首页 >> 新闻 >> 正文


2018年10月16日 11:21:49来源:家庭医生资讯

China has lost the first round of a major legal fight with the Philippines after an international tribunal agreed to hear a case about contested islands in the resource-rich South China Sea.一家国际法庭同意审理关于南中国海争议岛屿的案子,中国在与菲律宾的重大法律交锋中先失一局。The Philippines last year asked a court in The Hague to invalidate the “nine-dash linea demarcation on Chinese maps that China uses to lay claim to most of the South China Sea. China has refused to participate in the case, but has made clear through other channels that it does not believe the court has jurisdiction. But the court decided on Thursday that it had such authority.去年,菲律宾要求海牙常设仲裁法院(Permanent Court of Arbitration)判定“九段线”无效。所谓九段线,是中国地图上的一条分界线,中国用该分界线宣示对南中国海大部分海域拥有主权。中国已拒绝参与该案件,但已通过其他渠道明确表示,中国不认为该法院拥有管辖权。然而,该法院周四认定自己拥有这种权力。Manila brought the case after concluding that efforts to address assertive Chinese behaviour in the region had run their course without any resolution. China and its maritime neighbours have had bitter disputes over dozens of islands, reefs and atolls in the waters for decades, but tensions have risen in recent years as China has grown its maritime presence in the waters.菲律宾政府在认定应对中方在该地区强硬行为的种种努力已无果而终后,将该案提交到了海牙法庭。几十年来,围绕该海域数十个岛屿、礁石和珊瑚礁,中国与其海上邻国之间始终存在激烈争端。不过,最近几年,随着中国在该海域的存在不断增强,这种紧张关系也日渐升温。“It is big and welcome news,said a senior US military official. “It demonstrates the relevance of international law to territorial conflicts in the South China Sea and it shows that sovereignty claims are not indisputable.”一位美国高级军官表示:“这是个值得欢迎的重大消息。它显示了国际法可适用于南中国海领土冲突,并明主权主张不是无可争辩的。”The Philippine department of foreign affairs also hailed the ruling. “We welcome the decision of the Arbitral Tribunal that it has jurisdiction over our case. We look forward to the tribunal’s further hearing on the merits of the case,it said in a statement.菲律宾外交部也对这一裁决表示欢迎。它在一份声明中表示:“我们欢迎该仲裁法庭(Arbitral Tribunal)做出的它对该案拥有管辖权的裁定。我们期待法庭对该案的是非曲直开展进一步听。”The decision by the Permanent Court of Arbitration which hears disputes related to the UN Law of the Sea (Unclos) but cannot arbitrate sovereignty issues came in the same week that the US challenged Chinese territorial claims over the Spratly Islands chain in the South China Sea.就在海牙常设仲裁法院做出这一裁定的同一周,美国挑战了中国对南中国海斯普拉特利群岛(Spratly Islands,中国称南沙群岛——译者注)的领土主张。(海牙常设仲裁法院对与《联合国海洋法公约Unclos)有关的争端进行仲裁,但无权仲裁涉及主权的案件。)China accused the US of making an “illegal incursioninto its waters after the USS Lassen, a destroyer, sailed near Subi Reef, a formerly submerged feature in the South China Sea that China has converted into an island. The move marked the first time since 2012 that the US Navy has sailed through the 12-nautical-mile zone around any islands claimed by China.当时,美国海军“拉森”号(USS Lassen)驱逐舰驶近了渚碧礁(Subi Reef),该岛原本是南中国海一个水下地submerged feature),却被中国改建成一个岛屿。中国指责美国“非法进入”该海域。美国政府此举,012年以来美国海军首次驶进中国声称拥有主权的岛屿周边12海里水域。The manoeuvre, which the US labelled a freedom of navigation operation, was designed to underscore that the US does not recognise territorial claims over artificial islands in the South China Sea. International law allows nations to claim the territory surrounding naturally formed islands, but not around submerged features that have been raised above sea level via construction.这次行动被美国称为航行自由行动,旨在明确表示美国不承认对南中国海人工岛的领土主张。国际法允许国家对天然岛屿周边海域声索主权,但不允许它们对人工抬升至海面以上的水下地物周边海域声索主权。Admiral John Richardson, chief of US naval operations, held a one-hour call on Thursday with Admiral Wu Shengli, his Chinese counterpart who protested the US operation. A US navy official said Adm Richardson stressed that the US would conduct freedom of navigation operations in waters that it believes to be international and not the territory of China.周四,美国海军作战部长约翰理查森上将(Admiral John Richardson)和中国海军司令员吴胜利上将召开了一个小时的远程会议。吴胜利对美方的行动表示了抗议。一位美国海军军官表示,理查森上将强调说,美国会在它认为是公海(而非中国领海)的水域实施航行自由行动。China has stepped up activity in the South China Sea, through which 30 per cent of global trade passes, over the past two years. It has increased the number of patrols by its coast guard, and also constructed five artificial islands by dredging thousands of acres around reefs and atolls. One of those islands a reef called Fiery Cross now has a 3km runway that is capable of handling military aircraft.目前,全0%的贸易活动要经由南中国海实现。过去两年,中国加大了在南中国海的活动力度。它增加了海警船的巡逻次数,还通过在礁石和珊瑚礁周边吹沙填出数千英亩土地,建造了五个人工岛。目前,其中一个被称为永暑Fiery Cross Reef)的岛屿上已修建了一公里长的跑道,足以起降军用飞机。The Philippines, Indonesia and other countries in Southeast Asia and beyond have protested the “nine-dash linewhich China start printing inside Chinese passports in 2012. The US remained silent on the issue until last year when the state department called on China to clarify its meaning.菲律宾、印尼及东南亚和东南亚以外的其他国家,都曾对“九段线”表示过抗议。自2012年起,中国开始把九段线印在新版护照内。去年,美国国务院呼吁中国澄清九段线的含义,在那之前,美国对这个问题始终保持沉默。China published a paper last year which claimed that the court had no jurisdiction to hear the case since Manila was asking it to referee questions about sovereignty. But the court sided with Manila, which had argued that it was only asking the court to conclude that China could not derive territorial claims from islands that did not convey such rights under Unclos.中国曾在去年发表一份立场文件,声称该法庭并无听该案的管辖权,因为菲律宾政府要求该法庭裁断的是与主权有关的问题。然而,该法庭却站在了菲律宾政府一边。菲律宾政府曾声称,它只是要求该法庭判定,中国不能通过那些依据《联合国海洋法公约》规定不承载此类权利的岛屿提出领土主张。The tribunal on Thursday “rejected the argumentin the Chinese paper that the dispute was “actually about sovereignty over the islands in the South China Seaand therefore beyond its jurisdiction. The court has not set a date for the next stage of the case, which will be behind closed doors.周四,该法庭“否定了(中国立场文件中的)论点”。该文件主张,这一争端“实质是南海部分岛礁的领土主权问题”,因此超出了该法庭的管辖范围。该法庭还未确定案件进入下一阶段审理(将为非公开审理)的日期。来 /201511/407453。

  • RIO DE JANEIRO Brazilian voters re-elected Dilma Rousseff as president on Sunday, endorsing a leftist leader who has achieved important gains in reducing poverty and keeping unemployment low over a centrist challenger who castigated her government over a simmering bribery scandal and a sluggish economy.里约热内卢——周日,巴西选民再次推选左派领导人迪尔玛·罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff)担任总统,罗塞夫在减贫和降低失业率方面取得了重要成就。一位中间派挑战者落败,在竞选期间,这名挑战者就一桩不断发酵的贿赂丑闻以及乏力的经济,向罗塞夫政府发起了强烈的抨击。Ms. Rousseff of the Workers Party took 51.4 percent of vote in the second and final round of elections, against 48.5 percent for Aécio Neves, a senator from the Social Democracy party and scion of a political family from the state of Minas Gerais, electoral officials said Sunday night with 98 percent of votes in the country counted.在清点全8%的选票后,选举官员周日晚间宣布,在第二轮也是最后一轮投票中,来自劳工党(Workers Party)的罗塞夫获得1.4%的选票,米纳斯吉拉斯州政治家庭出身的社会民主党参议员阿埃西奥·内维斯(Aécio Neves)获得8.5%的选票。While Ms. Rousseff won by a thin margin, the tumultuous race was marked by accusations of corruption, personal insults and heated debates, revealing climbing polarization in Brazil. Mr. Neves surged into the lead this month in opinion surveys, only to be eclipsed by Ms. Rousseff as the vote on Sunday approached.尽管罗塞夫以微弱的优势取胜,但是这场混乱的选战中充斥着贪腐的指责、人身攻击和激烈辩论,突显了巴西日益加剧的分化。内维斯本月在民调中一度领先,但在周日投票到来之前被罗塞夫反超;People without much money have seen their lives improve during recent years,; said Liane Lima, 62, a secretary in S?o Paulo who voted for Ms. Rousseff. ;I think we should let Dilma finish what she started.;“没什么钱的人们,生活在最近几年出现了改善,”罗塞夫的持者莉莲·利Liane Lima)说。“我认为我们应该让迪尔马把她想做的事情做完。”利马今2岁,在圣保罗做秘书工作。Indeed, Ms. Rousseffs victory reflects broad changes in Brazilian society since the Workers Party rose to power 12 years ago with the election of her predecessor and mentor, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who chose Ms. Rousseff as his successor to run in the 2010 election and campaigned for her again this year.的确,罗塞夫的胜利反映了自从劳工2年前执掌权力以来,巴西社会的广泛改变2年前上台的巴西前总统路易斯·伊纳西奥·卢拉·达席尔Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)为罗塞夫提供了很多帮助。他曾选择罗塞夫接替自己参010年的竞选,今年又为她进行了助选。Building on an economic stabilization project put in place by the Social Democrats in the 1990s, Ms. Rousseff and Mr. da Silva aggressively expanded social welfare programs, lifting millions of Brazilians out of poverty. Pointing to the popularity of the antipoverty spending, Mr. Neves, the challenger in the race, said he would not scale it back.在上世纪90年代由社会民主党实施的经济稳定项目的基础上,罗塞夫和达席尔瓦积极扩大社会福利项目,让数百万巴西人走出了贫困。挑战者内维斯在竞选中表示不会减少减贫方面的出,这也说明了该项目深得人心。But while Ms. Rousseff campaigned largely on her governments support for poor and working-class citizens, she faced fierce criticism over her economic policies, with Brazil struggling with slow growth throughout her first term and a recession this year. Brazils financial markets gyrated wildly throughout the race, reflecting skepticism over her management of the economy.尽管罗塞夫在竞选中主要强调政府对穷人和工薪阶级的持,但是由于巴西经济在她的第一任期内一直增长缓慢,今年还出现了衰退,罗塞夫在经济政策方面,仍然受到了激烈的批评。在整个竞选期间,巴西金融市场波动剧烈,反映了市场对她管理经济的质疑。Ms. Rousseff, 66, a former Marxist guerrilla who was imprisoned and tortured by Brazils military dictatorship, rejected much of the criticism while emphasizing that she had no plans to shift away from policies involving greater state control over the economy. Still, she signaled openness to shaking up her cabinet, including replacing her unpopular finance minister, Guido Mantega.现年66岁的罗塞夫曾是一名马克思主义游击队员,遭到过巴西军事独裁政府的关押和拷问。她驳斥了大量指责,强调自己不打算转变让国家扩大对经济的控制权的政策。然而,她也表示,对重组内阁持开放态度,包括替换不受欢迎的财政部长吉多·曼特Guido Mantega)。In addition to facing turbulence in the markets, Ms. Rousseff will deal in her next four-year term with a sprawling scandal involving testimony of bribes and money laundering at Petrobras, the national oil company, which has eroded confidence in the Workers Party. A former high-ranking executive at Petrobras has testified that he channeled bribes to the party and its allies in Brasília.除了面临着金融市场上的波动,罗塞夫还将在下一届四年任期内处理一场波及甚广的丑闻。该丑闻涉及国有石油企业巴西国家石油公司(Petrobras)贿赂和洗钱的言,丑闻削弱了民众对劳工党的信任。该公司的一名前高管作称,他将贿赂的资金输送给了劳工党及其在巴西利亚的盟友;I always voted for the Workers Party, since I was a teenager, but this government hasnt done anything different,; said José Abel, 48, who runs a tourist agency in Brasília and voted for Mr. Neves largely out of concern over corruption in Ms. Rousseffs government. ;Theyre just the same as other parties now.;“从十几岁开始,我就一直给劳工党投票,但这一届政府没有采取任何与众不同的措施,”在巴西利亚经营着一家旅行社的若泽·阿贝尔(José Abel)说。“他们现在和其他政党一模一样。8岁的阿贝尔把票投给了内维斯,在很大程度上是因为担心罗塞夫政府内部的腐败。Still, with the unemployment rate remaining near historical lows even during a recession, economic stability seemed to trump corruption as a major issue among voters. Many people who cast ballots on Sunday expressed concern that a change in government could erode welfare benefits which are now a fixture of society.然而,即便处在衰退期间,巴西的失业率依然保持在接近历史低位的水平。在这种情况下,经济稳定似乎超出了腐败,成了选民关注的主要问题。周日投票的许多人表示,担心政府更迭可能会侵蚀福利。如今对社会来说,福利已经不可或缺;My life is stable thanks to Dilmas government,; said Diogo Bernardo, 28, an installer of telephone lines in Rio de Janeiro who voted for Ms. Rousseff, referring to her informally by her first name, as is common in Brazil. ;Shes not great, but Aécio would have been worse since he cares less about the rights of working people. I voted for the lesser of two evils.;“多亏了迪尔玛政府,我的生活比较稳定,”里约热内卢28岁的电话线路安装工人迪奥戈·贝尔纳Diogo Bernardo)说。贝尔纳多亲切地用罗塞夫的名指代她,这在巴西很普遍。“她不算好,但如果是阿埃西奥就会更糟糕,因为他不那么关心劳动人民的权利。我是两害相权取其轻。”来 /201410/338265。
  • I remember vividly a scene from my childhood at my grandmother’s house in a middle-class Muslim neighbourhood in Ankara in the 1980s. It is New Year’s Eve. Grandma has prepared yoghurt soup, roasted turkey, Uzbek rice and, for dessert, there are baklava and tangerines, which we will consume while watching a belly dancer on state TV. We wear paper hats and blow party horns. Then at midnight, Grandma goes to her room to the Koran and pray to Allah for a good, prosperous year.我还清楚地记得上世纪80年代我小时候在外祖母家中的一个场景。她住在安卡拉一个中产阶级穆斯林街区。那是一个新年前夜。外祖母准备好了酸奶汤、烤火鸡、乌兹别克米饭,还有果仁蜜饼和柑橘作甜点。我们一边吃着,一边看国家电视台播放的肚皮舞。我们戴着纸帽,吹着派对喇叭。到了午夜,外祖母回到她的房间诵读《古兰经》,向真主祈祷来年幸福富足。It was a hybrid world back then. In Turkey, more than any other place in the Middle East, a collage of different traditions and customs coexisted; secularism and faith were constantly mixed, dancing a waltz. In some houses alcohol Iraqi, mostly would be served on New Year’s Eve. In others, there would be Coca-Cola and tea. Even conservative Turks would find a cause for celebration in the beginning of a new year. While Christmas trees in homes were rare, we loved the baubles and decorations in the shops and the streets. Religion was relatively liquid, flowing, ever changing.回想从前,那是一个兼容并包的世界。在中东,土耳其的兼容并包氛围算得上是最浓厚的:不同的传统和风俗共存;世俗主义与信仰始终混在一起,共舞一华尔兹。在一些家庭,新年前夜会喝酒,主要是伊拉克的酒。另一些家庭会喝可口可Coca-Cola)和茶。就连比较保守的土耳其人也会在新年到来之际找到理由庆祝一番。尽管很少有人在家里布置圣诞树,但我们喜欢商店里和街道上的那些装饰和点缀。那时的宗教是相对软性的、流动的,始终在变化。Today religion is solid and that hybridity is lost. We are divided into mutually exclusive cultural zones. In Istanbul, as we near the new year, different neighbourhoods have adopted visibly different attitudes towards Christmas. As one drives from one area to another it is easy to tell which municipalities are run by the CHP, the main opposition party, and which by the AK party, the government. The glittery decorations and lights are almost always in the CHP areas. The only exception are the shopping malls, of which Istanbul has too many. Inside these are gigantic Christmas trees; and, in front of those trees, nowadays, angry protesters.如今,宗教是坚实厚重的,那种兼容并包已经没有了。我们被分割为互相排斥的文化区。在伊斯坦布尔,新年临近时,不同街区对圣诞节的态度明显不同。当我们驱车从一个地区到另一个地区时,我们很容易分辨哪些地区由主要反对党共和人民CHP)管理,哪些地区是由执政的正义与发展党(AK party)管理。闪闪发光的装饰和灯几乎总是出现在共和人民党管理的地区。唯一的例外是购物中心,因为伊斯坦布尔的购物中心太多了。这些购物中心里矗立着巨型圣诞树;如今,出现在这些圣诞树前的是愤怒的抗议者。“We are not obeying a toy-distributing Santa, we are the followers of Prophet Mohammad,s one of the signs held by protesters. Another displays a verse from the Koran, plucked out of context and deployed for particular political ends. The protesters claim they are delivering God’s words to the ignorant.抗议者举着的一个标语上写着:“我们不会听从分发玩具的圣诞老人的话,我们是先知穆罕默德(Prophet Mohammad)的追随者。”另一个标语引用了《古兰经》里的一句话,它被断章取义、务于特殊的政治目的。抗议者声称,他们是在向无知者传达真主的话。Early in the year the Saadet (Felicity) party a religious-based political party called Santa Claus “a sinister and dirty project adding that “western colonialism tries to invade culturally what it cannot invade militarily.”今年初,以宗教为基础的政治党派“幸福党Saadet Partisi)称,圣诞老人是“一个阴险且肮脏的计划”,还称“西方殖民主义企图对无法通过武力侵略的东西实行文化侵略”。Through articles and distorted images, Santa Claus is vilified in Islamist newspapers. The situation is highly ironic given that the original St Nicholas was born in the town of Patara in Turkey in 260AD and to this day is regarded as part of Turkish history and culture.伊斯兰报纸通过文章和经过歪曲的图片来诋毁圣诞老人。这种局面非常具有讽刺性,因为圣诞老人的原型其实是公元260年生于帕塔拉(Patara,现为土耳其的一个城镇)的圣尼古St Nicholas),而且如今被视为土耳其历史和文化的一部分。Not by everyone, or course. A youth association Fatih Generation Youth Education Association organised a protest in the suburban Maltepe district. Claiming descent from Sultan Fatih, who conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine rule, it said: “The charlatan that is Santa Claus is the father of Christians. Whereas we are the ummah of Prophet Mohammad. Forsake your erroneous ways. We are here to deliver you the word of God.”当然,并非所有人都这样认为。一个名为“Fatih Generation Youth Education Association”的青年协会在位于伊斯坦布尔市郊的马尔泰佩区组织了一场抗议活动。该协会成员宣称他们453年征君士坦丁堡、终结拜占庭统治的穆罕默德二Sultan Fatih)的后裔。该协会表示:“圣诞老人这个骗子是基督徒的父亲。而我们是先知穆罕默德的子民。放弃你们错误的做法吧。我们来这里是为了向你们传达真主之言。”Some of the protesters held up placards that said: “Muslims do not celebrate Christmas The same hashtag quickly trended on Twitter. Turkish social media today is replete with such messages. “Father Christmas is the symbol of a culture that rains toys upon their own children but rains bombs upon the children of Syria,says one tweet. These political messages are accompanied by disturbing images of suffering Syrian and Palestinian children.一些抗议者举着标语,上面写着:“穆斯林不过圣诞节”。这个话题标签迅速在Twitter上流行开来。今天的土耳其社交媒体上充斥着此类信息。一条帖子写道:“有种文化为他们自己的孩子送去大量的玩具,却向叙利亚的孩子们投下大量炸弹,圣诞老人就是这种文化的象征。”与这些政治性话语相配的,是痛苦的叙利亚和巴勒斯坦儿童等触目惊心的图片。The chairman of an association of religious officials made a statement inviting all Turks to celebrate the conquest of Mecca instead of New Year’s Eve. His call must have resonated with some as in the same week a citizen dressed up as Santa Claus was chased by another man dressed up as a Janissary a member of the sultan’s elite infantry.一个宗教官员协会的会长发表声明,邀请所有土耳其人庆祝对麦加的征,而非庆祝新年前夜。他的呼吁肯定引起了一些人的共鸣,因为就在同一周,一名装扮为圣诞老人的市民被另一名装扮为苏丹亲兵(janissary)的市民追打。Turkish nationalism is a hall of mirrors. It distorts reality. Even though Turkish nationalism is powerful and pervasive it behaves as if it is constantly under threat. So many minorities have left Turkey along the course of history. But the fear that the Greeks or Armenians or Jews pose a serious threat runs too deep. The state, even though it is huge and robust, perceives itself to be in need of protection from individual citizens. Meanwhile, in southeastern Turkey there are violent clashes between Kurdish militants and the army. Turkish democracy has urgent problems but we are busy these days discussing Santa Claus.土耳其的民族主义是一个装满了镜子的大厅。它扭曲了现实。尽管民族主义在土耳其非常强大且无处不在,但它却表现得仿佛自己始终受到威胁。历史上有那么多的少数民族离开了土耳其。但有些土耳其人却有一种深深的担心,怕希腊人、亚美尼亚人或犹太人会对土耳其构成严重威胁。尽管土耳其的国家机器庞大而强健,但它仍认为自己需要受到保护,以免遭公民个人伤害。与此同时,在土耳其东南部,库尔德武装分子与土耳其政府军存在激烈的冲突。土耳其民主有着迫切需要解决的问题,而我们这些天却忙着讨论圣诞老人。This being a highly polarised country, the secularist camp has launched a counter campaign. Many young people post images of Palestinian fathers dressed up as Santa Claus just to give their children a bit of joy. A columnist in the daily Hurriyet titled his article: “Don’t celebrate New year’s but you can marry child girlsto show the hypocrisy and criticise underage marriages, which account for 14 per cent of all marriages in Turkey.土耳其的民意远称不上是“一边倒”,世俗阵营已经发起了反击。许多年轻人贴出了巴勒斯坦父亲装扮成圣诞老人的图片(这些父亲只是为了让他们的孩子高兴一下)。土耳其《自由日报Hurriyet)的一名专栏作家在该报发表了一篇题为《别庆祝新年,但你可以娶少女》的文章,以突显个中的虚伪并批评未成年人婚姻。在土耳其,未成年人婚姻占到所有婚姻的14%。As a Turkish writer, I respect Christmas, I respect Hanukkah, I respect Diwali and I respect Ramadan. I see them as one. Against the rising tides of an aggressive rhetoric that reduce us to a single identity and divide humanity into artificiality camps, I celebrate pluralism. Happy new year everyone.作为一名土耳其作家,我尊重圣诞节,我尊重光明节,我尊重排灯节,我尊重斋月。我对它们一视同仁。某种激进的言论使我们陷入单一认同,并把人类划分为不同的人为阵营。在这种言论愈演愈烈之际,我要赞美多元化。祝所有人都新年快乐! /201512/419110。
  • Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has fired the countrys highest ranking diplomat and replaced her with Indias ambassador to the ed States, a day after a successful visit to India by U.S. President Barack Obama.印度总理莫迪免去最高外交官史瓦拉吉的职务,并任命印度常驻联合国代表苏杰生接任。一天前,美国总统奥巴马对印度进行了一次成功的访问。Subrahmanyam Jaishankar took over as Indias foreign secretary Thursday.星期四,苏杰生就任印度外交国务秘书。Indian media reported that the appointment was Jaishankars reward for turning around Indias ties with Washington, including organizing Mr. Modis visit to Washington in September.印度媒体报道说,苏杰生改善了印美两国关系,包括安排莫迪于去年9月访问华盛顿。此次任命是对他的褒奖。India-U.S. ties suffered a set-back after New Delhis deputy consul general in New York, Devyanai Khobragade, was arrested in December 2013 on visa fraud charges. She left the ed States in January last year and now works in New Delhi.20132月,印度驻纽约副总领事柯布拉加德因被指伪造签而遭逮捕,此后美印关系出现倒退。柯布拉加德去年1月离开美国,目前在新德里就职。Jaishankar has previously served as Indias ambassador to China and Singapore.苏杰生曾担任印度驻华大使和驻新加坡大使。来 /201501/357186。
  • In a thinly veiled admonishment, the White House recently accused the UK our closest ally of “a policy of constant accommodationtowards China. The parallel drawn to the historical appeasement of Germany by an apprehensive Europe was lost on no one, nor indeed the overwrought nature of the underlying concern.最近,白宫(White House)向其最亲密的盟友英国发出了一个几乎不加掩饰的告诫,指责其对中国奉行“不断迁就的政策”。这显然是想让人联想起历史上惶惶不安的欧洲对德国采取的绥靖政策,与此同时,所有人也都明白,美国这块“心病”其实是由过度紧张造成的。The proximate cause of this spleen-venting was the surprise breaking of ranks by the UK to join as a founding shareholder the nascent China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB.) This initial bn fund has as itsagenda the financing of overdue infrastructure in Asia.美国如此大发脾气,直接原因是英国与美国分道扬镳、决定以创始股东身份加入由中国主导的新生的亚洲基础设施投资(AIIB,简称:亚投行),这让美国颇感意外。亚投行初始资本00亿美元,目标是为亚洲早该建设的基础设施提供融资。It is of a piece too with the recent proposal by China to form a Brics bank focused on itspartners in Brazil India, Russia and South Africa. There is also then the ambitious “New Silk Roadproject, which aims to generate greater connectivity between Asia and beyond by land and by sea. All of this stands against the backdrop of a US-led effort to hammer out a Trans Pacific Partnership with the very same partners in Asia, conspicuously excluding China.这与中国近期提出的建立“金砖Brics bank)的计划非常相像。金砖的注意力将主要放在中国的合作伙伴巴西、印度、俄罗斯和南非身上。另外还有雄心勃勃的“新丝绸之路New Silk Road)计划,目标是通过陆路和海路加强中国与亚洲乃至更遥远地区的连通性。这些都与美国目前牵头展开的一项努力针锋相对:美国正努力与中国上述计划所涉及的那些亚洲合作伙伴敲定《跨太平洋伙伴关系TPP)协定,引人注目的一点是,该协定将中国排除在外。The UK has since been followed by very nearly the rest of our allies save Japan in signing up with the more than 30 countries that have aly chosen to join. We are increasingly alone in our worry that a China dominated enterprise may not follow international standards of creditworthiness, transparency, and environmental sensitivity that the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Asian Development Bank adhere to.美国的所有盟友(日本除外)后来几乎都在效仿英国的做法,与30多个已决定加入亚投行的国家签署入行协议。美国担心,一个由中国主导的组织或许不会像世界(World Bank)、国际货币基金组IMF)和亚洲开发银ADB)那样遵守有关信誉、透明度和环保敏感性的国际标准,但持同样担心的国家现在越来越少。While US officials are not directly discouraging other nations from joining the bank, the opposition is consistent with the impression in Asia that our efforts are aimed at bolstering our martial superiority with a soft economic superiority that seeks to displace China from the aly pivotal role it has in the furthering of Asian economies.尽管美国官员没有直接劝说其他国家不要加入亚投行,但是这种抵制的态度符合美国给亚洲留下的印象:美国想以软性的经济优势来巩固自身的军事优势,而这种经济优势意味着不让中国在促进亚洲经济发展方面继续扮演其已在扮演的关键角色。It does not help the White House that Congress has stalled proposed reforms to the IMF, which would double the fund’s resources and give more voting power to the BRICS, most notably China. In short, whether it is White House or Congressional policy or both, US impediments to IMF reforms have accelerated China’s opportunity to lead in the region.美国国会阻挠拟议中的IMF改革,也就是将IMF的资本增加一倍并给予金砖国家、尤其是中国更多投票权。这种做法对白宫并无助益。简而言之,不管这是白宫的政策,还是美国国会的政策,还是二者共同的政策,美国阻挠IMF改革的做法都加大了中国在亚洲担当领导者的机会。We are unable also to bolster a viable regional alternative to the AIIB. The most likely candidate, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is chronically underfunded and unable to serve as the lead organizing force for a much overdue Asian investment resurgence. The US has not met its funding commitments to either the IMF or ADB, in spite of the ADB’s own estimates that Asia needs at least tn in infrastructure investment.美国也无法找到一个能在该地区有效替代亚投行的实体并予以持。最有可能的候选者是亚开行,但长期资金不足的亚开行无法担当主要的组织者、促成早该出现的亚洲投资复兴。无论是对亚开行还是对IMF,美国都没有兑现其出资承诺,尽管亚开行自身的估计数字显示亚洲至少需万亿美元基础设施投资。Significant projects such as Asian rail links, hydroelectric power and logistical links all require deep pocketed and patient sponsors that the West’s riven political structures simply cannot provide the consensus for anymore. The equivalent of the New Deal for Asia mirroring the commitment and policy cohesion under which the US stitched together a continent with roads, while raising a generation out of poverty is simply not imaginable today with the backing of the World Bank, IMF or the ADB. It is inevitable then that as resurgent Asian economies welcome abundant and flexible Chinese investment, the US appears weaker by being unable to mobilise the West to offer a compelling alternative.亚洲的铁路网、水力发电和物流网等重大项目,都需要财力雄厚又有耐心的投资者,而西方四分五裂的政治结构根本无法再为此达成共识。今天,要想在亚洲复制当年美国的“新政New Deal),即像美国那样靠承诺和政策凝聚力把整块大陆用道路连通起来、同时让一代人脱离贫困,靠世行、IMF或亚开行的持是根本不可想象的。因此,随着复兴中的亚洲经济体对充裕而灵活的中国投资表示欢迎、而美国又无法动员西方提供一个令人难以抗拒的替代选择,美国显现出颓势就是不可避免的。Far away from the teeming capitals of Asia, many in the US are unaware also of how radically different the world view is of the western dominated global development bodies. The tough love austerity recipes that the IMF and World Bank routinely impose on Asian countries in exchange for aid or sponsorship are increasingly seen as severe and slavishly theoretical. We run the risk of appearing hypocritical when we in the West bail out our own banks and major industries in carefully and centrally planned moves, while insisting upon letting transparent and unfettered market forces determine the fate of Asian institutions when they run aground.另外,由于与亚洲各国人口众多的首都相距甚远,美国的很多人不了解世界对西方主导的全球开发机构有着多么截然不同的看法。IMF和世行经常会向亚洲国家开出代表“严爱”的紧缩处方、以此作为向它们提供援助和资助的条件,人们越来越认为这种做法既苛刻又教条。当西方人一面以小心翼翼和中央计划的举措纾困自己的和主要产业、一面却坚决要求让透明和不受约束的市场力量决定陷入困境的亚洲机构的命运时,就会在别人眼中可能会成为“虚伪”的代名词。We fail also to properly evaluate how essential China’s investment is to our own domestic economy. In a still fragile housing market Chinese investment into US residential property amounts to nearly bn with most of it in stable hard cash, impervious to market jitters. Consider also the overall very welcome foreign direct investment from China which in California alone tallies up at an astonishing bn, far outpacing any other source and certainly eclipsing locally led investments. Further, Chinese investment into California alone has a potential to reach an astonishing bn by 2020 if the state and the private sector maximise the partnership.至于中国投资对美国国内经济有多么重要,美国也没能做出正确评估。在美国房地产市场依旧脆弱之际,中国对美住宅地产投资已逼近220亿美元,其中大多数投资是以不受市场波动影响的、可靠的现款来完成的。再考虑下整体上很受欢迎的来自中国的外商直接投资(FDI),仅在加利福尼亚一个州就达到令人吃惊的120亿美元,远远超过来自任何其他国家的投资,当然也让来自美国国内的投资黯然失色。此外,如果加州公共及私营部门能最大限度地发展利用这种合作关系,那么到2020年时,中国仅对加州一个州的投资就有望达到令人乍舌00亿美元。It is clear then that the economic fallout would be severe if Chinese investors pulled back from new investment in California, New York, Texas, Illinois, or Washington, to name just the most popular destinations of Chinese investment. As an American and the CEO of an Asian bank based in the US, it is clear to this observer that the repercussions would affect us greatly.因此,如果中国投资者撤回新近在加州、纽约州、德克萨斯州、伊利诺伊州或华盛顿州(这里仅举几个最热门的中国投资目的地)的投资,显然会造成严重的经济后果。我既是一名美国人又是一家亚洲美国区的首席执行官,在我这样的专业人士看来,这些后果无疑会严重影响到我们。As China approaches the status of the world’s largest economy, it has become an integral part of the global financial system. It is both bad policy and an ahistorical view that any strengthening of China regionally is necessarily damaging to US interests in Asia. The US would be better served if we did not continue to treat China as a junior partner in its own backyard, and form a diplomatic partnership instead that recognises China’s importance to the development of Asia and as an intermediary funneling domestic surpluses into high value investments around the globe.随着中国逐渐登上世界最大经济体的宝座,它已成为全球金融体系不可或缺的一部分。有人认为中国的地区影响力增强必然会损害美国在亚洲的利益,这是一种有悖历史潮流的观点,会催生糟糕的政策。假若美国不再把中国视为其所在地区内的次要合作伙伴,而是与其建立一种新型外交合作关系,承认其对亚洲发展的重要性、以及其作为把国内过剩资本导向世界各地高价值投资之中介的重要性,会更符合美国的利益。It is true that we started this century believing that we would enjoy center stage in a permanently uni-polar world, but that is just not the case anymore. China differs from previous rivals we have historically faced in one crucial way in that itsstrategic goals are driven largely by economics and a desire to maintain internal social and economic stability.没错,本世纪开始时我们曾认为自己会在这个永久的单极世界里出尽风头,但现在这种想法已不再成立。在一个至关重要的方面,中国与美国过去遭遇的对手并不相同:中国的战略目标主要受经济状况以及维持国内社会和经济稳定的愿望驱动。There is little apparent desire or motive to subjugate the globe as they are not in their current form driven by an ideological imperative of lethal opposition to the US or democratic nations in general, as we were used to from our old foe the Soviet Union. Hence, holding on to the narrative of the Cold War will lead only to wasted treasure and a stalemate neither we nor the rest of the world can afford.中国没有什么明显的欲望或动机去征世界,因为其目前所处的阶段并不受极力反对美国或整个民主世界(过去,我们的老冤家苏联曾这样对待我们)这种意识形态使命的驱动。因此,死抱着冷战思维不放,只会造成财富浪费以及无论美国还是世界其余国家都承受不起的对峙。With more than seven per cent of our national debt the most of any nation and the world’s largest stockpile of greenbacks outside of the US, China realises the almost umbilical stake they have in the continuous health of the US. While the US certainly does not treat China as gravely as we once did the Soviet Union, the rhetoric is heating up and has the potential to escalate if not handled with care.中国持有%的美国国债,是我们最大的债权国,同时也是世界上除美国外美元储备最多的国家。中国明白自己的利益与美国的长久健康息息相关。美国现在当然没有像过去对待苏联那样冷酷地对待中国,但冷战叙事正在升温,若不小心应对,这种叙事可能会升级。Noor Menai is President amp; CEO of CT Bank USA and former CEO of Charles Schwab Bank本文作者是中国信托商业美国(CT Bank USA)总裁兼首席执行官,曾任嘉信银Charles Schwab Bank)首席执行官来 /201504/367547。
分页 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29