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2017年12月11日 23:25:26

#39;Smart#39; Bandage Extracts Bacteria From Wounds新创可贴可从伤口吸出细菌In 1920, Johnson and Johnson employee Earle Dickson created the first bandage to cover the frequent burns and cuts his wife Josephine inflicted on herself while cooking. The hand-made prototype was instantly adopted by his employer and marketed as Band-Aid, a brand that has become synonymous with the word bandage. However, while the adhesive strips may now look different from Dickson#39;s creation they still perform the same job - Prevent bacteria from entering wounds. However, that may soon be a thing of the past, thanks to a new gauze that not only acts as a barrier between external bacteria and the wound, but also, sucks out the ones aly present!1920年,为了把妻子Josephine做饭过程中反复弄伤的手包起来防止感染,Johnson和他的雇员Earle Dickson发明了世界上第一个创可贴。随后,这种最初手工制作的创可贴在员工中迅速传播,并被命名为“邦迪贴”——取用英文“绷带”一词的谐音,开始对外出售。虽然现在的创可贴花样繁多,但用途不变——始终用来防止细菌进入伤口。但是,这即将成为过去,最近新发明的一款创可贴,不仅能防止细菌进入伤口,还能把伤口中的细菌吸出来。The brilliant technology that is still in the early stages of development is being spearheaded by Martina Abirgo, a Ph.D. candidate at the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. The team began by creating nanofibers using a technique called electrospinning. Used to build artificial tissue it entails pushing polymer out of an electrified nozzle to produce strands that are 100 times thinner than a single human hair. The nanofibers were then interwoven to create the smart bandage.这项由澳洲斯威本科技大学的士申请人Martina Abirgo发起的卓越的发明,尚处初始阶段。他们团队首先通过静电纺丝技术,制造出一种纳米纤维。这种纤维最初作人造纤维之用,可以把聚合物从电气化喷嘴中分离成比发丝还细100倍的线。这些纳米纤维缠绕在一起就形成了智能创可贴。Encouraged by the results, Martina and her team collaborated with scientists from the University of Sheffield in the ed Kingdom to conduct similar tests on artificial skin. Though the results are yet to be published, the scientists say that the mesh worked as effectively on the human manufactured living tissue. The smart bandage will now be tested on humans, and if all goes well, patients and doctors will soon be able to just peel away harmful bacteria using this ingenious bandage.受这个结果的鼓舞,Martina和她的团队与英国谢菲尔大学的科学家们一起,在人造皮肤上做了相同的测试。虽然测试结果尚未发布,科学家们已宣称这种材料在人造组织上效果良好。随后,智能创可贴将在人体测试,如果进展顺利,医生和病人们就能使用这种神奇的绷带,把有害细菌从人体分离。Though such a bandage would certainly be real cool for everyday playground scrapes and cuts, the technology is a lifesaver for people with compromised immunity levels. These include patients afflicted with diseases like diabetes and cancer. The researchers believe the technology could also be used to create protective clothing.这种创可贴针对日常的擦伤和刀伤非常好用,对那些不幸患上糖尿病和癌症的人等免疫缺失的人群来说,更是救命稻草。研究者还表示,这项技术也在防护衣的制作中也可以应用。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201511/412361昆山吸脂减肥医院哪好Humans are efficient sleepers, and that#39;s why we need less sleep - seven hours - compared to as much as 14 hours a day for our closest animal relatives,人类的睡眠很有效,这也是为什么我们睡得更少,一天只睡7个小时而不是离我们最近的物种所需的多达14个小时。Researchers at Duke University compiled a database of sleep patterns of hundreds of mammals, including 21 primate species. They found that not only do humans need less sleep than chimps, macaques and lemurs, we spend a greater percentage of our slumber in the deeper, more restorative stages of sleep.美国杜克大学的研究人员建立了一个几百种哺乳动物睡眠规律的数据库,其中包括21种灵长类动物。他们发现,人类睡眠时间不仅比黑猩猩、猕猴和狐猴要少,而且更多时间是沉睡在更深、更有恢复作用的阶段。That might not seem surprising in this age of electric lights and round-the-clock activities, but co-author David Samson says this shift began long before we developed artificial lighting. He traces it back to when human ancestors left their nests in the trees for sleeping on the ground.在这个有电灯和通宵工作的时代这也许并不令人惊讶。但是这份报告的共同作者大卫·萨姆森说,睡眠的这种变化早在我们发明人工照明之前就开始了。他将这一变化追溯到人类祖先离开树巢开始睡在地上的时候。The need to sleep near fire and in larger groups for warmth and safety could have allowed these early humans to get the most out of their sleep in the shortest possible time. He notes that also left more time for other activities, like learning new skills.由于睡觉时需要靠近火和更大的人群保持温暖和安全,这可能使得早期人类尽可能在最短时间内睡得最好。萨姆森提到这也留给人类更多的时间做其他活动,比如学习新技能。 /201512/415830昆山祛痘印哪里好In 139 B. C. , Emperor Wu Di succeeded to the throne.公元前139年,汉武帝继位。His long reign became known as the zenith or highlight of the Western Han period.武帝时期是西汉发展的鼎盛时期。The economy flourished, and the state treasury was abundent.期间经济繁荣、府库充实。The casting of coins became a state monopoly that was observed by special officials, and the currency was standardized to a nominal face value of five zhu . The most important tax reform was concerning the state monopoly on production, transport and merchandise of salt and iron that was centrally organized by the chamberlain for the national treasury. The transport system was standardized by special regulations, as well as the quality control of the goods. Therefore, the financial revenue increased greatly.国家统一货币,铸五铢钱,严禁私铸钱;进行税制改革,盐、铁的生产、运输、销售由大司农负责,实行国家专营;实行均输法、平准法,朝廷财政收入大增。Politics : In politics, Emperor Wudi took further steps to consolidate the centralization. Substantial changes also took place in the structure of the central government that resulted in a new kind of bureaucratic centralism within a state that was officially Confucianist but in fact Legist.政治方面:武帝进一步采取措施加强中央集权,国家的政治制度发生了实质性变化,形成了新的外儒内法的中央集权的官僚体制。The emperor reformed the central government and built up his cabinet.具体包括:“改革中枢体制,建立中朝”。The status of the Imperial Board of Secretaries was raised, for all the memorials to the throne would be submitted to the emperor by secretariats.尚书台的地位提升,大臣们的章奏要由尚书进呈皇帝。This reinforced the autocratic monarchy and stripped power of the prime minister. Meanwhile, the emperor strengthened his control over the local卜 ties.这一举措加强了王权,削弱了丞相的权力。He divided the whole country into 13 regions, and appointed an itinerant inspector to each of these divisions to keep a watchful eye on the local affairs.加强对地方的控制,将全国分为13个州部。每个州部设刺史一人,以监察地方。Adopting the proposal of Zhu Fuyan, the emperor decreed that when a prince died, his eldest son was to succeed him, and the territory of his principality was to be ed among all his sons. With the exception of the eldest son, each would be granted the status of a marquis, who was subjected to the prefecture.武帝采纳了主父偃的建议,规定诸侯王死后,除嫡长子继承王位外,其他庶子由皇帝分割原王国的部分土地为列侯,列侯归郡统辖。Consequently, the power of the principalities was split apart without their fiefdoms being taken back by the imperial court, which reinforced the centralization.这样一来,朝廷虽未剥夺诸侯封地,却成功地分化了诸侯国的权力,进一步加强了中央集权。Not long after Emperor Wudi * s ascension, Dong Zhongshu proposed the task of the 44 grand unificationof the empire in political philosophy.汉武帝即位不久,董仲舒提出了“大-统”的政治哲学思想。Emperor Wudi accepted his suggestion, adopted Confucianism as official philosophy, and denied scholars of all other schools the opportunity to 6nter the civil service. From then on Confucianism became dominant in the middle and late period of the Han Dynasty.汉武帝采纳了这一建议,实行“罢黜,独尊儒术”,从此儒家学说逐步成为西汉中后期的统治思想。Additionally, the emperor encouraged the study of the five Confucian classics, namely the Book of Odes, Book of Historyy Book of Rites, Book of Changes 〇nd Spring and Autumn Annals. He even set up the imperial academy in Chang ? an to teach Confucian classics, cultivate qualified personnel dnd select government officials through regular written examinations.汉武帝鼓励学习《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》等儒家经典,在长安兴办太 学,传授儒家思想,培养人材,并通过考试选拔官吏。Foreign Policies: On strengthening the autocratic monarchy, Emperor Wudi was also engaged in broadening the Han Dynasty * s relations with the ethnic minorities to an unprecedented extent.外交政策:在巩固王权地同时,汉武帝还致力发展与少数民族的联系。为此,汉时的民族关系达到到前所未有的程度。Wars Against the Xiongnu:ln the earlier years of the Han Dynasty, Xiongnu nomads were very powerful. The Han rulers usually adopted a conciliatory attitude towards them. The chief policy to prevent its invasion was to arrange marriages between the royal family and the Xiongnu chieftains to maintain the peace.抗击匈奴:西汉前期,匈奴势力强大,汉朝主要通过“和亲”政策防范匈奴侵略,维系和平。However, this had been unsuccessful, and Xiongnu harassed the borders constantly.可是这一政策并不成功,匈奴-再入侵。When Emperor Wudi was in the throne, he tried a new tact.汉武帝即位以后,开始发动对匈奴的战争。During ten years, namely from the year 128 B. C. to 119 B. C. , the emperor sent Wei Qing and Huo Qubing to launch three large-scale expeditions against Xiongnu. By these actions, he drove them into the far north of Gobi, Desert, thus maintdining the safety of the Hexi Corridor.从元朔元年(公元前128年)到元狩四年(公元前119年)的10年中,先后三次派卫青、霍去病抗击匈奴,迫使匈奴北徙漠北,确保了河西走廊的安全。Furthermore, new principalities were established there, and land reclamation was practiced, in which militiamen and their families were settled on military^agri-cultural colonies, where they worked and defended.汉朝还在西北边地设郡、屯田,修长城,筑烽燧,建邮亭驿。The Great Wall was reconstructed , which had aly served as defensive line against the stepped nomads for a few centuries. Beacon towers and post stations were built, which played a new role in the defence system of the Great Wall.烽燧和邮亭驿在长城防御体系中发挥了新的重要作用。The constant wars between the Han and Xiongnu made both sides suffer great losses, having no spare capacity to continue the fight.汉匈战争不断,双方均损失惨重,无力再战。In 33 B. C. , Khan Huhanye paid a visit to Chang’an. Emperor Yuan married Wang Zhaojun, a beauty at that time, to him.公元前33年,呼韩邪单于到长安,汉元帝将宫人王昭君嫁与呼韩邪单于。This action not only improved the relationship between the Han Dynasty and Xiongnu, but also promoted economic and cultural exchanges between them.昭君出塞改善了汉、匈之间关系,还促进了两族人民间的经济文化交流。From then on, the Han and Xiongnu got along well with each other, and wars didn, t break out for more than forty years.汉、匈从此友好相处,在40多年间没有发生战争。Zhang Qian on a Diplomatic Mission to the West Regions : At the same time, in order to seek allies to fight against Xiongnu* s invasion, In 138 B. C. , Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian as envoy to Dayuezhi, which had originally lived in the area between Dunhuang and Qillan, and was driven to Guishui valley by Xiongnu during the period of Emperor Wendi.张骞出使西域汉:武帝为反击匈奴,争取联合力量,于建元三年(公元前138 年),派张骞出使大月氏(zhT)。大月氏原居于今敦煌、祁连之间;文帝时期,为匈奴所破,西徙妫(g〇l圭)水(今阿姆河)流域。Unfortunately, Zhang Qian was captured on his way to Dayuezhi by Xiongnu. He was kept prisoner for more than ten years before managing to escape westward and finally made his way to the destination.张骞在路上为匈奴所虏,在匈奴十余年,后乘机西逃,到大月氏。However, Dayuezhi was reluctant to attack Xiongnu, and in 126 B. C. , Zhang Qian returned to Chang*an.大月氏不愿共击匈奴。公元前126年,张骞返回长安。In 119 B. C. , Zhang Qian was sent to the West Regions again, inviting Wusun, who were settled in the Yili valley to form a common front to cut the right flank of the Xiongnu.公元前119年,汉武帝第二次派张骞出使西域,约居于伊犁河流域乌孙共击匈奴,以折匈奴如右翼。The king of Wusun, who was old, dared not ally with the Han, for his territory was dose to Xiongnu and was subjected to its menace. Zhang Qian failed a second time, but his visits promoted understanding between the Western Han Dynasty and the regions north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, cemented its links with adjacent regions, and helped to sp the influence of the Han Empire.乌孙王年老,又因箕国临近匈奴,受匈奴的威胁严重,不敢与汉联合,张骞出使未果。尽管如此,张骞出使西域促进了天山南北各少数民族与汉朝的交流,密切了汉与周边地区的联系,使汉朝的影响更为广泛。More importantly, Zhang Qian1 s westward travels also opened the very important trade route to the Central Asia, which later called Road of Silk.更为重要的是,张骞出使西域,打通了汉朝通往中亚的贸易通道一丝绸之路。Many Han commodities like silk and ironware were brought to the west, while spice, grape, woolen carpets, sesame and peaches etc. were introduced to China.当时运往西方的商品有蚕丝、铁器等。西方经“丝绸之路”输人中国的商品,有香料、葡萄、芝麻、胡 桃、毛毯等。With his northwest frontier secured, Emperor Wu then expanded the empire in a northeast direction.在巩固了西北边境后,汉武帝开始向东北方向拓展疆域。With The capture of an area south of the Yangtze River, the territory of Han far exceed that of the previous dynasties.攻占长江以南后,汉的领土已大大超过了前朝。The Han Dynasty then began to expand its political and cultural influence over Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia, Korea and other counties.同时汉朝的政治、文化还对越南、朝鲜、中亚、蒙古等国产生了重要影响。However, it was no easy task to hold or appease all these far territories, and rebellions and territorial losses occurred many times for the rest of the Han period.但是对广大边疆地区的统治、平叛却非易事。汉朝中后期,叛乱和疆土流失不断。At the beginning of Emperor Wudi * s reign the state treasury was full, but when he died, luxury and war campaigns had exhausted.汉武帝统治前期,国库充盈。但由于挥霍无度加之连年争战,武帝死时,已是国库空虚。 /201511/412314Watching a of TED talk or an open class on the Internet, or registering for an online course to learn a new language or hobby, are trending. You#39;ll be seen as behind the times if your experience of the above is zero.在互联网上看一场TED演讲视频或者一场公开课,或者注册线上课程学习一门新语言或者一个兴趣爱好,正在成为一种趋势。如果你从未经历过上面这些,那么你就会被认为落伍了。Online education is growing. More than 1,000 online education start-ups have been established since 2014 in China,according to news.pedaily.cn.线上教育正在蓬勃发展。据投资界官网数据显示,自2014年以来,中国已经成立了超过1000多个线上教育企业。It is one of the most popular fields where entrepreneurs and venture capitalists flock together on account of the absence of geographic restrictions, a high degree of standardization, and economies of scale from reuse of content.由于线上教育不受地域限制,高程度标准化和内容再利用的规模经济,这是企业家和风险投资聚集度最高的领域之一。MOOC, or Massive Online Open Courses, is one of the platforms where people can register for free and have access to all online courses provided by universities worldwide.慕课,即大规模开放的在线课程,是人们可以免费注册的平台之一。通过它,人们可以试听全球大学提供的所有线上课程。According to its official website, MOOC courses have assessment and examination just like a regular offline courses do. People signing up can participate in illustration, discussion, submitting assignments, asking questions and a final exam.据MOOC官网表示,MOOC拥有常规线下课程的评估和测试系统。注册的人可以参与视频演示,讨论,提交作业,询问问题以及参与期末考试。Once a course completed, users can receive an electronic certificate or pay for a paper copy, which are now acknowledged by many employers.一旦课程完成,使用者可以收到一个电子书,或者付钱获得纸质副本,这些都得到很多雇主的认可。The Ministry of Education said MOOC ;has enlarged the time and space of teaching, fired learners#39; interest, helped more people benefit from high-quality educational resources and accelerated reform in many aspects of teaching;.教育部表示,MOOC扩大了教学的时间和空间,激发了学习者的兴趣,帮助更多的人从高质量的教育资源中获益,加速教学领域的改革。MOOC has gained popularity in China since 2013 and some universities, including Tsinghua University and Peking University have established their own MOOC platforms.自2013年起,大型开放式网络课程就在国内很流行,包括清华北大在内的一些学校已经建立了自己的开放式网络课程平台。The estimated market size of global online education in 2015 has reached about .9 billion and will be increased by .5 billion until the year 2020, according to a report released by research firm Ambient Insight.据研究机构Ambient Insight发布的报告显示,2015年,全球线上教育市场份额预估达到了479亿美元,截止2020年,这一数据将有望增加25亿美元。 /201603/430988昆山注射润白颜瘦腿哪家医院好

昆山市一院抽脂多少钱昆山百达丽整形美容医院开韩式双眼皮怎么样VANESSA AND HER SISTER. By Priya . (Ballantine, .) A novel of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell, constructed around an invented diary and letters.《凡妮莎与她的姊》(Vanessa And Her Sister),普莱娅·帕尔曼(Priya Parmar)著(Ballantine出版社,26美元)。这部小说讲述弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙(Virginia Woolf)与凡妮莎·贝尔(Vanessa Bell)的故事,建立在虚构的日记与信件基础上。THE VISITING PRIVILEGE: New and Collected Stories. By Joy Williams. (Knopf, .) These tales, spanning a period of nearly 50 years, are marked by queasy humor and a wry nihilism.《前来拜访的特权:新旧短篇小说集》(The Visiting Privilege: New and Collected Stories),乔伊·威廉姆斯(Joy Williams)著(Knopf出版社,30美元)。这些故事时间跨度将近50年,有着令人反胃的幽默感与扭曲的虚无主义。THE WHITES. By Richard Price writing as Harry Brandt. (Holt, .) Most ers will never come close to a New York homicide investigation, but they will instinctively know that Price’s insightful crime novel has this world down right.《白》(The Whites),理查德·普莱斯(Richard Price),以哈利·勃兰特(Harry Brandt)为笔名出版(Holt出版社,28美元)。大多数读者永远不可能接近一起纽约谋杀案调查,但他们可以从普莱斯充满洞察力的犯罪小说里一窥这个世界的究竟。NONFICTION非虚构AMERICA’S BITTER PILL: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System. By Steven Brill. (Random House, .) Brill’s fresh, curiosity makes him a superb guide to the maze of issues involved here.《美国的苦药:金钱、政治、后门交易,以及修复我们糟糕的医疗系统的斗争》(America’s Bitter Pill: Money, Politics, Backroom Deals, and the Fight to Fix Our Broken Healthcare System),史蒂文·布里尔(Steven Brill)著(Random House出版社,28美元)。布里尔清新的、局外人式的好奇心令他成为一个好导游,走进书名所涉及的题材所构成的迷宫。THE ARGONAUTS. By Maggie Nelson. (Graywolf, .) An exploration of the way our bodies define and limit us considers the author’s pregnancy and her partner’s own changes.《阿尔戈英雄》(The Argonauts),麦琪·尼尔逊(Maggie Nelson)(Graywolf出版社,23美元)。探索我们身体的构成,以及它如何限制我们,是在作者的怀经历与她伴侣自身的改变的基础之上写成。AUGUSTINE: Conversions to Confessions. By Robin Lane Fox. (Basic Books, .) This narrative of the first half of Augustine’s life conjures the intellectual and social milieu of the late Roman Empire with a Proustian relish for detail.《奥古斯汀:从皈依到忏悔》(Augustine: Conversions to Confessions),罗宾·莱恩·福克斯(Robin Lane Fox)著(Basic Books出版社,35美元)。这本书讲述了奥古斯汀的前半生,同时描绘了罗马帝国末期的智识与社会环境,有着普鲁斯特式的大量细节。BARBARIAN DAYS: A Surfing Life. By Finnegan. (Penguin Press, .95.) Generous yet unsparing portraits of competitive surf friendships are among the joys of Finnegan’s memoir.《野蛮的日子:冲浪生活》(Barbarian Days: A Surfing Life),威廉·芬尼根(William Fnnegan)著(Penguin出版社,27.95美元)。这本书毫不留情地详尽描写了冲浪界充满竞争的友谊关系,这是芬尼根回忆录带给读者的众多乐趣之一。BECOMING NICOLE: The Transformation of an American Family. By Amy Ellis Nutt. (Random House, .) A generous portrayal of a couple’s affirming response to their transgender child.《成为妮科尔:一个美国家庭的变形》(Becoming Nicole: The Transformation of an American Family),艾米·埃利斯·纳特(Amy Ellis Nutt)著(Random House出版社,27美元)。精地描写了一对伴侣如何坚定地持他们变性的孩子。BETWEEN THE WORLD AND ME. By Coates. (Spiegel amp; Grau, .) With brilliant insight, Coates warns his teenage son about the apparent permanence of racial injustice and the danger of believing one person can make a change.《在世界与我之间》(Between The World And ME),塔-奈西希·科特斯(Ta-Nehisi Coates)著(Spiegel amp; Grau出版社,24美元)。科特斯以绝佳的洞察力告诫自己十几岁的儿子,警惕明显的种族不公正现象,以及相信一个人可以改变的危险性。THE COMPLETE WORKS OF PRIMO LEVI. Edited by Ann Goldstein. (Liveright, three volumes, 0.) Twenty-eight years after Levi’s death, this collection of everything he published brings into focus the bth and coherence of his genius.《普里莫·莱维全集》(The Complete Works Of Primo Levi),安·戈德斯坦编辑(Liveright出版社,三卷本,100美元)。莱维去世38年后,这本他出版过的作品的全集让人们注意到他的才华有多么广泛,而且彼此关联。THE CRIME AND THE SILENCE: Confronting the Massacre of Jews in Wartime Jedwabne. By Anna Bikont. Translated by Alissa Valles. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) A beautifully written and devastating reconstruction of mass murder and its 《犯罪与沉默:直面战时犹太大屠杀――耶德瓦布内》(The Crime And The Silence: Confronting the Massacre of Jews in Wartime Jedwabne),安娜·比科特(Anna Bikont)著,艾丽莎·瓦里斯(Alissa Valles)译(Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux出版社,30美元)。这本书可怕地重现了大屠杀时的情景,以及对它的否认,文笔优美。DAUGHTERS OF THE SAMURAI: A Journey From East to West and Back. By Janice P. Nimura. (Norton, .95.) In 1871, three clueless Japanese girls were sent to America, to learn how to educate their countrywomen in modern ways.《武士的女儿:从东到西,之后归来的旅行》(Daughters Of The Samurai: A Journey From East to West and Back),贾尼斯·P·尼姆拉(Janice P. Nimura)著,(Norton出版社,26.95美元)。1871年,三个毫无头绪的日本女孩被送到美国,学习如何以现代方式教育本国女性。DESTINY AND POWER: The American Odys of George Herbert Walker Bush. By Jon Meacham. (Random House, .) A judicious and balanced biography of the elder President Bush.《命运与权力:乔治·休伯特·沃尔克·布什的美国奥德赛之旅》(Destiny And Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush),琼恩·米查姆(Jon Meacham)著(Random House出版社,35美元)。关于老布什总统公正公平、不偏不倚的传记。 /201512/412972昆山妇保医院激光去痣多少钱太仓市丰胸医院哪家好

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