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2019年06月19日 16:46:00 | 作者:京东社区 | 来源:新华社
Finance and economics财经商业Chinas currency中国货币One way no more只有一条路可走Why Chinas central bank is weakening its currency为什么中国的中央正在弱化它的货币CHINAS currency has long been a source of controversy, especially among American politicians outraged by its cheapness.中国的货币长久以来就是争议之源,尤其是因其廉价而饱受美国政客的指责。But it is rarely a source of uncertainty.但是它却不是不稳定的源泉。Critics have argued fiercely about what it should be worth.批评家就其实际价值争论了很久,But as to what it would be worth, Chinas authorities have left little room for disagreement.但是事关未来中国货币价值,中国政府不容置喙。在中国历史上的大多数时间,其货币紧紧与美元挂钩。For much of its history it has been pegged tightly to the dollar. More recently it has floated within a narrow band.近来,中国汇率在一个很小的范围波动。Most people have assumed it would float upwards.大多数人,认为其将会向上浮动。In recent days, however, Chinas authorities have tested that assumption.而近日,中国官方欣慰实了这一猜想,At a two-day meeting ending on February 18th, the central bank decided to weaken the yuan, according to the Wall Street Journal.据《华尔街日报》消息,为期两天并于2月18号结束的会议,在其召开之后,It has lowered its benchmark by a smidgen at a time for several days.中央决定贬抑人民币。它略微降低了其基准几天的时间。The currency has also fallen from the strong side of its band to the weak side.货币也已经从强势的一端,降到弱势的一端了。In the space of a few days, it lost about 1% of its value.几天的时间,就已经贬值了1%。On February 26th Chinas foreign-exchange regulator said that Chinas ongoing exchange-rate reforms meant that two-way fluctuations… will become the norm.2月26日,中国外汇称中国正在进行汇率改革,这意味着双向波动会成为规范For the past year, a different norm has applied:在过去的几年,一个不同的标准已被采用:the fluctuations have been mostly one way.波动可能只因为一种方式。China enjoys a sizeable current-account surplus and it still attracts more foreign-direct investment than it provides.中国拥有相当数量的经常项目盈余,并且它仍然吸引这比其投资量更多的国外直接投资。Other kinds of capital flows are more volatile. But in the last quarter of 2013, a net billion of hot money flowed inwards.其他形式的资本流动愈发不稳定。当时2013年第四季度,净值220亿美元的热钱流入国内。Much of this qualifies as a carry trade: speculators have borrowed cheaply in dollars, then lent in yuan, eluding Chinas capital controls in the hope of benefiting both from higher Chinese interest rates and the yuans appreciation.许多被认为是一种套息交易:投机者廉价借入美元,然后借给人民币,避过了中国的资本管制,以期从更高的中国利率和人民币升值中获利。All of this has put upward pressure on the currency, fulfilling the carry-traders designs and inspiring others to emulate them.套息交易者计划的实行以及激励别人效仿其行为,所有的这些都增加了货币升值的压力,Despite the central banks heavy purchases of foreign exchange, the yuan rose by 2.8% against the dollar in the year to January, even as the currencies of other emerging markets plummeted.尽管央行大量购进美元,截至今年1月,即使是在其他新兴市场猛跌的情况下,人民币相对于美元升值了2.8%。The resulting loss of competitiveness is best illustrated by an index calculated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, which compares Chinas currency with those of other emerging economies that compete with it in third markets.由香港金融的通过比较中国与其他新兴经济体的货币在第三市场的竞争计算出来的指数,最好地说明了人民币升值导致竞争力下降的情况。This index shows the yuan rising by over 13% in the year to January and by almost 2.6% in January alone.这个指数显示了人民币截至到今年一月份上涨了13%,光一月份就上涨了几乎2.6%。Chinas authorities did not say they had stepped in to sap the yuan.中国政府未曾说过其介入贬抑人民币。But their intervention left fingerprints all over the money markets.但是它们干涉的痕迹遍布整个货币市场。In buying dollars to weaken the currency, the monetary authorities put additional yuan into circulation.通过购买美元来使本币贬值,金融当局投放额外的人民币用于流通。The central bank withdrew a fraction of this extra money by selling securities to the banks.中央通过向发售有价券来收回一小部分额外的钱。But the banks were still left with extra yuan, which they tried to lend to each other.但是手头仍然有很多多出来的钱,他们试图将之借给对方,This pushed down interbank interest rates, despite the central banks withdrawals.这降低了内部利率。As Yao Wei of Societe Generale points out, No factors other than foreign-exchange intervention seems able to explain that.法国兴业的Yao Wei 指出似乎除了外汇干预,没有更好的原因能解释这一现象了。Will the yuans slide persist?人民币会持续贬值吗?In its statement, the foreign-exchange regulator pointed out that export earnings and foreign-direct investment remain strong.外汇在其陈述中指出:对外贸易顺差以及国外直接投资势头依旧强劲。These fundamentals both suggest the yuan should rise again.这两个基础因素显示了人民币应该再次升值。But by wrongfooting the speculators, the authorities hope that the expectation of appreciation will not remain a cause of that appreciation.但是通过打乱投机者的步伐,当局期望对升值的预期不会继续成为导致升值的因素。At the meeting in which it decided to cheapen its currency, the central bank also decided to enlarge the yuans trading band later this year, according to a statement cited by theJournal.根据《华尔街日报》上的描述,在做出贬抑人民币决定的会议上,中央也决定扩大人民币交易的范围。A more flexible yuan would give the central bank a freer hand in setting monetary policy, even as it gradually permits larger cross-border flows of capital.一个更加有弹性的人民币将会给中央在制定货币政策时带来更大的便利,甚至它会逐渐允许更大规模的跨境资本流动。Despite its cruelty to carry traders, the central bank seems to be keen to open the door to foreign capital a little wider, as long as foreigners do not try to barge their way in. That will make Chinas currency a source of less controversy but a good deal more uncertainty.尽管其对于套息交易者十分严厉,但是只要外国人不试图用粗鲁的方式闯入中国市场,中央似乎乐意对国外资本适度放宽限制。这将减少中国通货的争议性,但是却增加了不稳定性。 /201403/278681Its an ordinary day.这是平常的一天。You may be entirely relaxed, settling down to watch some TV.你放松身心,专心地看着电视。Suddenly you begin to feel scared.突然你感到恐惧。Everything around you is becoming unreal.身边的所有事物都变得不真实。Your heart isracing, your head spinning, your hands tingling.你的心跳加速,天旋地转,手臂发麻。An overwhelming sense of despair and anguish hits you like a wave.一种歇斯底里的绝望和痛苦像海浪一样侵袭着你。What on earth is going on?这到底是怎么回事?If you have had an experience like this, its possible you were having a “panic attack.”如果你有类似的经历,很可能你患有“惊恐发作”症。Some peopleexperience panic attacks in tense situations, such as before giving a speech.一些人在紧张的情况下会经历惊恐发作,例如在演讲之前。For others it comescompletely out of the blue.有些则会在完全意外的情况下经历。But panic attack is a very real condition, and not at all the samething as just “getting flustered.”但是惊恐发作是一种真实存在的健康问题,与所说的心慌完全不同。What causes it?那么这是什么引起的呢?Panic attack begins in the oldest parts of our brain.惊恐发作始于我们大脑里最古老的部分。Before we had evolved rational thought, we still needed to be able to survive in the world.在我们形成理性思维之前,我们仍然需要在在世界上生存。The ability to either fight or flee from a dangeroussituation is perhaps the most basic behavior required of any animal.战斗和逃离危险或许是人和动物都必备的最基本的能力。Panic attacks occur when the bodily systems responsible for dealing with dangerous situations kick in at the wrong time.当身体系统对在不适当的时间里发生的危险情况作出反应时就会产生惊恐发作。There is no danger in relaxing on your couch, and no real danger ingiving a speech.在沙发上休息并不危险,演讲也并不是真的危险。But in some people, the “fight or flight” responses can be triggered accidentally.但是对于一些人来说,会意外地触发他们“战斗还是逃走”的心理反应。Heart rate increases, breathing becomes shallow, adrenaline shoots to your arms.心跳加速,呼吸困难,肾上腺素直冲手臂。These areuseful responses to have, if you really are in danger.如果你真的处于危险情况之下,这些都是很有利的反应。For people with panic attack, though, theycan be both confusing and terrifying.然而对于有惊恐发作的人来说,他们会感到混乱和恐惧。Several different therapies now exist for panic attack, from anti-anxiety medications to behaviormodification.针对惊恐发作,有好几种不同的治疗方法。从抗焦虑药到行为矫正。So take heart-theres no need to panic.所以,鼓起勇气-没必要恐慌。 201408/319099Finance and Economics;Free exchange;Zero-sum debate;财经;自由兑换; 零和争论;Economists are rethinking the view that capital should not be taxed;经济学家正重新考虑是否要推翻不该对资本征税的观点。Executives thunder that Americas corporate-tax rates are to blame for economic weakness. Mitt Romneys campaign accuses Barack Obama of waging a “war on capital”. In fact, Americas taxation of capital is more murky than confiscatory. At 39.2% (including state and local tax) its top corporate rate is the rich worlds highest but loopholes mean most companies end up paying 27.6%, similar to Britains effective rate of 27.4% and below Germanys 31.6%. Americas tax rate on capital gains, at 15%, is lower than in many other countries. And if Mr Romney is the more ardent defender of capital, both men agree on the need for reforms. This is less a battle, more a skirmish.行政当局愤怒指出美国经济疲软应归咎于公司企业所得税率。米特·罗姆尼发起一场运动指责奥巴马掀起了“对资本的战争”。事实上,美国的资本税与其用于没收充公,不如说其使用含混不明。其最高企业所得税税率高达39.2%(包括州政府和当地政府所征税收),居发达国家之首,不过由于存在漏洞,大多数公司最终付的税率为27.6%,接近于英国的实际税率27.4%,低于德国的实际税率31.6%。美国的资本利得税税率为15%,比很多国家都要低。尽管罗姆尼更热衷于维护资本,他和奥巴马都认为有必要进行改革。这不像一场战争,反而只是一场小争论罢了。The more interesting fight is going on within economics. For a generation, the professions message on capital taxes has been simple: the lower the better. Most economists would prefer no tax on capital income at all. This seeming fanaticism is rooted in sensible models, developed in the 1970s and 1980s and built on a pleasing simplicity. Taxation inevitably involves trade-offs. Governments tax in order to fund public goods and limit inequality, but taxes are no free lunch. People and businesses respond—a tax on carrots, say, reduces carrot consumption—and these responses distort the economy and may reduce its potential growth rate.经济学内部发生了更有趣的争执。一代以来,经济学家对于资本税的看法十分简单:税率越低越好。大多数经济学家根本不持对资本收入征税。这种表面上的狂热植根于一些实用模型,它们于20世纪70年代到80年代发展起来,其基本特征是简洁,因此令人愉悦。税收不可避免地涉及了交换。政府征税是为了提供公共产品和限制收入不公,然而税收并非免费的午餐。个人和企业会提供反响,例如,对胡萝卜征税会减少胡萝卜的消费量,而这些反应使得经济扭曲,并有可能减少经济的潜在增长率。In these models, inequality was seen as a problem of pay differences, best addressed through taxes on labour incomes. Taxes on capital were reckoned to have large costs. Capital, or savings invested in new production, raises future growth and consumption. If a tax on capital income discourages investment, that impact compounds indefinitely into the future. As a result, zero tax on capital income should be preferred, even by individuals who dont earn any such income. Economists became vocal in calling for reduced tax rates, and policymakers responded. Top capital-income tax rates in America and Britain fell by more than half from the 1950s to the 1980s. There is pressure to go further.在这些模型中,人们认为收入的不一致导致出现了不公正,而解决这个问题的最好方法就是向劳力收入征税。资本税会产生巨额成本。资本,或者投入新生产的储蓄能够在未来带来经济增长和消费。若对资本收入征税会减少投资,其影响将有可能渗入到未来。这么一来,人们更乐于选择对资本收入征收零税收,即使对于那些并没有资本收入的人来说也是如此。经济学家强烈呼吁削减税率,并得到了政策制定者的回应。在20世纪50年代到80年代间,英美两国的最高资本收入税率下降了超过一半。若施加更多压力,还能降得更多。But some economists are questioning the prevailing view, not least because reductions in capital-tax rates appear to have delivered more inequality than growth. In a 2008 paper, Juan Carlos Conesa of Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sagiri Kitao of the University of Southern California and Dirk Krueger of the University of Pennsylvania argued that taxing capital was “not a bad idea after all”. Capital markets are imperfect, they observe, and households are unable to insure themselves against all of lifes ups and downs. Taxing away some of the return to capital to provide social insurance against risks is appropriate.不过一些经济学家正在质疑这种盛行的观点,其理由不仅仅是因为资本税率的减少似乎并未带来多少增长,反而扩大了不公正的发生。在一份2008年发布的论文上,巴塞罗那自治大学的Juan Carlos Conesa, 南加利福尼亚大学的Sagiri Kitao 以及宾夕法尼亚大学的Dirk Krueger争论说,对资本收入“绝不是一个坏主意”。在他们看来,资本市场是不完美的,单个家庭自身无力保能够有效应对生命中的大起大落。因此通过征税拿走一部分资本收益,用以提供社会保障和抵御风险是合情合理的。That is because the growth costs of capital taxes are overestimated. The old models contend that capital supply is highly sensitive to changes in tax policy, and that a zero tax rate is needed to prevent capital from drying up over the long run. This looks unrealistic, the authors reckon. Most capital-income taxes are paid by working-age adults saving for retirement, who will continue to save despite taxes. Stubborn savers make for a stable supply of investment capital, limiting the impact of taxes on growth. In the authors estimation, a 36% capital-income tax rate is justified.之所以发生这种情况,是因为资本税收的增长成本被高估了。旧模型坚持认为资本供给对税收政策的变化极其敏感,因此需要实行零税收以防止长期里资本陷入枯竭。作者们认为,这种说法是不切实际的。大多数资本收入税收是由在职成年人付,用以积蓄养老,即便收税他们仍然会维持这种储蓄。坚定不移的储蓄者保了投资性资本的稳定供给,这样就限制了税收对于经济增长带来的影响。在作者的预计中,36%的资本收入税率是公正的。In a new NBER working paper, Thomas Piketty of the Paris School of Economics and Emmanuel Saez of the University of California at Berkeley poke different holes in the conventional view. The old models, they point out, ignore inheritances. In the real world inheritances strongly influence income levels, particularly among the very rich. Mr Romney recently reinforced this very point by exhorting students to borrow from parents if necessary. Taxes on wages and salaries are inadequate to the task of limiting inequality because they punish those who owe high incomes to greater ability and effort, rather than to inheritances. Messrs Piketty and Saez also question the scale of the threat to growth. They point to ratios of capital to output, which are surprisingly stable over time despite tax swings. Their model finds that the optimal tax rate on inheritance could be 50-60% or more.在一份新的美国国家经济研究局(NBER)的工作报告中,巴黎经济学院的Thomas Piketty 和加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的Emmanuel Saez 在传统的观点中找到了另外一些漏洞。他们指出,旧模型忽略了遗产的因素。在现实世界里,遗产强烈影响了收入水平,尤其是对于那些巨富来说更是如此。罗姆尼最近强调了这一点,他规劝学生们有必要的话可以向家长借钱。对工钱或薪水征税不足以限制收入不公,因为这些税收对因自身能力和努力工作而获得高收入的人造成了损害,反而放过了因遗产而暴富的人。Messrs Piketty 和Saez同样质疑了经济增长是否真的受到了那么大程度的威胁。他们显示了资本对产量的比率,发现就算税率变动,这一比率却能长期保持平稳,令人惊异。他们的模型发现对遗产征收的最佳税率能达到50%到60%,甚至更多。Inheritance taxes are a minor source of government money, accounting for less than one percentage point of the 8-9% of GDP in revenues that Messrs Piketty and Saez estimate is raised by capital taxes. But taxing capital gains or corporate income, which is responsible for much of the rest, is also justifiable, they say. The often-fuzzy line between income from capital and labour means a large gap in relative tax rates breeds tax avoidance. When wage taxes are high and capital taxes are low, firms simply shift compensation from salaries to stock options and dividends, cutting revenue without boosting growth. All told, capital-tax rates as high or higher than those on labour may make sense, they think.遗产税只是政府收入中极小的一个来源,在国内生产总值中占的比例不超过8%到9%,据Messrs Piketty 和Saez预计,征收资本税还可以提高这一收入。他们说,就连对资本增值或者企业所得征税,即资本税包含的另一部分,也是合理的。资本收入和劳力收入之间的界限经常模糊不清,这样在相对税率上产生了很大的差距,容易滋生漏税行为。若工资税高,资本税低,公司会将工资转为股权和红利,以此避免花费,这种行为减少了税收收入,无益于推动经济增长。他们认为,所有据表明,资本税率同劳力税率一样高或者比后者高一点或许是合理的。Pressure valve压力阀A recent paper by Emmanuel Farhi of Harvard University, Christopher Sleet and Sevin Yeltekin of Carnegie Mellon University, and Ivan Werning of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology makes another argument against abolition. The authors point out that rising inequality is a destabilising political force, which may encourage future governments to expropriate wealth through heavy taxation. That threat could discourage saving and investment now, something a weak economy cannot afford. Paradoxically, a progressive tax on capital in the present may lead to more investment by keeping inequality in check and by convincing firms that their wealth is (mostly) safe over the long term.由哈佛大学的Emmanuel Farhi,卡内基梅隆大学的Christopher Sleet 和Sevin Yeltekin 以及麻省理工学院的Ivan Werning发表的一篇论文中针对取消资本税提出了另一项反。这些作者指出,愈演愈烈的收入不公会造成政治不稳定,这样就会促使政府在未来通过征收重税来剥夺财富。这种威胁可能会对现在的储蓄和投资产生不利影响,而该影响是当前疲软的经济所无法承受的。矛盾的是,现在对资本渐进地征税或许会导致更多的投资,一方面,它能限制收入不公,另一方面,它可以使公司确信他们的财富在长期大部分都是安全的。Fretting over high capital-tax rates still makes sense, not least because capital is highly mobile. If countries differ in their approach, firms may simply invest more in those with more congenial rates. But from a global perspective, as inequality rises, having taxes on capital income will look increasingly attractive—and, by some reckonings, more sensible than previously thought.为了高资本税率烦恼不堪仍然是有道理的,尤其是因为资本具有高度的流动性。如若各国采取的政策不同,那么公司或许会仅仅凭借国家税率的友好程度选择投资方向。然而站在全球视角上来看,对资本收入征税看上去越来越吸引人了,并且在某些人看来,这比我们之前想的要合理多了。 /201305/238578Most people will agree they cannot remember much, if anything, prior to around age four. 大部分人都很难回忆起四岁以前的事情。What is remembered often comes in ;spot; images, floating in an otherwise gray area of uncertainty. 能记得东西都是来自于一些影像点,漂浮在不确定的灰色区域里。Yet when we look at a two or three year-old,perception and basic cognition appear to be in place and to have been functioning for a good long while. Why are those years lost to us?但是当我们看一个两,三岁的小孩子时,感觉和基本认知都已经形成并且发挥作用有一段时间了。为什么我们那些年的记忆却消失了呢?One possibility is that memory in humans requires a narrative context. ;Narrative context; means that it isnt enough to provide, say, a random visual image to the brain in order for it to form a working memory: 一种可能性是人类的记忆需要一个叙事语境。但“叙事语境”也不是什么都能提供,或者说,大脑中的任意的一个片段都能产生一个流动的记忆:the image needs to be put in place alongside a number of other images, with which it helps to establish a pattern. 这种影像需要被置于一系列的影像中,这样才足以建立一个图景。The very first time you see a tree, your brain cant do anything with it yet ---the information may simply be stored until it can be connected to other things, such as the back yard where you saw it, its size and color, or events of significance that occurred at the same time. 你第一次看见大树的时候,你的大脑可能不会做出任何反应——但到你下次再看见类似的东西的时候,这种印象又会蹦出来。例如,你曾经见过的后院,随之后院的面积,颜色,还有一切相关的事物都会同时出现。Once enough relationships are in place, it then becomes possible to remember -- not just ;tree; as an abstraction, but ;the big green tree I saw when I was walking this morning behind the house.;一旦足够的关系是到位时,它就变成了可能记住——不仅仅是“树”作为一种抽象概念,而是“大青翠树我走路的时候我看到今天早上在他的房子后面。”Learning words probably aids in this process, but is not strictly necessary. Still, the brain may provide context for memories by telling itself miniature stories, complete with setting, characters, and relationships. 在这个过程中可能会学到东西,但并不一定是必须。尽管如此,大脑可以联系前后关系进行记忆,从而完成与背景,人物,和人际关系的缩影。According to this idea, early childhood events occur at a time before we have developed enough narrative skills to tell the stories necessary for the formation of memories. 由此看来,早期无法回忆的童年往事,往往发生在我们还不具备充分的、能够阐述情节以构成记忆的技能之前。No narrative context, no long-term memory -- end of story. 没有叙事背景,没有长期记忆——故事结束。 201308/253540

Acne:the scourge of adolescence.粉刺:青春期的灾难。Most people endure it atsome point, and cant wait to be rid of the combination of whiteheads, blackheads, pimples, andpustules that comprise the skin condition that affects over 80% of teenagers and nearly 20% ofadults.许多人都在忍受它带来的麻烦,迫切地想要摆脱白头、黑头、丘疹、脓疱的困扰。这些问题滋扰着超过80%的年轻人和近20%的成人。Acne begins with the pores from which hair grows.粉刺在毛发生长的毛孔上出现,These pores contain sebaceous glands thatproduce a type of oil that lubricates hair and skin.这些毛孔包含了皮脂腺,而皮脂腺能产生可以滋润毛发和皮肤的油。When the glands produce the right amount ofoil, theres usually no trouble.当这些腺体产生适量油脂的时候,通常不会出现问题。But, when a pore gets clogged with too much oil and dead skin cells, problems arise.但是,当一个毛孔被过多的油脂和死去的皮肤细胞堵塞,问题出现了。The onset ofpuberty in most kids involves the production of hormones.许多孩子的青春期伴随着荷尔蒙的产生。These hormones cause the sebaceousglands to make excess oil.这些激素导致皮脂腺分泌多余的油脂。Too much oil clogs pores and attracts bacteria, which feed on the oiland begin to multiply.过多的油脂会堵塞毛孔并滋生细菌,细菌靠这些油脂生存和繁殖。A clogged pore can only stand so much internal pressure before its wallsbreak, allowing the oil and bacteria to seep under the surrounding skin.一个堵塞的毛孔的承载量是有限的,当压力过大时毛壁会破裂,油脂和细菌会渗漏到附近的皮肤上。This gives rise tosomething every teen ds: a pimple.每个年轻人的噩梦-粉刺产生了。Contrary to popular belief, eating foods such as pizza and chocolate does not cause or exacerbateacne.不同于大众的认知,吃诸如披萨和巧克力之类的食物并不会导致或者恶化粉刺。Whether or not a person will have acne as a teenager or adult is largely a matter of genetics:if your parents had it, theres a good chance you will too.不管是青少年还是成年人,人们产生粉刺的原因在于基因:如果你的父母有过粉刺,你很可能也会有。Although there is no cure for acne, simple remedies to prevent a build-up of oil in pores, such aswashing your face with soap and warm water and using oil-free cosmetics, can help.尽管没有根治粉刺的方法,但有办法可以防止毛孔的油脂堆积:比如用温水和肥皂洗脸,使用不含油脂的化妆品。201403/278303

Many people know that marine mammals, like whales, porpoises and dolphins, breathe air, like wedo.大多数人都知道些海洋哺乳动物,比如鲸鱼,鼠海豚和海豚。它们和我们一样都要呼吸空气。But, many people dont know that marine mammals have developed some interesting sleepinghabits in order to accommodate their regular trips up to the surface for air.但是大多数人都不知道这些哺乳动物已经养成了一些有趣的睡眠习惯,以配合来回水面呼吸空气。Today, A Moment ofScience looks at what its like to sleep with the fishes.今天,科学一刻将探究一下,这些哺乳动物是如何像鱼类一样睡觉的。Unlike our own breathing, which does not require conscious effort, marine mammals mustconsciously go to the surface of the water to breathe through a blowhole on top of their heads.与人类“无意识”呼吸不同,这些动物必须到水面,通过头顶的气孔,进行“有意识”的呼吸。Because of this, marine mammals dont sleep for a solid 8 hours a night, the way we do.因此,它们不像我们,每晚能够稳定的睡上八小时。Some marine mammals sleep while swimming.有些海洋哺乳动物边睡觉边游动。Whales nap for brief periods while swimmingalongside an alert friend who guides them.对于鲸鱼,只要有同伴放风,并引导着,他们就会边游边打会个盹。In fact, young whales must sleep alongside their motherbecause the mothers slipstream actually pulls the calf along: it will sink if the mother stops.实际上,幼鲸必须在母鲸身边睡觉,因为母鲸游动时产生的水流可以推动幼崽向前:如果母鲸停止游动,幼崽就会沉下去。Other marine mammals, like dolphins, sleep while floating on the surface of the water or take shortcatnaps while floating below the surface.而其它海洋哺乳动物,像海豚,睡觉的时候是浮在水面上,打盹的时候就浮在水面下。Researchers claim that while marine mammals sleep theirbrain is always partially alert.研究表明,海洋哺乳动物睡觉时,他们部分大脑依然保持警觉。Aside from these brief naps, dolphins are active most of the night.海豚在晚上,除了打盹,其余时间都处于活跃状态。Of course, marine mammals are equipped to handle underwater sleeping.当然,也有些海洋哺乳动物具备水下睡觉的能力。They haveproportionately larger lungs, exchange air more fully at each breath, and carry more oxygen intheir blood than we do, so they can hold their breath long enough to sleep with the fishes.相应地,他们的肺都很大,每次呼吸都能换进更多的空气。他们的血液中的含氧量就比我们的高,这样他们就能长时间屏息,像鱼类一样睡觉。201401/273516

Business商业报道Women and work女性和工作The glass-ceiling index玻璃天花板指数The best—and worst—places to be a working woman职场女性待遇最好和最差的国家AS IT is International Womens Day on March 8th, The Economist has created a glass-ceiling index, to show where women have the best chances of equal treatment at work.今天是3月8日国际妇女节,《经济学人》就创造了一个玻璃天花板指数模型来向大家展示哪个地区的职场女性拥有最公平的待遇。It combines data on higher education, labour-force participation, pay, child-care costs, maternity rights, business-school applications and representation in senior jobs.这个模型中考虑到的指标有:高等教育、劳工参与度、薪酬、抚养子女的成本、妇权利、商学院申请、以及在高级职务中的表现。Each countrys score is a weighted average of its performance on nine indicators.每个国家的得分是这九项指标加权平均之后的结果。To no ones surprise, Nordic countries come out well on educational attainment and labour-force participation.毫无疑问的是,北欧国家在受教育水平和劳工参与度这两项指标上非常突出。Women are also relatively well represented in their parliaments; Finland and Sweden were among the first countries to allow women to vote and stand for election.女性在国会中也能享受相对较高的代表权;芬兰和瑞典都属于最先让女性享有选举权的国家。Yet even there women are paid less than men for similar work.然而即使这样,这儿的女性在应对相似的工作时拿到的薪酬也比男性要低。In Finland and Sweden the gap is close to the OECD average of 15%, though in Norway it has fallen to 8%.在芬兰和瑞典,男女收入差异已经接近经合组织收入平均水平的15%, 而在挪威男女收入差异仅仅只有8%。In Finland women accounted for almost half of those who took the GMAT, an entrance exam for business schools, in 2012-13.在芬兰,2012年至2013年参与GMAT考试的考生中有一大半是女性。Worldwide, the share was 43%, an increase of five points in a decade.在全世界来看,这一比例达到了43%,比10年前上升了五个百分点。In Norway nearly two-fifths of board members for the largest listed companies are women, thanks largely to the introduction of mandatory as in 2008.在挪威,最大的上市公司董事会中几乎有五分之二是女性,造成这一现象的很大一部分原因是2008年的强制配额。That is twice the share in the European Union, which is considering bringing in as if the current voluntary approach fails.该比例已经是欧盟的两倍了。欧盟表示,如果现行的自愿方式无法奏效的话,他们将会考虑引用强制配额。At the bottom of our index are Japan and South Korea.在指数列表低端的是日本和韩国。Too few women there have jobs, few senior managers or board members are women and pay gaps are large—in South Korea, at 37%, the largest in the OECD.在这两个国家,职场女性人数相当少,在高级职务和董事会成员中也少有女性的身影。并且,韩国男女收入差距在经合组织中是最高的,达到了37%。If, in the UNs words, equality for women is progress for all, both countries have a long way to go.如果用联合国的话来说,对于女性而言,平等意味着在各方面都有进步,那么这两个国家都还有很长的路要走。 /201403/279413

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