特·威尔森(Peter Wilson)士说。Some on the panel felt comfortable recommending approval only for a narrow group of people with a genetic condition, heterozygousfamilial hypercholesterolemia, who cannot control their cholesterol with statins alone. Others favored allowing use of the drug by the much larger group of people at high risk of heart disease for whom statins are insufficient.委员会的一些成员认为,只可以批准存在基因缺陷的一小批患者用这些药物,即杂合子型家族性高胆固醇血症患者。这类人无法单独依靠他汀类药物控制胆固醇。还有一些成员持把药物的适用范围扩大到一个大得多的群体,即他汀类药物已经无法满足其需求的心脏病高危人群。The group’s chairman, Dr. Robert J. Smith of Brown University, argued for broader availability of the drugs. He said he sees patients in his own practice with out of control cholesterol who are at very high risk because, for example, they have aly had a heart attack. Two years is a long time for them to wait for clinical trial findings. “I am unwilling to subject patients to that wait,” Dr. Smith said.委员会主席、布朗大学(Brown University)的罗伯特·J·史密斯(Robert J. Smith)士呼吁在更大范围内提供这种药物。他说,自己在行医过程中看到,一些胆固醇水平失控的患者处境十分危险,原因是他们可能已经患过心梗。为了临床试验结果再等待两年对他们来说太漫长了。“我不愿意让病人就这么等着,”史密斯士说。The companies and many independent cardiologists say they have reason to believe the drugs will perform as expected. Lowering LDL cholesterol has generally been found to protect against heart disease. And, they say, the drugs were designed to mimic mutations in a gene, PCSK9, that protects people from getting heart disease, even if they smoke or have high blood pressure.这些企业和许多独立心脏病学专家称,他们有理由相信这些药物会产生预期的效果。降低LDL胆固醇被普遍认为能预防心脏病。此外,他们还说,这些药物模仿了PCSK9基因突变,这种基因能防止人们罹患心脏病,哪怕他们吸烟或有高血压。But the drugs have caused trepidation among insurers and others who would have to pay the bills because the drugs are certain to be expensive — perhaps ,000 a year — and millions of people are likely to qualify to take them if they are approved for the broader group. Sanofi estimates that 11 million Americans might qualify. Amgen puts the number at eight million.不过,这些药物已经引发了一些恐慌,比如必须为它们买单的保险公司和其他人,以及该药物获准适用于更大群体的话,上百万名可能有资格用这些药物的患者。因为这些药物注定昂贵,也许每年要花1万美元。赛诺菲估计,可能有1100万美国人有资格接受该药物。安进公司认为这个数字是800万。So far, it looks like just about everyone who takes the new drugs responds. LDL cholesterol levels plunge by 40 to 65 percent, even if the starting level was achieved with a statin.迄今为止,似乎每一名使用了新药的患者都见到了疗效。LDL胆固醇水平下降了40%到65%,即使他们之前一直在用他汀类药物来控制胆固醇。Safety studies so far have found the drugs seem to have no more side effects than a placebo but the large clinical trials are needed to get more substantial information.目前的安全性研究表明,这些药物的副作用似乎和安慰剂差不多,不过,在大型的临床实验之后才能获得更多实质性的信息。Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies see the tantalizing prospect of multibillion dollar blockbuster drugs, and are racing to get them to market as rapidly as possible. Sanofi bought an F.D.A.-backed voucher for .5 million that gave them an expedited review. The company says the F.D.A. agreed to decide whether to approve their drug by July 24. Amgen, which did not pay, expects an answer by Aug. 27, the company says. Pfizer also has a drug in this new class but it is further behind in development.与此同时,制药公司已经看到了价值数十亿美元的重磅药物的诱人前景,它们正在竞相以最快的速度将其投放市场。赛诺菲以6750万美元的价格购买了FDA的批文,可以获得快速审核。该公司表示,FDA同意在7月24日之前做出是否批准该药物的决定。安进公司没有花这笔钱,该公司表示,预计将在8月27日之前得到。辉瑞公司(Pfizer)也有一款这种类型的药物,但研发进度要更慢。Then there is the question of cost. The new drugs, like many new cancer drugs, are monoclonal antibodies, produced from living cells at great expense. The companies will not say what they plan to charge. But Dr. William Shrank, chief scientific officer at CVS Health, estimates they will cost ,000 to ,000 a year.还有成本的问题。这些新药就像许多新型抗癌药物一样,是单克隆抗体,它们是以高昂的成本用活体细胞制造的。这些公司不愿透露药品未来的定价。但CVS健康公司(CVS Health)的首席科学官威廉·史兰克(William Shrank)估计,用这种药物一年将需要7000至1.2万美元。If drugs were restricted to those with dangerously high cholesterol levels who cannot get their LDL low enough with statins, the cost would be billion, he estimated. If people who are intolerant to statins are included, that would add another billion. If people with a history of heart disease are included, the bill for the drugs rises another 0 billion.他估计,如果药物仅限于那些胆固醇水平过高且无法利用他汀类药物降低胆固醇水平的人,总成本将达到160亿美元。如果包括无法耐受他汀类药物的人,成本将增加200亿美元。算上有心脏病史的人,成本将再升高1500亿美元。“Managed pharmacy care, indeed the health care system, has never seen a challenge like this to our resilience in absorbing costs,” Dr. Shrank wrote in Health Affairs.史兰克在健康事务(Health Affairs)网站上写道:“保健药学管理体系吸收成本的能力,实际上整个卫生体系吸收成本的能力,都没有遇到过这样的严峻挑战。” /201506/380294




  With frightful December weather approaching, your date ideas will have to get a bit more creative. You may not be able to grab drinks on a patio or have a picnic at the park anymore, but we’ve come up with fun, inexpensive options to keep your social life humming along no matter how low the temperature dips. Take a break from the classic dinner and a movie routine with one of these original ideas.十二月的严寒已慢慢逼近,你的约会点子也需要更富有创意一些!在天台上喝饮料或者去公园野餐似乎都不大现实了,不过,这里我们列出了一些有趣而实惠的选择,不管外面的温度有多低,都能让你的社交生活活跃起来。是时候换换传统的共进晚餐或是平淡乏味的电影约会了,试试这些新颖的点子吧!Fun activities to share分享有趣的活动Visit the deep sea参观海底世界You don’t have to completely forget about summer in cold winter days. Embark on an exotic adventure with a visit to the aquarium. Aquariums are romantic because of the dim lighting and dreamy seascapes.即使在寒冷的冬天,也不要把夏天统统抛在脑后。参观水族馆就像开启了一场颇具异域风情的冒险之旅。昏暗的灯光与梦幻般的海景都让海洋馆成为浪漫之地。Go to improve看一场即兴表演Watching comedy is a fun way to get away from the cold and bond over cheap laughs. In small improv troupes, comedians are given ridiculous scenarios to act out on the spot.看场喜剧表演也是个摆脱寒冷的不错选择:两个人一起因为一些没深度的笑话而捧腹,彼此间的距离也因此变得亲密。在一些小型即兴表演剧团里,喜剧演员们经常会带来现场的滑稽情景表演。See a local band neither of you know看一场你闻所未闻的当地乐队的表演It’s common knowledge that including anything rock ’n’ roll on your date makes you look cooler. And if the performance fits your taste, great. If not, research shows people develop feelings for each other more quickly when they have a mutual dislike in common. So it’s a win-win.众所周知,一旦约会中加入了摇滚元素,就会让你看起来更酷;如果表演恰好正合你们的口味,那就更棒了。而研究表明,即使演出不合口味,两个人的感情也会因为共同的不喜欢而迅速升温。所以这是个双赢的好点子。Be bookworms做个书虫Hit up the library or a bookstore. Show each other your favorite books from your childhood. Read some of your all-time favorite passages. It’s the best way to learn about your partner’s interests.逛逛图书馆或者书店。两个人互相给对方介绍从儿时起自己最喜欢的书籍;读读那些一直以来你最爱的段落。这是了解你另一半兴趣的最好方式。Cozy indoor dates舒适的室内约会Stage your own film festival办一场自己的“电影节”It’s cliché to watch a film at a cinema, and who hasn’t aly had a movie marathon at home? Why not make a standard movie night a little more interesting by adding a theme to the mix: favorite movie couple, favorite movie that’s so bad it’s good, scariest movie ever made ... you get the idea. Each of you picks your top contender, and then you can flip for who goes first.去电影院看电影早就没创意了,而且谁还没在家里“跑”过电影马拉松呢?你还可以给千篇一律的电影之夜加一个主题,让它变得更有趣:比如“最喜爱银幕情侣的电影”,“权把坏片当好片的最喜爱电影”,以及“史上最吓人电影”等等,不管怎样,主题都由你们自己定。两个人都挑出自己的“最佳私藏”,然后一决高下看看谁的更胜一筹。Comfort cooking舒地做顿佳肴Cold weather calls for comfort food and, luckily, making soup can be a great date idea that doesn’t require much culinary skill. Make the soup from scratch or buy a bunch of frozen beans, corn and carrots and other veggies, and dump them in the pot. Either way, you’ll have something to do together that’s not too challenging, and a lovely soup dinner to look forward to.寒冷的天气需要美食的慰藉,幸运的是,煲汤这个极佳的约会点子对烹饪技巧的要求并不高。你们可以从洗菜开始,也可以买一堆速冻的豆子、玉米、胡萝卜以及其他蔬菜,然后将其一股脑倒进锅里。不管怎么样,你们总算有了一件可以一起做的事,而且难度系数不高,还有一顿甜蜜的热汤晚餐可以期待。 /201412/348036

  As rentals escalate in neighboring districts, the once nondescript Ship Street in Wanchai, Hong Kong — which sits on reclaimed land where ships once docked for repairs — is fast becoming the site du jour for trendy dining outposts headlined by a coterie of big-name chefs lining the narrow side street. Perhaps most telling of its gentrification is 18 Ship Street, where the street’s only preserved tong lau (pre-1960s Chinese shophouse) has been home to a private kitchen, Yin Yang, a Ship Street stalwart, since 2008. Yin Yang has recently relocated.随着附近区域租金上涨,曾经不起眼的香港湾仔船街——它位于填海土地上,过去轮船在这里停泊修补——很快成为时尚餐饮分店争相进驻的地盘,窄窄的小街两旁布满著名大厨的店铺。关于这里的中产阶级化趋势,最显眼的例子可能是船街18号,它是这条街上仅存的唐楼(20世纪60年代之前修建的中式店屋),从2008年起,这里成为私房菜“鸳鸯饭店”的所在地。该店是船街的老住户,最近刚搬走。Ham amp; Sherry火腿amp;雪利酒吧(Ham amp; Sherry)Opened last December, this trendy blue-and-white-tiles-clad bar owned by Jason Atherton proffers a rustic bookended by Spanish tapas and more than 50 types of sherry. Try the mixed board of Spanish hams or the slow-cooked egg tossed with smoked bacon, bcrumbs and grapes, chased down with a glass of sherry. No reservations.火腿amp;雪利酒吧是去年12月份开的,外墙上镶着时髦的蓝白瓷砖,老板是杰森·阿瑟顿(Jason Atherton)。这里的菜单很纯朴,以西班牙小吃和50多种雪利酒收尾。尝尝这里的西班牙火腿或者加有熏培根、面包屑和葡萄的慢煮鸡蛋,再来一杯雪利酒。这里不接受预订。1-7 Ship Street, 852-2555-0628; hamandsherry.hk船街1-7号;电话:852-2555-0628;网址:hamandsherry.hk。Bo Innovation by Alvin Leung梁经伦的Bo Innovation餐馆Tucked on the second story of a building next to the neighborhood’s only tong lau, this tasting--only dining spot from the three-Michelin-starred Alvin Leung (nicknamed the “demon chef” for his “X-Treme” Chinese cuisine) has been dishing up avant-garde Cantonese cuisine since 2008. Expect surprisingly tasty treats created with inventive cooking techniques like the “molecular xiao long bao” and the unlikely marriage of ingredients — think of ox tongue coated with chocolate and bak kut teh (pork rib soup).这家餐馆是米其林三星大厨梁经伦(因终极中餐而得名“厨魔”)2008年开设的,藏在一幢建筑的二层,旁边就是这条街上唯一的唐楼。该餐馆供应前卫粤菜,只提供品尝菜单。这里的烹饪技巧和食材搭配独出心裁,比如“分子小笼包”以及涂有巧克力和猪肋排汤的牛舌,味道令人惊喜。60 Johnston Road; 852-2850-8371; boinnovation.com约翰斯顿街60号;电话:852-2850-8371;网址:boinnovation.com。22 Ships22条船餐馆(22 Ships)This no-reservations space also from Jason Atherton has been luring the hipster crowd since October 2012 with its sp of pocket-friendly small plates like Iberico pork burger with foie gras as well as a jamón “toastie” layered with Manchego cheese and black truffle. The executive chef Nathan Green frequently refreshes the to reflect more contemporary creations like sesame-oil-marinated hamachi wrapped in jasmine tea jelly.这个不接受预订的餐馆也是杰森·阿瑟顿开设的。从2012年10月起,它以便宜的小分量菜肴吸引了很多赶时髦的人,比如鹅肝酱伊比利亚猪肉汉堡以及搭配曼彻格奶酪和黑松露的西班牙烤火腿。执行大厨南森·格林(Nathan Green)经常更新菜谱,推出更时髦的创意菜,比如用芝麻油浸泡过、裹在茉莉花茶冻里的油甘鱼。22 Ship Street, 852-2555-0722; 22ships.hk船街22号;电话:852-2555-0722;网址:22ships.hk。May’s Cookies一口曲奇(May’s Cookies)Last year, the TV executive-turned-celebrity baker and cookbook author May Fung planted an outpost of her hugely popular Kowloon flagship in the heart of Wanchai to feed Hong Kong Island’s baked-goods-hungry crowd. Don’t miss the Crunch Cake, Ms. Fung’s all-time signature.著名烘焙师、食谱作者冯美基(May Fung)曾是电视台主管,她在九龙开设的一口曲奇旗舰店很受欢迎。去年她在湾仔中心地带开设了分店,满足港人对烘焙食物的渴望。不要错过脆焦糖蛋糕,它是冯美基永远的招牌。G/F, 136B Queen’s Road East (junction of Ship Street); 852-8229-1111; mayscookies.com.hk皇后大道东路136B(与船街交叉口)一层;电话:852-8229-1111;网址:mayscookies.com.hk。Akrame阿克拉姆餐馆(Akrame)For the past year, the two-Michelin-starred Parisian chef Benallal Akrame has brought his seafood-focused haute French cuisine to this contemporary 30-seat spot, with a choice of tasting s that may include plump oysters from Prat-ar-Coum, France, on a bed of risotto. The Michelin Hong Kong and Macau 2015 guide recently gave it a one-star rating.在过去一年中,米其林二星巴黎大厨贝纳拉尔·阿克拉姆(Benallal Akrame)把他以海鲜为主的高级法国菜带到了这个有30个座位的时髦餐馆。这里的品尝菜单可能包括来自法国Prat-ar-Coum的丰满牡蛎,它们盛放在意大利调味饭上。最近,《米其林指南香港2015》将该餐厅评为一星。Shop B, G/F, 9 Ship Street, 852-2528-5068; akrame.com.hk船街9号一层B店;电话:852-2528-5068;网址:akrame.com.hk。 /201412/348645

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