2019年11月18日 04:31:18|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度报
Genetically modified crops resumed their march across the world’s farmland last year, with GM plants covering a record 185m hectares — 3 per cent more than 2015. By far the largest increase was in Brazil, the engine of global GM growth, where the area expanded by 11 per cent to 44m hectares.去年,转基因农作物恢复了在全球耕地上的扩张势头,其种植面积达到创纪录的1.85亿公顷,比2015年高出3%。增幅最大的是巴西,该国是全球转基因农作物增长的引擎,种植面积扩大11%,至4400万公顷。The figures come from the most authoritative annual survey of GM crops worldwide, carried out by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, a global network of non-profit centres that promote agricultural biotechnology. The equivalent ISAAA study a year ago had shown a small decrease in planting, the first since GM crops were commercialised 20 years ago.这些数据来自有关全球转基因农作物的最权威年度调查,调查由国际农业生物技术应用务组织(International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications,简称ISAAA)展开。该组织是一个全球性网络,旗下有多个推广农业生物技术的非营利中心。该组织一年前的研究显示,转基因农作物种植面积略有减少,这是自转基因农作物20年前开始商业化种植以来的首次。Paul Teng of Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, ISAAA chair, attributed the upturn to various factors in different parts of the world. “There was some recovery in commodity prices, which had a positive effect particularly in the US,” he said. “Favourable weather led to an increase in planting in several countries.ISAAA主席、新加坡南洋理工大学(Nanyang Technological University)教授Paul Teng将转基因农作物种植面积恢复增长归因于全球不同地区的多个因素。“大宗商品价格有所回升,这尤其在美国产生了积极影响,”他表示,“有利的天气使多个国家的种植面积增加。”“But the main driving force is that farmers appreciate the immense benefits of biotech crops for improved productivity and profitability, as well as conservation efforts,” said Professor Teng.他表示:“但主要的推动因素是农民认识到了生物技术农作物对于提高生产率和利润率以及环保努力的巨大好处。”Sales of GM seeds in 2016 were also up 3 per cent on 2015, according to data provided by Cropnosis, a research company. The market was worth .8bn, equivalent to 35 per cent of global commercial seed sales (bn).根据研究机构Cropnosis提供的数据,2016年转基因种子的销售额也比2015年增长3%。这块市场的规模为158亿美元,相当于全球商业种子销售额(450亿美元)的35%。Four species still dominate GM planting: maize, soyabeans, cotton and canola (oilseed rape). The two main “traits” or characteristics conferred by genetic engineering so far have been herbicide tolerance, which enables farmers to spray fields with a weedkiller that does not harm the crop, and insect resistance, which stops pests eating the plants.目前种植的主要转基因农作物仍是以下四类:玉米、大豆、棉花和油菜籽。目前基因工程赋予的两种主要特点是耐除草剂和抗虫性,前者让农民可以向农田喷洒除草剂,但不伤害农作物,后者可以阻止害虫啃食农作物。But new GM crops would soon propel another wave of expansion, Professor Teng said: “With commercial approvals and plantings of new varieties of biotech potatoes and apples, consumers will begin to enjoy direct benefits of biotechnology with produce that is not likely to spoil or be damaged, which in turn has the potential to substantially reduce food waste and consumer grocery costs.” For example genes added to GM apples and potatoes make them more resistant to browning or bruising when cut or bashed.但新的转基因作物将会很快引发新一波扩张,Paul Teng表示:“随着以生物技术培育的新品种土豆和苹果获得商业化批准和种植,消费者将能开始享受到生物技术带来的直接益处,农产品不太可能坏掉或被破坏,从而有可能大量减少食品浪费和消费者在食品方面的成本。”例如,被添加进转基因苹果和土豆的基因,可使苹果和土豆在切开或受到撞击时更不容易变色或碰伤。Although consumer and environmental groups across the world continue to resist GM crops, the resolutely pro-biotech ISAAA detects signs of changing attitudes.尽管世界各地的消费者和环保团体继续抵制转基因农作物,但坚定持生物技术的ISAAA发现了人们态度转变的一些迹象。In Africa, for instance, “a new wave of acceptance is emerging”, with field trials of GM banana, cowpea and sorghum under way in several countries. Even in Europe, the heartland of anti-GM sentiment, 136,000 hectares of insect-resistant maize were planted — 17 per cent up on 2015.例如,在非洲,“新一波的接受浪潮正在出现”,多个国家正在开展转基因香蕉、豇豆和高粱的试验田。即便在作为反转基因大本营的欧洲,也种植了13.6万公顷防虫害的转基因玉米,较2015年增长了17%。The commercial concentration of agricultural biotechnology is set to increase this year, with megamergers in progress between Bayer and Monsanto, Dow Chemical and DuPont, and Syngenta and ChemChina. Although the industry’s critics have expressed concern, Prof Teng is supportive.今年,农业生物技术行业的集中度料将上升,数起特大合并正在推进,包括拜耳(Bayer)与孟山都(Monsanto)、陶氏化学(Dow Chemical)与杜邦(DuPont),以及先正达(Syngenta)与中国化工(ChemChina)。尽管业内批评人士表达了担忧,但Paul Teng持这一趋势。“I really think that having fewer companies will be better for farmers,” he said. “The three or four companies left will be better at carrying out groundbreaking Ramp;D, transferring technology from the public sector and complying with international standards.”他说:“我由衷认为,公司数量减少对农民更有利。剩下的三四家公司将能更好地实施开创性的研发项目,将技术从公共部门转移出来,并遵循国际标准。” /201705/507745China’s Cnooc on Tuesday set out plans to cut capital spending by more than 10 per cent this year and reduce oil production, as it responds to the crude price rout.中海油(Cnooc)周二宣布今年削减10%以上的资本出并减少石油产量,以此回应原油价格暴跌。The annual forecast by Cnooc’s listed unit serves as the first indication of output and investment plans by China’s state-controlled oil producers, which also include China National Petroleum Corp and Sinopec.中海油上市子公司的年度预测是反映中国国有控股石油公司产量和投资计划的首个风向标,这些公司还包括中国石油天然气集团公司(CNPC)和中石化(Sinopec)。The listed arm does not represent all of the output by Cnooc’s state-controlled parent company, but remains a good proxy for the position of the Chinese industry.上市子公司并不代表中海油国有控股母公司的所有产出,但仍是中国石油业当下处境的较好写照。Brent crude was trading at per barrel on Tuesday, having fallen to a 12-year low on Monday, and Li Fanrong, Cnooc’s chief executive, said that oil prices of below made operations “very difficult”.布伦特(Brent)原油价格在周一跌至12年低点后,周二为29美元/桶。中海油首席执行官李凡荣表示,不到30美元/桶的油价使经营“非常困难”。Cnooc said it plans to cut capital spending to “no more than” Rmb60bn (.1bn) this year, from Rmb67.5bn in 2015.中海油表示,计划将今年的资本出从2015年的675亿元人民币缩减至“不超过”600亿元人民币(合91亿美元)。It intends to produce between 470m and 485m barrels of oil equivalent this year, compared with an estimated 495m last year.中海油计划今年生产4.70亿至4.85亿桶石油当量,去年该公司的产量约为4.95亿桶。China’s state-controlled oil producers expanded aggressively from 2000 because of the country’s growing demand for crude, but they are now saddled with high-cost fields overseas.自2000年开始,中国国有控股石油公司就因国内不断增长的原油需求而大举扩张,但他们现在受到高成本海外油田的拖累。Mr Li said Cnooc would analyse cash flow on a field-by-field basis and “be more cautious when making major investments”.李凡荣表示,中海油将在逐块油田分析现金流,并且“在进行重大投资时更加谨慎”。“In the harsh winter, we pay more attention to whether [a field] can bring cash flow,” he added. “I hope we can cut costs faster than the oil price drops, but sometimes that’s not realistic.”“寒冬时期,我们更加注重(一块油田)能否带来现金流,”他补充说,“希望我们缩减开的速度能快过油价下跌的速度,但有时这并不现实。”Production cuts “are more likely to come from overseas projects than [producers’] domestic operations”, said Gao Jian, analyst at Chem99.com.卓创资讯(Chem99.com)分析师高健表示,减产“更可能来自海外项目,而非(这些油企的)国内业务”。“The pressure to maintain production levels is more likely to come from the companies themselves rather than from the government,” he added. “Cutting production would mean worse performance.”“保持产量水平的压力更有可能来自企业自身,而非政府,”他补充说,“减产意味着业绩下滑。”Analysts said the falling crude price had one silver lining for certain oil producers, in the form of an improved outlook for their refining arms.分析师表示,原油价格下跌给某些油企带来一个利好——他们旗下炼油部门的前景将有所改善。This month, China’s National Development and Reform Commission adjusted the formula it uses to set domestic diesel and petrol prices, in order to incentivise refiners.本月,中国发改委(NDRC)调整了国内汽、柴油定价机制,以激励炼油企业。 /201601/424061

China#39;s property market continued to cool as total floor space of sold apartments in major Chinese cities in November suffered the first year-on-year decline in 21 months.今年11月,我国主要城市住宅销售总面积21个月以来首次同比下滑,房地产市场继续降温。Last month, some 19.9m sq m were sold in 30 major cities, a 4.2% drop from the same period last year, according to data compiled by E-house China Research and Development Institute.易居研究院汇编的数据显示,上个月,30个主要城市住宅销售面积约为1990万平方米,同比减少4.2%。On a monthly basis, the fall was 10.5%, with Beijing shedding 7.9% and Shanghai dropping 24.6%, respectively.从环比角度来看,这一数字下降了10.5%。北京和上海的环比降幅分别为7.9%和24.6%。Second- and third-tier cities also posted month-on-month declines, with Hangzhou and Suzhou leading the retreat.二、三线城市也出现了环比下跌,其中以杭州和苏州的跌幅最大。Chinese authorities introduced a slew of measures in October to rein in house prices and contain speculative house purchases, including purchase limits and tougher mortgage limits.为控制房价、抑制投机性购房,我国政府在10月出台了限购和收紧房贷限制等多项措施。The year-on-year decline is expected to continue in December with less speculative home buyers, said Yan Yuejin, senior researcher with E-house China Research and Development Institute.易居研究院资深研究员严跃进称,随着投机购房者的减少,12月有望延续同比下滑态势。It proves the effectiveness of the cooling policies and means narrowed home price rises, Yan said.严跃进表示,这一结果明了冷却政策及减小房价上涨幅度手段的有效性。 /201612/482785

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