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Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech Today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。4,500 people worldwide have died from swine flu since March of this year. Its just a fraction of those who have contracted the virus. But health experts are trying to figure out why some people dont survive it. In Sci-tech Today, we find out the answer may lie with the lunges. And joining us now from Museum of Science Boston is Brindha Muniappan. Thanks so much Brindha for joining us.今年有4,5000人死于猪流感(甲型性流感)。我们发现只有部分接触病毒的人群患病。健康专家正在研究为什么猪流感能致人死亡。今天的Sci-tech我们要弄明白猪流感和肺的关系,波士顿科学院的Brindha Muniappan将和我们一起探讨这一问题,欢迎。Thanks Caroine. And Brindha, why is H1N1 so deadly?谢谢主持人。Brindha,为什么H1N1会致人死亡?Well, it is a type of the influenza virus, much like the flu viruses we see in the winter, our normal flu season. But the normal flu, the seasonal flu virus typically affects people who dont have very strong immune systems, like the elderly, or the very young, or even pregnant women. But the H1N1 type A influenza virus, also known as the swine flu virus has been very devastating to people whore normally healthy with strong immune systems including teenagers and young adults.这是一种流行病毒,就想冬天流感季节的病毒一样。一般的季节性病毒攻击的是抵抗力弱的人群,比如老人,小孩儿,甚至是妇。但H1N1病毒,也就是猪流感病毒,攻击的是健康人,免疫力强的人,包括青少年和成人。And so researchers have found that there is some connection to the lung—a lack of oxygen?研究人员发现这和肺缺氧有关?Yeah, so there are 3 new studies that were published in the ;Journal of American Medical Association;. And the researchers in these studies took a look at hospital records in Mexico, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. And they took a look at hospital records of people who had been admitted to the intensive care units, so people who are critically ill, who have come down with the H1N1 virus and tried to figure out if there was, commonalities, certain characteristics that were similar to these patients. And they did find that a large majority of these patients were lacking in oxygen in their bodies. So they werent getting enough oxygen to their lungs and into their bloodstream.是的,美国医学会的期刊刊登了3篇相关文章。研究人员观测了墨西哥,加拿大,澳大利亚和新西兰四个国家的医院记录,查看了加护病房的病例,研究了病重和幸存病人的数据发现了这些病人的共同特征。那就是大部分的患者身体中的氧含量低。患者不能从肺提供的血流中得到足够的氧。So how, Brindha then, dose this change the way that people are treated?那么,知道了这一点会改变医治患者的方法吗?Well, this is hopefully going to provide a lot of information and help to physicians to treat people who come down with severe cases of H1N1. Possibly by letting physicians know, well, you know, if we have a critically ill patient with this disease, we need to probably, administrate extra oxygen more than likely the patient is going to have to go on a mechanical ventilator, a machine to add oxygen to their body. Physicians are going to have to pay close attention to the patient, probably administer anti-viral medications and maybe even you know, monitor the patient and watch out for secondary infections that could be caused by other organisms, other viruses, but maybe even bacteria. So theyll also have to watch out and possibly provide antibiotics as well. But for all these patients in these 3 studies that were taken a look at. All of those patients just about all required an extensive amount of time in the intensive care units once they had come down with the severe case of H1N1.这一研究结果提供了猪流感的更多信息,并有助于医生医治猪流感患者。医生们知道了这一研究结果,面对猪流感的重症患者时,就会额外地为患者输氧,而不只是让患者从医院排风扇呼吸氧气。医生们能够密切观察病人,精确使用抗病毒药物,有效防范其他病毒细菌的二次感染,合理使用抗生素。但是这三篇文章中的所有研究对象在度过猪流感危险期后曾再次回到加护病房。All right, Brindha Muniappen, thank you so much for joining us.好的,Brindha Muniappen,谢谢你的报道。Youre welcome, Calrine.没关系,Calrine。And you can join in us every Thursday morning at this time for Sci-tech Today or log on to the Museum of Science website mos.org.每周四早晨敬请收看Sci-tech Today,或关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/181406

Technology Prevention of cancer Wonder drug科技 癌症预防 灵丹妙药Aspirin continues to amaze阿司匹林:继续给你惊喜FOR thousands of years aspirin has been humanitys wonder drug.阿司匹林作为人类的特效药实际上已存在了数千年。Extracts from the willow tree have been used for pain relief in folk medicine since the time of the ancient Greeks.早在古希腊时期,民间就使用柳树的提取物作为药物来缓解疼痛。By 1897 a synthetic derivative (acetyl salicylic acid) of the plants active ingredient (salicin) was created.到了1897年,一种取自柳树的活性成分柳醇(水杨苷)的衍生合成物——乙酰水杨酸诞生了。This allowed aspirin to become the most widely used medicine in the world.这使得阿司匹林成为世界上使用最为广泛的药物。In recent years its benefits as a blood-thinning drug have led to it being prescribed in low doses of around 50mg to reduce deaths from stroke and heart attack.因其具有稀释血液的作用,近年来医界已使用50mg左右的低剂量阿司匹林来降低中风和心脏病带来的死亡危险。There were also hints that aspirin may help prevent some cancers.也有消息称阿司匹林还可预防某些癌症,But these were mostly based on observational studies, which can be misleading.但大多都是基于观测研究得来的,不可全信。The gold standard of scientific evidence is the randomised controlled trial, preferably one with a lot of people and held over a long time.获得科学明的最佳标准就是随机临床试验,最好是长期且有大批人参加的。The results of just such a trial, published in the Lancet, suggest that aspirin is indeed an astonishing drug.正是这样一个试验,发表在Lancet上的结果表明,阿司匹林的确是一种令人称奇的药物。Peter Rothwell at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and his colleagues looked at deaths due to cancers during and after randomised trials of daily aspirin.牛津约翰拉德克利夫医院的Peter Rothwell与其同事们以随机试验的方式观察了罹患癌症的病人在每日使用阿司匹林期间与其后的状况。The trials had actually been started to look at how useful aspirin was for preventing heart attacks and strokes. Nevertheless, the data from the 25,570 patients enrolled in eight trials was also revealing about cancer.实际上开始试验的目的是为了查看阿司匹林对于预防心脏病与中风的效果,尽管如此,从25,570名病人身上收集的8个试验的数据同样表明了这种药物对癌症的作用。In trials lasting between four and eight years, the patients who had been given aspirin were 21% less likely to die from cancer than those who had been given a placebo.在长达四年到八年不等的试验过程中,使用阿司匹林的病人,因癌症死亡的概率比使用安慰剂的病人要低21%。These results were based on 674 cancer deaths, so are unlikely to represent the kind of statistical oddity that can beset studies on cancer risks that sometimes create headlines.这一结果是基于674名罹患癌症面临死亡的病人,因而对于那种围绕研究癌症风险给人提前判死刑(缓刑)的概率学数据,还不大能拉得上关系。The benefits of aspirin were also apparent many years after the trials had ended.阿司匹林的良性作用在试验结束多年后仍明显存在于用药人群身上。After five years, death rates for all cancers fell by 35% and for gastrointestinal cancers by 54%.试验结束五年后,所有癌症患者的死亡率下降了35%,肠胃癌症病人更是下降了54%。A long-term follow-up of patients showed that the 20-year risk of cancer death remained 20% lower in those who had taken aspirin.一项长期的跟踪观察试验表明,在患有癌症,并且有20年的;缓刑期;的人群当中,用阿司匹林的人其死亡率要低20%。The study revealed that the effect takes time to accrue, so aspirin must be taken over a long period.这一试验说明了阿司匹林的药效需要经过长时间的累积,因此阿司匹林需长期用才有效果。The latent period for improving oesophageal, pancreatic, brain and lung cancer was about five years of aspirin taking on a daily basis.对于食道癌、胰脏癌、脑癌及肺癌,大约需持续5年每日用阿司匹林才可见效;For stomach and colorectal cancer the effects took ten years and for prostate cancer about 15 years.对胃癌、直肠癌,需10年;前列腺癌则需约15年。The means by which aspirin prevents cancer is not well understood. It is believed that it inhibits an enzyme that promotes cell proliferation in tumours.阿司匹林预防癌症的机理现在还不明了,但人们普遍认为,它通过抑制一种有助于癌细胞繁殖的酶而起效。The researchers also found that small daily doses of aspirin were enough, and that taking more than 75mg conferred no additional benefits.研究者还发现,每日接受小剂量的阿司匹林就已足够,超过75毫克并没有过多的效用。Those starting on aspirin in their late 40s or 50s benefit most.而用者当中,接近50岁或50多岁的人收效最好。Current guidelines on using aspirin for reducing the chances of a stroke or heart attack rightly warn of the small risk of ulcers and of dangerous bleeding in the stomach.目前在用阿司匹林以降低中风或心脏病风险时,用药说明明确指出了其中存在较低的可能引起溃疡或危险性胃出血的风险。These guidelines will probably have to be revised given the new findings.估计这类说明需要将那些最新发现加上去了。However, it remains unlikely that popping aspirin will be recommended for everyone like a vitamin supplement.但是,还是不大可能推荐大家像嗑维生素片一样嗑阿司匹林。Aspirin is a highly cost-effective treatment: taking it for five to ten years easily beats initiatives to screen for breast and prostate cancers.用阿司匹林是一种高性价比的治疗方式:用阿司匹林五到十年绝对强过定期去做乳腺癌或前列腺癌的仪器检查。To put it another way, ask yourself what a pharmaceuticals firm might charge for a drug that would reduce the chance of death by cancer by 20%—and then note that 100 days supply of low-dose aspirin can cost less than a dollar.换个说法就是:你想把患癌症死亡的概率降低20%,只需每日用低剂量的阿司匹林,而每100天你只需向药商付不到1美元。By anyones measure, that is a bargain.还有比这更划算的事吗?相信对任何人而言,这都再便宜不过了。 /201301/219223

Would you eat a y meal from the fridge rather than cook from scratch? Have you been doing internet shopping rather than going to the stores? What cant you be bothered to do?您是否情愿吃冰箱里的即食食品,也懒得亲自下厨做饭呢?您是否更乐于网上购物,而懒得去逛街?还有什么其他您懒得去做的事情呢?A study into how lazy British people are has found more than half of adults are so idle theyd catch the lift rather than climb two flights of stairs.Just over 2000 people were quizzed by independent researchers at Nuffield Health, Britains largest health charity. The results were startling.一项关于“英国人有多懒”的调查发现,超过半数以上的成年人非常懒惰,就算住在二楼,他们宁肯坐电梯也懒得去爬那两段楼梯。有超过两千人接受了英国最大的健康慈善机构——纳菲尔德健康中心的独立调查员的调查,调查结果令人大吃一惊。About one in six people surveyed said if their remote control was broken, they would continue watching the same channel rather than get up. More than one third of those questioned said they would not run to catch a bus. Worryingly, of the 654 respondents with children, 64% said they were often too tired to play with them. This led the report to conclude that its no wonder that one in six children in the UK are classified as obese before they start school.调查显示,如果遥控器坏了,大约六分之一的人宁肯继续看原来的频道也懒得起身去换台。超过三分之一的被调查者称,他们不会跑着去赶一班公交。令人担忧的是,654名有孩子的受访者中有64%的人声称他们经常由于疲惫而懒得陪孩子们玩。调查报告最后总结道,难怪英国每六个学龄前儿童就有一个患有肥胖症。Dr Sarah Dauncey, medical director of Nuffield Health, said: ;People need to get fitter, not just for their own sake, but for the sake of their families, friends and evidently their pets too.If we dont start to take control of this problem, a whole generation will become too unfit to perform even the most rudimentary of tasks.”纳菲尔德健康中心的医疗顾问萨拉·当西士说,“人们的生活有必要变得更健康,这不仅仅是为他们自身考虑,也是为他们的家人、朋友、当然还有他们的宠物考虑。如果我们现在还不开始采取措施控制这个问题,整个一代人将会因过度不健康而丧失完成最基本任务能力。”And Scotlands largest city, Glasgow, was shamed as the most indolent city in the UK, with 75% surveyed admitting they do not get enough exercise, followed closely by Birmingham and Southampton, both with 67%.在关于体育运动的调查中,苏格兰最大的城市格拉斯哥有75%的人承认他们缺少足够的体育锻炼,因而格拉斯哥市被评为英国最懒惰的城市。紧邻其后的是伯明翰和南安普敦,均有67%的人承认缺少足够的体育锻炼。 The results pose serious challenges for the National Health Service, where obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease and cancer have been on a steady increase for the past 40 years and are costing billions of pounds every year.调查结果给英国国民健康务体系提出了严重挑战,在过去40年来,像心脏病和癌症这些与肥胖相关的疾病一直呈稳步上升态势,而每年的医疗投入和花费都高达数十亿英镑。原文译文属!201301/222356

Ironically, to possibly revive some form of life on Mars, we need to introduce the same conditions that are threatening life here on earth. To establish human societies on Mars with significant industrial capacity. They could create these green house gases there. Warm the planet, it would cause the water thats frozen into soil to start melting out, running again in the streams and riverbeds of Mars filling the lakes and putting water vapour into the atmosphere. And water vapour is green house gas.讽刺的是,为了使火星重燃生命,我们需要引进一些条件,而这些条件在地球上却会威胁生命。为了利用强大的工业生产力在火星上建立人类社会,可能会在这里产生温室气体,从而将火星变暖。火星变暖就会导致冻在土里的冰层融化成水,重新汇聚成河流在火星上流淌,然后填满湖泊,将水蒸发到大气中。水蒸气就相当于温室气体。Mars would have an environment suitable for life, suitable for plants, trees, grasses insects. But before we can export cars, factories and other polluters to Mars, we need to get there and it wont be easy. We go to Mars, we are constrained by the position of the planets around the Sun. The Mars is our nearest neighbor. Its still very far away. At their closest, the earth and Mars are over 34 million miles from one another. And since the two planets move in different orbits at different speeds they are usually even further apart. A manned voyage to Mars will have to be time just right. The window of opportunity to go from earth to Mars or from Mars to earth opens up only once every two years.火星上应该有适合生命存在的环境,适于植物,树木,草和昆虫生长的环境。但是在我们引进汽车,工厂还有其它污染源前,我们需要确保安全抵达火星,这并不容易。我们要去火星,但我们被局限在环绕太阳公转的行星上。火星是我们最近的邻居,但仍然很遥远。即使靠的最近,但火星和地球之间的距离仍有3千4百万英里。因为这两个行星分别以不同的速度在不同的轨道上公转,他们经常会越离越远。人类登陆火星的时机需要把握准确。从火星到地球或者从地球到火星的最佳时机每两年才出现一次。So a trip to mars might involve taking six months to get there, and then staying on Mars for two years. Part of preparing to sent humans tomorrows is to test our equipment and procedures here on earth.因此一次火星之旅需要花六个月时间在路上,然后还需在火星上呆2年。送人类上火星的部分准备工作是在地球上测试设备和程序。Its safe to say that one day soon we will go to Mars. If you wanna be among the first humans to go, the time to prepare yourself is now, which is exactly what the Mars Society is doing.可以很有把握的说很快我们就会去火星。如果你想成为第一批去火星的人,那么现在就得准备了,这也正是火星协会正在做的。The Mars Society is an international organization of people committed to furthering the exploration and ultimately settlement of Mars.火星协会是一个志在进一步探索火星,最终在火星上建立定居点的国际性组织。The first step to going to Mars is acting as if you are aly there.去火星的第一步:表现地就像你已经在火星上一样。 原文译文属!201208/194203

I recently an article in which one of my favorite columnists, William Safire, explores the use of ;generation; in a litany of literary references to American writers. He begins with Hemingways ation of ;lost generation; and then explores other references throughout recent history.最近,我在最喜欢的作家William Safire的专栏里看到一篇文章,他擅长研究“generation”一词在美国冗长文学史上的含义。William Safire以海明威的《垮掉的一代》为开始进行研究,然后又探索近代其它文献。 This massive amount of repetition of ;generation; in the column by Mr. Safire ought to have aly driven home the point. We all belong to specific generations, and cultures and eras tend to identify, mark and classify us according to our age and time on this planet.在William Safire的专栏里“generation”一词大量重复得出现,强烈突出了其观点。我们正处在一个特殊的时代,只有根据人类在地球上的年代和时间,才能给我们的文化、时代加以定义和标记,从而将我们分类。 What about my generation? I am a baby-boomer. I grew up in the light of Dr. Martin Luther King and the Kennedys, and under the shadow of the Vietnam War. I have always believed in hope. If asked, I would say that I belong to the Generation of Hope.我们这一代是什么样的呢?我出生于人口高峰期。我在马丁·路德金和肯尼迪的光环下成长,同样也经受了越战的阴霾。我一直相信希望。如果被问到,我会说我属于希望的一代。 When I was young, I was convinced there was more good in the world than evil. I still believe that. I thought then and still think that one person can make a difference.我小的时候就相信世界上有比罪恶更美好的东西。不管是过去还是现在,我仍然相信人们可以创造奇迹。Hope is taking some very hard knocks these days. Hope may be down at the moment, but it is far from out. Many of us are hopers. We know to which generation we belong.怀有希望的日子是痛苦的。希望也许会在某一刻消失,但希望不会离我们而去。我们当中大部分人都有过希望。我知道我们属于哪一代。原文译文属!201207/190309


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