2018年02月26日 09:42:00|来源:国际在线|编辑:康指南
Disney Star Wars, Disney and myth-making迪士尼 星球大战,迪士尼和神话创造How one company came to master the business of storytelling一个公司如何成为兜售故事的商业传奇FROM a galaxy far, far away to a cinema just down the road: “The Force Awakens”, the newest instalment of the Star Wars saga, is inescapable this Christmas. The first Star Wars title since Lucasfilm, the owner of the franchise, was acquired by Disney in 2012 for .1 billion, it represents more than just the revival of a beloved science-fiction series. It is the latest example of the way Disney has prospered over the past decade from a series of shrewd acquisitions (see article). Having bought Pixar, Marvel and Lucasfilm, Disney has skilfully capitalised on their intellectual property—and in so doing, cemented its position as the market leader in the industrialisation of mythology. Its success rests on its mastery of the three elements of modern myth-making: tropes, technology and toys.从遥远的星际抵达你周边的电影院—《星球大战7:原力觉醒》这部星战系列的最新影片就在圣诞期间上映,不容错过。早期星战系列电影出自卢卡斯影业名下,该公司在2012年被迪士尼以41亿美元收购。不仅又让拥趸颇多的科幻系列重回影迷视野,还成为迪士尼公司另一个成功收购案例—在过去十年,迪士尼走了一条通过成功收购而实现蒸蒸日上的发展路径(另见文)。它先后收购了皮克斯,漫威和卢卡斯影业,并巧妙的利用自己的知识产权获益。在这一过程中,迪士尼也巩固了奇幻题材故事产业的领导者地位.。它的成功依赖于掌握了现代奇幻电影制作的三大要素:类型化,高科技和相关玩具产品。From Homer to Han Solo从荷马到韩·索罗Start with the tropes. Disney properties, which include everything from “Thor” to “Toy Story”, draw on well-worn devices of mythic structure to give their stories cultural resonance. Walt Disney himself had an intuitive grasp of the power of fables. George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, is an avid student of the work of Joseph Campbell, an American comparative mythologist who outlined the “monomyth” structure in which a hero answers a call, is assisted by a mentor figure, voyages to another world, survives various trials and emerges triumphant. Both film-makers merrily plundered ancient mythology and folklore. The Marvel universe goes even further, directly appropriating chunks of Greco-Roman and Norse mythology. (This makes Disneys enthusiasm for fierce enforcement of intellectual-property laws, and the seemingly perpetual extension of copyright, somewhat ironic.)先从类型化说起。迪士尼旗下的众多作品,包括《雷神》、《玩具总动员》等等,都采用了老调重弹的神话故事架构来让观众产生文化共鸣。沃特·迪士尼自身非常清楚寓言故事的魅力。星战系列导演乔治·卢卡斯热衷于借鉴约瑟夫·坎贝尔的作品。坎贝尔是一名比较神话学者,他提出了“神话故事原型论”(Monomyth)。即在一个英雄的旅程当中,英雄主角需要完成一个使命,他通常在某个导师的指引下去到另一个世界,历经千难万险最终成功。两大电影制作公司也钟情借用古代神话和民间传说。漫威超级英雄更夸张,直接取材于许多古希腊罗马和中世纪斯堪的纳维亚的神话。(这让一向严格实施版权保护,并不停延长其版权期限的迪士尼公司,看起来多少有些讽刺。)The internal mechanics of myths may not have changed much over the ages, but the technology used to impart them certainly has. That highlights Disneys second area of expertise. In Homers day, legends were passed on in the form of dactylic hexameters; modern myth-makers prefer computer graphics, special effects, 3D projection, surround sound and internet distribution, among other things. When Disney bought Lucasfilm it did not just acquire the Star Wars franchise; it also gained Industrial Light amp; Magic, one of the best special-effects houses in the business, whose high-tech wizardry is as vital to Marvels Avengers films as it is to the Star Wars epics. And when Disney was left behind by the shift to digital animation, it cannily revitalised its own film-making brand by buying Pixar, a firm as pioneering in its field as Walt Disney had been in hand-drawn animation. Moreover, modern myths come in multiple media formats. The Marvel and Star Wars fantasy universes are chronicled in interlocking films, television series, books, graphic novels and games. Marvels plans are mapped out until the mid-2020s.神话故事架构可能未随时间流转变样,但是让其流传开来的技术手段却日新月异。这也是迪士尼公司科技特长的精所在。在荷马史诗的年代,英雄故事要用长短格六步格韵体写就;而在现代,计算机绘图,特效,3D,环绕立体声,在线视频转发等等媒介就能够承载这些故事。迪士尼买下卢卡斯影业不仅获得了星球大战系列的版权,还同时把光影魔幻工业(特效行业最佳公司之一)收入囊中,这家公司对星战系列的重要性不亚于它对成就复仇者联盟做出的贡献。动画制作在数字化转型,老牌迪士尼曾一度跟不上脚步,但收购皮克斯使其动画制作重焕生机。毕竟皮克斯在数字动画制作领域的地位堪比当时手绘动画时代的沃特·迪士尼。而且,现代奇幻作品通常采用多平台推广,漫威和星战就陆续出品系列电影、电视剧,图书,漫画和电游。漫威影业要推出的作品续集已经排到了2020年。But these days myths are also expected to take physical form as toys, merchandise and theme-park rides. This is the third myth-making ingredient. Again, Walt Disney led the way, licensing Mickey Mouse and other characters starting in the 1930s, and opening the original Disneyland park in 1955. Mr Lucas took cinema-related merchandise into a new dimension, accepting a pay cut as director in return for all the merchandising rights to Star Wars—a deal that was to earn him billions. Those rights now belong to Disney, and it is making the most of them: sales of “The Force Awakens” merchandise, from toys to clothing, are expected to be worth up to billion alone in the coming year. In all, more than billion-worth of Star Wars merchandise has been sold since 1977, according to NPD Group, a market-research firm. Even Harry Potter and James Bond are scruffy-looking nerf-herders by comparison.但是,目前神话故事也将以实体形式呈现,如玩具、商品和主题公园等形式,这也是神话创作的第三要素。沃特·迪士尼成为了行业中的典范,从二十世纪30年代开始,他们为米老鼠以及其他的一些角色申请专利,并于1955年开放了最初的迪士尼乐园。卢卡斯将电影相关产品带上了新的维度,作为导演他接受降低薪资以换取所有有关星球大战的商品权——这个协议让他赚了数十亿。这些商品化权现在隶属于迪士尼,并得到了充分利用:从玩具到装,《原力觉醒》相关商品的预期销售额仅明年一年就能达到50亿美元。美国市场调研机构NPD集团的调研报告显示,自1977年起累计,销售星球大战附加品已带来320亿美元的收入。与之相比,甚至连哈利波特和詹姆士邦德看起来都是如此的上不了台面。Those other franchises are reminders that Disneys approach is not unique. Other studios are doing their best to imitate its approach. But Disney has some of the most valuable properties and exploits them to their fullest potential. It is particularly good at refreshing and repackaging its franchises to encourage adults to revisit their childhood favourites and, in the process, to introduce them to their own children. This was one reason why Pixar, whose films are known for their cross-generational appeal, was such a natural fit. Now the next generation is being introduced to Star Wars by their nostalgic parents. At the same time, Disney has extended its franchises by adding sub-brands that appeal to particular age groups: childrens television series spun off from Star Wars, for example, or darker, more adult tales from the Marvel universe, such as the “Daredevil” and “Jessica Jones” series on.其他系列电影表明,迪士尼的策略不是唯一的。其他一些影城也竭尽全力地效仿迪士尼的做法。但迪士尼拥有最有价值的资源,并能最大程度开发这些资源,尤其 擅长再更新和再包装其产品,以此鼓励成人回忆他们的童年最爱,在此过程中,将喜好介绍给自己的孩子。皮克斯擅长制作吸引两代人的电影,这也使得它与迪士尼的合作成为天作之合。现在,怀旧的父母们也将把星球大战传承给下一代。与此同时,迪士尼通过增加吸引特定年龄的子品牌拓宽系列经营权:例如,源于《星球大战》的少儿电视节目,始于漫威宇宙系列的更黑暗、更成人化的故事,比如网飞公司的《超胆侠》和《杰西卡琼斯》等电影。Do, or do not—there is no try要么去做,要么放手,没有尝试一说What explains the power of all this modern-day mythology? There is more to it than archetypal storytelling, clever technology and powerful marketing. In part, it may fill a void left by the decline of religion in a more secular world. But it also provides an expression for todays fears. The original “Star Wars” film, in which a band of plucky rebels defeat a technological superpower, was a none-too-subtle inversion of the Vietnam war. The Marvel universe, originally a product of the cold-war era, has adapted well on screen to a post-9/11 world of surveillance and the conspiratorial mistrust of governments, large corporations and the power of technology. In uncertain times, when governments and military might seem unable to keep people safe or stay honest, audiences take comfort in the idea of superheroes who ride to the rescue. Modern myths also have the power to unify people across generations, social groups and cultures, creating frameworks of shared references even as other forms of media consumption become ever more fragmented.当代神话故事为何有如此大的魅力?绝不仅仅是原始的讲述故事、灵活的科学技术和强大的营销能力。在某种程度上,这种神话可以弥补当下越来越世俗的世界中宗教地位下降带来的空虚。然而,这也表现出了现代人的恐惧。在最初的电影《星球大战》中,讲述了一个勇敢的反叛者对决强大的科技超能量者,这实际是越南战争的写照。漫威宇宙系列,最初是冷战时代的产物,在后911时代,监视无处不在以及人们对政府、大公司和科技力量等的不信任,漫威调整创作,将后911时代精地呈现于荧幕。在不稳定时期,当政府和军队似乎无法保民众以及自身绝对忠诚时,民众便只能寄希望于拯救世界的超级英雄。即使在媒体消费的其他形式变得越来越碎片化的时候,当代神话也可以跨越时代、阶层、文化将人们联合起来,创造出一个拥有一些共性的架构。Ultimately, however, these modern myths are so compelling because they tap primordial human urges—for refuge, redemption and harmony. In this respect they are like social-media platforms, which use technology to industrialise social interaction. Similarly, modern myth-making, reliant though it is on new tools and techniques, is really just pushing the same old buttons in stone-age brains. That is something that Walt Disney understood instinctively—and that the company he founded is now exploiting so proficiently.然而,究其根源,现代神话的魅力是因为它激发了人们对于庇护、救赎与和谐的原始诉求。在这方面,它们更像是工业化的社交平台,使用技术使得社交产业化。同样地,现代神话创作加入了新工具和新技术,也不过是旧瓶装新酒。这是沃特·迪士尼领悟到—并正在有效地运用于他所创立的公司。翻译:吴茂amp;王坤 校对:马里奥 译文属译生译世 /201602/427850Religion and free speech宗教与自由言论The right to be rude粗鲁的权利An offensive preacher acquires some unlikely allies一名无礼牧师获得一些意想不到的盟友MICHAEL OVERD is an evangelical Christian with strong views on the sinfulness of homosexuality and the wrongness of Islam (except, presumably, on the issue of homosexuality). He likes to hold forth among the shoppers of Taunton, a quiet town in south-west England. But on March 23rd Mr Overd was found guilty of using threatening or abusive language—although a more serious charge of causing “religiously aggravated” offence was rejected. The judge, Shamim Qureshi, ordered him to pay £250 (5) in compensation to a man who said he was left feeling “ashamed and belittled” by the preachers stance on same-sex relations.迈克尔·奥维德是一名福音基督徒,他认为同性恋是一种原罪,而伊斯兰教是错的(不过可能在认为同性恋有罪上或许他们是一致的),对此他持有强硬的态度。他喜欢在英格兰西南部的一个安静小镇汤顿里,向顾客作长篇大论的演讲。但在3月23号,奥维德被判使用恐吓性或侮辱性语言的罪名,尽管更严重的指控给—造成“宗教骚扰”被驳回了。法官沙米姆·库勒西令其向一名男士付250镑(374美元)的赔偿金,这名男士表示因牧师在同性关系所持立场令他感到“羞愧和轻视”。When Mr Overd objected to “paying 250 to a sodomite” the judge threatened him with 45 days in prison. The preacher then agreed to pay compensation but said he would appeal. “I find it quite incredible that a Muslim judge finds a Christian guilty and wants to protect homosexuals, whom I have no personal hatred against,” he declared on leaving the courtroom.当奥维德拒绝“付250镑给一个同性恋者”时,法官威胁警告他将面临45天的牢狱之灾。这位牧师最终答应了付赔偿金但表示将会上诉。在离开法庭时他声明:“我觉得一名穆斯林法官判定一名基督徒有罪还想保护同性恋是不可思议的,但我对同性恋并没有个人恩怨。”The evangelist has acquired some unlikely defenders. The National Secular Society (NSS), which fights religious privilege of all kinds, says the case vindicates its long-running campaign to safeguard free speech from sloppy legislation. Mr Overd was prosecuted under the Public Order Act, which outlaws “threatening, insulting or abusive” language and can result in prison sentences of up to seven years if the offence is deemed to be racially or religiously motivated.这位福音传道者获得了一些令人意想不到的捍卫者。英国世俗协会(NSS)反对任何形式的宗教特权,该协会表示这个案子明了在漏洞百出的法律下争取自由言论的长期运动是正确的。奥维德在公共秩序法之下被迫害,这部法律将“威胁性、污蔑性或侮辱性”话语定为非法,如果罪行是种族或宗教问题而引发的话,可能会被判高达七年的有期徒刑。Thanks to a campaign by the NSS and others, the law has been amended so that insulting language no longer incurs prosecution merely because the police think it has the potential to offend. It must be shown that an insult was directed at a particular person or group, and that offence was taken. But civil libertarians want the law further amended to protect insulting speech and take away the reference to religious aggravation. Although Britain has abolished its ancient ban on blasphemy, which punished insults against Christianity, the concept of religious aggravation amounts to a new sort of blasphemy law that could be used to prevent criticism of any religion, argues Keith Porteous Wood, executive director of the NSS.由于NSS和其他人推动,这项法律已被修订。因此警方再也不能认为公民的言语有冒犯倾向而对其提出诉讼,警方必须要明侮辱是针对某个特定的人或群体,并且该冒犯行为已被人当真。但公民自由主义者希望法律进行进一步修订,保护侮辱性的言语并取消关于宗教骚扰的条文。尽管英国已取消亵渎神明这一禁止侮辱基督教的古老禁令,宗教骚扰这一概念意味着一种新的亵渎神明法,可以被用来阻止对任何宗教的批判,NSS的执行理事基斯·波蒂厄斯·伍德如是说。One of Britains best known gay-rights campaigners, Peter Tatchell, has offered to speak in court in favour of the preachers right to hold forth. He thinks that Mr Overds views are bigoted and would protest against them. But being spared offence is not a human right, he says: “In a free, democratic society, the criminalisation of unpleasant opinions is a step too far.”皮特·塔切尔是英国最著名的同性恋权利捍卫者之一,他提出要在法庭上发言持牧师演讲的权利。他认为奥维德的观点是僵化的并会抵制这些言行。但他说,不受冒犯不是一项人权,“在一个自由民主的社会,对不受欢迎的意见定罪未免太过了。”译者:王颖 校对:唐宇 译文属译生译世 /201504/368089Presidential libraries总统图书馆Style and guile风格与骗局The search for a home for Mr Obamas library and museum has begun为奥巴马图书馆和物馆找家的工作已经展开“AT THEIR best, they are lively classrooms of democracy,” says Richard Norton Smith, a historian who specialises in presidential libraries. They are also something of a misnomer. People who wander in expecting to borrow “The Cat in the Hat” tend to find instead a museum, a replica of the Oval Office and many floors of documents.“在它们的历史最好时期,是民主制度的活教室,”Richard Norton Smith说,他是专门研究总统图书馆的历史学家。这些“图书馆”也是用词不当的产物。那些漫步而进想借本《帽子里的猫》的人们会发现这其实是家物馆,仿造了总统办公室,有很多文件。Last week the Barack Obama Foundation invited applications from institutions interested in giving room to the 14th presidential library. Marty Nesbitt, a member of the foundation board and a friend of the Obamas, says a shortlist of sites will be presented to Mr and Mrs Obama early next year. The foundation wants to create an institution that reflects the commander-in-chiefs values and priorities, as well as serving as a “force for good in the surrounding community”.上周,奥巴马基金会邀请一些机构,这些机构对为14届总统图书馆腾出空间很感兴趣。作为基金会董事会的一员同时也是奥巴马家族朋友的Marty Nesbitt说,这些网站的最终候选人名单将会在明年上半年呈给奥巴马夫妇。基金会想要衍生一个选项能映射出三军统帅的价值和地位,同时也能起到一个“在周边国家中带好头的力量”。ColumbiaUniversityinNew York, the presidents alma mater, is preparing a bid. So too is his birth state ofHawaii. ButChicago, with its strong Obama ties, is assumed to be the front-runner. Mr Obama worked as a community organiser in the South Side, represented the area as a state senator, and was on the faculty of the University of Chicago for 12 years. A number of institutions are vying to make a bid inChicago, well aware that presidential libraries can spur the local economy. Susan Sher, a former chief of staff to Michelle Obama who is co-ordinating theUniversityofChicagos bid, says a number of sites in the South Side, including Bronzeville, are being considered.纽约的哥伦比亚大学是总统的母校,他们也在做这方面竞标努力。他的出生地夏威夷州也同样在努力。但是芝加哥,奥巴马的铁杆基地,被认可为领跑者。奥巴马还在South Side区时的工作时团体组织者,是这一地区的州议员,并且曾在芝加哥大学当了12年的职员。The money needed to build the library—possibly about 0m—will be raised by the foundation. This will include an endowment to cover some of the maintenance costs. The rest will come from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) which is charged with running all the presidential libraries at an annual cost of m.这个图书馆的建立可能需要5亿美金,将由基金会募集。这里面也包含有覆盖维护费用的捐款。剩余的将会由国家档案记录管理委员会(NARA)提供,这个组织负责运营所有总统图书馆,每年花销7000万美元。Last year a mere 10,600 scholars used the libraries. By contrast 730,000 people attended public and educational programmes there, and 2.4m people visited the associated museums. Ronald Reagans library in Simi, Californiawas the most visited in 2013, with some 425,000 trooping in to see, among other things, his Air Force One. Online visits are more numerous and growing rapidly. Every library seems to be bigger than the last, but then records and artefacts are accumulating at an ever-faster clip. Herbert Hoovers library stores 500 gifts; Dwight Eisenhowers, 25,000; that of Bill Clinton (a man of appetites), more than 150,000.去年,将近10,600位学者使用过图书馆。与之对比,有730,000人参加了那里的公共与教育活动项目,有240万人参观了相关图书馆。位于加州西米市的罗纳德·里根图书馆在2013年大热,相比于其他物品,他的空军一号最热,有425,000人去参观。But then records and artefacts are accumulating at an ever-faster clip. Herbert Hoovers library stores 500 gifts; Dwight Eisenhowers, 25,000; that of Bill Clinton (a man of appetites), more than 150,000.但随后的记录和文物正在以越来越快的速度积累。赫伯特·胡佛的库存储500礼品;艾森豪威尔25000;那比尔·克林顿的,超过15万。Since presidents usually live for decades after they leave office, the library becomes a tool for defining—cynics would say, polishing—their legacy. But they also try to continue the work of a president. The Obama Foundation hopes his library will be “the most connected, interactive presidential library in history”. Until the next even-more-wired president, that is.因为总统们通常在退休后还会生活数十年,图书馆就成了定义的工具——这也就是家口中常说的,让他们的遗产发光发亮。但是基金会也尝试让图书馆还继续履行总统职责。奥巴马基金会希望他的图书馆成为“历史上最具活力,最有亲和力的总统图书馆”。即使到了下一位更令人振奋的总统上任,它依旧不变。In the long term, the libraries are most useful for the access they offer to presidential documents, which tell the true story of the man and his times. But it seems that attention to the flashier, exhibition side of things is detracting from NARAs real work: making documents available for public release. Fully 40% of NARAs text holdings have not been processed. And they have plenty to reveal. Eisenhower, for example—says Mr Smith—was widely known in his time as a “genial duffer”. When the papers in his library were examined he was seen as far more sophisticated, even ruthless: “Behind the smile was guile.”从长远来看,这些图书馆最有用的地方在于它们许可参观总统文件,这写文件阐述了总统和他的时代最真实的故事。但是似乎看起来这些高涨的公众热情会被NARA的实际展出的物品所降低:可供公众阅读文件的程度。NARA40%的储存文本从未被展出。并且它们中有很多爆点。Smith说,例如,艾森豪威尔,在那个时代是个广为人知的“亲和的小二货”。当时从他图书馆里查阅的文件看来,他其实比看起来城府深得多,甚至是残忍:“笑里藏刀。”译者:彭威 译文属译生译世 /201601/424447

No. 1 Hitler was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prizein 1939, he was nominated by Brandt, a member of the Swedish parliament.第一,希特勒在1939年获得了诺贝尔和平奖的提名,提名他的是勃兰特,一位瑞典议会的议员。The man was a dedicated anti-fascist and he made thenomination as a joke, but unsurprisingly is sarcasm wasnt very well received.此人致力于反法西斯,并把这项提名当作笑话,但毫无疑问这个讽刺并不被大众理解。No. 2 Hitler invented the blow-up sex doll.第二,希特勒发明了充气娃娃。German troops were getting syphilis from engagingwith French prostitutes, so to counteract this, Hitler had lifelike dolls madethat could pack into soldiers bags and provide comfort when needed.德国军队从法国身上染上梅毒,所以为了抵抗此病,希特勒下令制作了栩栩如生的娃娃,可以装在士兵的包裹里,在需要的时候提供安慰。No. 3 Hitlers first love was a Jewish girl, lackingcourage he never spoke to her.第三,希特勒的初恋是一个犹太女孩,由于缺乏勇气,他从来没有对她说话。He was only 16 at the time and he wrote a number oflove poems about her.那时他只有16岁,还写了许多关于她的爱情诗。Some sources claim he even contemplated suicide, asan escape from the suffering unrequited love caused him.一些消息来源声称他甚至想以自杀来逃避单恋的痛苦。No. 4 Hitler led the first public anti-smokingcampaign in modern history.第四,希特勒领导了现代史上第一次公共禁烟运动。The Nazi anti-tobacco campaign banned smoking inpublic transport vehicles and raised the tobacco tax.纳粹反烟运动禁止在公共交通工具上吸烟和提高烟草税。They also promoted health education and organizelectures for soldiers.他们还推行士兵的健康教育并组织讲座。No. 5 Hitler was a vegetarian, and created lawsagainst animal cruelty, he passed laws which regulated animal slaughter as wellas animal transport.第五,希特勒是一个素食主义者,他制定了反对虐待动物的法律,通过法律规范动物屠宰以及运输。Most importantly, he prohibited hunting and limitedanimal testing.最重要的是,他禁止打猎和限制动物实验。Unfortunately, the animals previously used inmedical experiments were replaced by the Jews.不幸的是,之前医学实验中使用的动物被犹太人所取代。No. 6 Hitler was saved from drowning by a priestwhen he was four years old.第六,希特勒在他四岁时溺水,被一个牧师救了。The priest was around hitlers age and jump to therescue when the ice under Hitlers feet cracked and he sank into the freezingwater.这个牧师跟他差不多年龄,在希特勒脚下的冰裂开,陷入了冰冷的水时,跳下去救了他。Ironically, the hero grew up to regret the incident.具有讽刺意味的是,这位英雄长大后表示十分后悔这个举动。No. 7 During the First World War, a British soldierspared the life of a wounded German, that German was Adolf Hitler.第七,在第一次世界大战期间,一名英国士兵救了一个受伤的德国士兵一命,那个德国人就是阿道夫#8226;希特勒。The soldier had a clear aim to kill at point-blank,but he decided not to shoot.这个士兵本可以一毙命,但他决定不开。Hitler later found an article about the soldier,recognized him in the picture and save the clipping.希特勒后来发现了一篇关于该士兵的报道,从照片上认出了他并保存了剪报。No. 8 Hitler plan to collect thousands of Jewishartifacts to build a museum of an extinct race after the war.第八,希特勒计划收集成千上万的犹太人艺术品以在战争结束后建造一个灭绝种族的物馆。He ordered the collection of 200,000 items whichwere photographed and catalogued, the collection was meant to serve as a trophycase.他命令集合20万件物品来拍摄和编目,这个收集被作为自己的一个奖杯陈列。No. 9 Hitler never once visited a singleconcentration camp.第九,希特勒从未去过任何一个集中营。In fact, he was very careful about keeping a safedistance from all the dirty work.事实上,他非常小心地和所有肮脏的工作保持着一段安全距离。He deliberately spoke very vaguely about thesubject, and no written order about the killings ever existed, he gave the mostsensitive order exclusively and verbally.他故意很含糊地谈到这个话题,对裁定杀戮从不下书面命令,这些敏感的命令都是口头陈述并鲜为人知。No. 10 Hitler only had one testicle. Reportedly, hewas injured in battle with his abdomen and groin suffering most of the damage.第十,希特勒只有一个睾丸。据传,他在战斗中受了伤,腹部和腹股沟遭受了严重的伤害。As a result, he lost one of his testicles, the wardoctor supports this claim although no conclusive evidence was ever made inpublic.结果是,他失去了他的一个睾丸,虽然战地医生持这一说法,但至今没有有确凿的据来公然实。201508/391263

The first gold of the 2016 Summer Olympics was won by a member of Team USA. 里约奥运首金花落美国选手。Nineteen year-old, Virginia Thrasher, held her nerve during the womens 10m air rifle even. 19岁的斯拉舍在10米气步中顶住压力。Thrasher was able to beat Team Chinas member Du Li who has a record score of 208. 斯拉舍以破奥运纪录的208环击败中国选手杜丽。Although ranked 23 in the world in this event, Thrashers win was quite surprising to all. 斯拉舍在该赛事的世界排名为23名,她的获胜相当令人惊讶。The bronze for this event was won by the Team Chinas 2008 Olympic champion, Yi Siling.中国2008年奥运会冠军易思玲获得铜牌。译文属。201608/458991

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