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来源:城市分类    发布时间:2019年09月20日 05:49:54    编辑:admin         

As South Korea struggles to contain an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome that has infected close to 100 people, the country’s health care system has come under scrutiny. Experts have said that the MERS outbreak may have been fueled by a hospital system that encourages family members to take on nursing duties, reported Choe Sang-Hun, a New York Times correspondent based in Seoul.在韩国爆发的中东呼吸综合症已致近100人感染。在该国苦于遏制疫情之际,韩国的医疗系统受到了严格的检视。据时报驻首尔记者Choe Sang-Hun报道,专家称韩国的医疗系统鼓励家属承担护理病人的工作,或许助长了中东呼吸综合症的扩散。Responding on Facebook and in the comments section that accompanies the article, ers who either live or have spent time in South Korea shared their experiences of the hospitals there. Readers discussed how overcrowding and the obligations of relatives have affected them and their families. The responses have been edited and condensed for clarity.在Facebook和我们的文章板块中,居住在韩国或曾到访韩国的读者分享了他们在韩国医院中的经历。他们谈到了过度拥挤问题以及家属承担护理义务对他们和家人的影响。这些有些经过编辑,有些经过缩减,以便更加简洁明了。Twelve people and one sink十二个人一个水池I spent over three weeks in a hospital in Seoul, much of the time in a six-person room. Family members were indeed expected to perform many of the duties we would expect from nurses in the ed States. In fact every patient’s bed had a small brown cot underneath for a family member to sleep on. So in an average room at my hospital you could have up to 12 people sleeping in a room with one shared sink. It’s a crowd.我曾住在首尔的一家医院里,住了三个多星期,其中大部分时间在一个六人间里。病人家属被理所应当地认为应承担很多我们认为在美国护士会承担的工作。事实上,每个病人的病床下都附带一张供家属睡觉的棕色小床。在我住的这家医院,一间普通的病房里可能会睡着多达十二个人。水池只有一个,是共用的。的确很拥挤。— #48652;#47116;#46020;——#48652;#47116;#46020;Assistance from the maintenance man and Dad维修工和小孩爸爸的帮助My wife gave birth to our son in a hospital in South Korea. It was both charming and scary. After she got a C-section, she was transported to her room by the maintenance man (no mask, no scrubs, etc.). I was required to assist in moving her from the gurney to the bed. It wasn’t very graceful....我的妻子在首尔的一家医院生下了我们的孩子。这挺令人高兴,但也挺令人害怕的。在剖腹产后,她被维修工(没有面具,没有清洁等。)转移到自己的房间。我被要求帮忙把她从带有滑轮的运输床抬到她的病床上。这可不怎么优雅……— Steve Stimmel——斯蒂夫·斯提梅尔(Steve Stimmel)Lack of gloves, soap or paper towels缺手套、缺肥皂、缺纸巾I just spent three days in the hospital with my 10-month-old daughter. We paid for a double room so it was not overcrowded. However, I was responsible for all of my child’s care except for the administration of medicine via IV. This is typical. A family member is expected to stay with the patient to attend to all of his or her needs. Nurses do not do any of the personal care!我刚和十个月大的女儿在医院一起呆了三天。我们付的是双人间的钱,不太挤。不过,除了安排静脉注射的药品,照顾孩子的工作都是由我承担的。这很普遍。家属被认为应该陪在病人身边以满足他(她)所有的需要。护士不承担任何个人护理工作!None of the nurses or doctors ever wore gloves, ever. This includes the insertion of the IV and drawing blood. There was neither soap nor paper towels provided in the room’s bathroom. It was also not cleaned on a daily basis. In fact, I never saw it cleaned. I also didn’t see the nurses change the ear cover on the ear thermometer between patients. His illness was not severe, but I can see how the disease could easily sp here.没有一位护士或医生戴过手套,从来没有,包括静脉注射和抽血的时候。病房的卫生间里没有肥皂、没有纸巾,也没有人每天打扫。实际上,我从来见过卫生间干净过。我也没看到过护士更换病人交叉使用的耳温计上的耳套。虽然那个病人的病不严重,但我明白为什么疾病可以在这里轻易地传播了。— Amber Baila in Daegu, Korea——埃·拜拉(Amber Baila),韩国大邱Hygiene and overcrowding卫生不达标、过度拥挤Hygiene in hospitals in Korea is not what it should be. However, I think I can attribute this to overcrowding. I had a similar experience in a Chinese hospital, and when people are crowded, and you have to check nearly 200 patients a day, taking care of hygiene can be ignored due to exhaustion, etc.韩国医院的卫生水平不是它应该有的样子。不过,我觉得这和过度拥挤有关。我在中国的医院也有过类似的经历。在人员密集、每天需要察看近两百名病人的时候,注意环境卫生容易因为疲惫等等而被忽视。— Young Woo Kim——Young Woo KimNot enough personnel人手不足People go to the hospital even for very small things that can be handled by themselves. I am not saying typical cold or things as such, but just a discomfort makes you go and see the doctor. As a result, you don’t have enough personnel to handle all these patients and family members get involved. The problem here is that family members lack a sense of hygiene compared to those trained nurses. They break hospital regulations, and patients don’t abide by the rules.即便是患有可自行处理的一些小毛病,人们也会跑去医院。我不是在说典型性的感冒或者别的类似的毛病,而是仅仅有一丝不适人们就会跑去看医生。结果是,医院缺乏足够的人手应对全部的病人,家属只好参与其中了。问题是,和受过培训的护士相比,家属缺乏卫生意识。他们破坏医院的规章制度,病人也不遵守规定。— Young Woo Kim——Young Woo KimA referrals system is not unusual司空见惯的转院现象Getting referrals for admission into the bigger hospitals is neither a problem nor peculiarity for South Korea. Many developed countries adapt similar referrals system. In fact, the real problem would sit in the cultural background such as a lot of family members who are used to gathering to take care of or just visit the patients. They frequently and directly touch the patient without hand washing, and they return to their home via the mass transportation system.为了进入大医院而申请转院在韩国不成什么问题,也非常常见。许多发达国家采用了相似的转诊体系。实际上,真正的问题或许来自文化背景,例如家庭成员人数多,这些家属往往习惯了为照顾病人或仅仅是探望病人而聚集在一起。他们经常不洗手就直接接触病人,并搭乘大众交通工具回家。— Seok Joon Kwon——Seok Joon KwonMiserable work conditions护士糟糕的工作环境There are not enough trained nurses due to their miserable work conditions, payment that’s simply not enough to compensate that and also some social stereotype or atmosphere that regards nurses to be rather inferior than doctors. I heard in the ed States nurses are treated very differently, like real medical experts!护士的工作环境糟糕,收入也无法弥补这一点,而且社会上存在护士地位远比医生低的偏见和气氛,因为这些原因,受过训练的护士不足。我听说在美国,护士受到非常不同的待遇,他们像医学专家一样。— Hanbyul Kim——Hanbyul KimAffordable care for everyone人人负担得起基本医疗We in Korea have a great system that makes general care affordable for everyone, but it does mean there is some overcrowding and skimping on the attention that should be paid.在韩国,我们有一个很好的系统,因为它可以让每个人都负担得起基本的医疗务,不过这也的确意味着,存在过度拥挤和照顾不足的现象。Another thing is that the nurses in Korea don’t do much of the nurse work that you’d see in the ed States. When my grandfather had a stroke last year he was put in a single room with five other patients, and we had to bring in outside help to be at his bedside or else he would have been completely ignored.另一个是,在韩国,护士并不做很多你在美国看到的护士会做的事情。去年,我的祖父中风的时候,被与其他五名病人一起安排到一个单人间里,我们不得不从医院外部寻求帮助,带到他的床边,否则他就完全被无视了。— Seline Jung——Seline JungFast and reliable service快速、可靠I have had nothing but fast and reliable service from South Korean hospitals. I’d go so far as to say that their hospitals and clinics are generally much faster and more efficient at getting their patients to the correct specialist than many of their counterparts in the ed States.我在韩国的医院享受到的都是快速而可靠的务。我只能说,就把病人送到正确的专家那里而言,韩国的医院和诊所比美国的相应机构快捷而且有效率得多。— Andrew Robinson in Jeju-Do, South Korea——安德鲁·罗宾逊(Andrew Robinson),韩国济州岛Changes have been made已有改观The health care system here is excellent. In and out of the doctor’s office within 20 minutes with a bill under for consultation and prescription drugs. Even had orthopedic surgery with a four-day stay in the hospital here for 0. Not worried about MERS at the moment. Diseases sp in hospitals all the time. Nothing new. The difference here is that people were allowed to go home and move from place to place. But that’s not happening now.这里的医疗系统非常好。进出医生办公室的门也就20分钟,然后你就拥有了包含诊疗费和药费的账单,账单低于10美元。做一个整形手术并住院四天,在这里甚至也只要350美元。目前我还不担心中东呼吸综合症。疾病总是在医院里传播的。这并不新鲜。不同之处在于,人们过去被允许回家和在不同地方转来转去地就诊。现在不行了。— Michael Perez——迈克尔·佩雷斯(Michael Perez)A helpful landlord乐于助人的房东I spent two weeks in a hospital in South Korea. I had no family there so my landlord looked after me.我在一家韩国医院住过两周。我在韩国没有家属,是我的房东照顾了我。— Matthew Stroud——马修·斯特劳德(Matthew Stroud) /201506/380291。

Welcome to China#39;s bleak capsule hotels whereyoung travellers pay #163;7 a night to sleep in pods only just big enough to liedown.欢迎来到中国单调的胶囊旅馆,一晚上只要7英镑,但是只能容纳一个人躺下。China#39;sminute capsule hotels are gleaning popularity with young travellers due totheir very affordable price tags.中国微小的胶囊旅馆由于价格便宜正受到很多年轻游客的欢迎。The Space Capsule hotel, in Taiyuan, in the Shanxiprovince, is one of many to open up in China,after the trend for sleep pods began in Japan, decades ago.位于太原的空间胶囊酒店是在中国兴起的众多胶囊旅馆之一,而这种趋势在日本几十年前就出现了。Each of the pokey rooms measure a mere 4.3feet by 6.6 feet, but costs just under #163;7 (.59) per night to stay in, makingthem a tempting prospect for budget travellers and young people.每一个房间4.3x6.6英尺,但是每晚上只需要不到10.59美元,所以对于预算紧缺和年轻人来说是非常有吸引力的。The 5,200 square-foot building consists of86 fibreglass capsules in nine rooms, each named after star signs to reflectthe space theme.这个5200平方英尺的建筑包含了86个玻璃纤维的胶囊,分布在9个大房间里,每一个房间由星座来命名以反映各个房间的主题。Along with a simple bed, the rooms containa mirror, television, smoke detector, coat hook and fold-down computer desk.除了一张简单的床,里面还有镜子,电视,烟雾报警器,衣钩,以及可折叠的电脑桌。Each is also equipped with is a plugsocket, smoke detector and a fan.There#39;s a wireless network for those who wishto stay connected, and even a selection of soundproofed capsules reserved forpeople who snore.每个小房间里还有一个插座和风扇。还有无线网络,甚至还有隔音的小房间供那些会打鼾的人。According to Chinese newspaper, Xinhua, thehotel manager Xu Meijang was inspired to open the unusual business by thepopularity of sleep pod hotels in Japan and by the number ofgenerally young travellers requiring an affordable night#39;s stay in the area.据新华社报道,酒店经理许美静是受到日本那边豆荚旅馆以及一些年轻人要求能住到比较便宜的旅馆的启发后才开办了这些胶囊旅馆。 /201501/353035。

Last week Harris Wittels, the man who coined the phrase “humblebrag”, died at the unconscionable age of 30. In his memory I’ve been sifting through some of the finest examples of this specious genre — the boast that pretends not to be one — and have come up with two favourites.近日,“谦虚的自夸”(humblebrag)一词的创造者哈里斯#8226;维特尔斯(Harris Wittels)英年早逝,年仅30岁。为了纪念他,我把一些最符合这种表面上看不出来的自夸方式——假装不是自夸的自夸——的例子筛选了一番,并挑选出两个我最喜欢的例子。My second best is Stephen Fry’s tweet from 2013: “Oh dear. Don’t know what to do at the airport. Huge crowd, but I’ll miss my plane if I stop and do photos#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;oh dear don’t want to disappoint.”我挑选出的次佳例子是斯蒂芬#8226;弗莱(Stephen Fry)2013年发的一条推文:“噢天哪。我现在在在机场不知道该怎么办。粉丝太多了,但如果我停下来和他们合影的话,我会错过航班的……噢天啊,真不想让他们失望。”But my runaway first choice is from Oprah Winfrey. “OMG! Just had a SURPRISE date with Jackie Jackson. My teen idol heartthrob. Tried not to talk too much or eat too much. Succeeded at neither!”但我认为最佳例子毫无疑问来自奥普拉#8226;温弗里(Oprah Winfrey)。“噢我的天啊!刚和杰基#8226;杰克逊(Jackie Jackson)结束了一次意外约会。我年少时的梦中情人。我一直尽力让自己不要话太多或者暴露出吃货的一面。结果都没做到!”As Wittels put it: “Oprah, you don’t gotta brag. You’re Oprah.”正如维特尔斯所说:“奥普拉,你用不着自夸。你可是奥普拉啊。”However, there is another sort of boasting that needs exposing even more than the humblebrag as it is more widesp and more lethal. For want of a snappier name, I’m calling it the thirdpartybrag: when you pass on favourable remarks made about you by someone else.不过,还有另一种形式的自夸甚至应该比“谦虚的自夸”更需要被揭露,因为这种自夸更普遍且更具杀伤力。因为想不出更俏皮的名字,我就叫它“他夸”好了(thirdpartybrag):即传播别人对你的赞扬。The rampant popularity of this sort of bragging is for three reasons: it involves minimal queasiness as you don’t have to make the boast yourself; it sounds almost objective; and Twitter makes it a doddle. It is as easy as hitting the retweet button and, far from looking crass, it has the further beauty of seeming almost good manners, as a retweet is a self-serving sort of thank you.这种自夸方式之所以如此受欢迎,原因有三点:它所引起的反感度最小,因为你不需要自吹自擂;听起来差不多是客观的;Twitter使之实践起来易如反掌。这种自夸做起来十分简单,只要点击“转发”按钮,不仅看起来一点也不愚蠢,而且还几乎显得挺有礼貌,因为转发本身就是一种说“谢谢”的方式。A particularly prolific thirdpartybragger is the British scientist Richard Dawkins, who engages in the practice several times a day. During the time I have been writing these paragraphs he has failed to resist the urge to retweet the following from @jamiesaboyname: “Such an amazing experience last night, to be in the presence of two of the worlds most beautiful minds @RichardDawkins @LKrauss1”.英国科学家理查德#8226;道金斯(Richard Dawkins)是一位格外高产的“他夸”践行者,他每天都要实践数次。就在我写到这里时,他没能抵抗住这样做的冲动,转发了@jamiesaboyname的如下:“昨晚面对面见到了世上最具才智之人中的二位——理查德#8226;道金斯(@RichardDawkins)和@LKrauss1,真是令人难忘的经历”。Channelling Wittels, I want to shout: Richard Dawkins, you don’t gotta brag. You’re Richard Dawkins.借用维特尔斯的话,我想大喊道:理查德#8226;道金斯,你用不着自夸。你可是理查德#8226;道金斯啊。I have become so allergic to thirdpartybragging that I am unfollowing everyone who engages in it. So it is farewell Dawkins. It’s also farewell Jack Welch, who one might have thought didn’t gotta brag either. He recently retweeted the following from @SPPresents “@jack_welch Just wanted to say THANK YOU for selecting me to narrate your new book Real Life MBA. It’s well written, funny, and engaging!”我现在对“他夸”非常敏感,取关了所有这样自夸的人。所以,拜拜了道金斯,拜拜了杰克#8226;韦尔奇(Jack Welch)。韦尔奇也是一个人们或许会觉得没必要自夸的人。他最近转发了@SPPresents的如下:“杰克#8226;韦尔奇(@jack_welch),只是想说‘谢谢你’选择让我来朗读你的新书《现实生活中的MBA》(Real Life MBA)。这本书写得很好,既有趣又引人入胜。”Various colleagues have also been removed from my following list, though there are two who are getting a second chance. In one case, the thirdpartybragging was done by the man’s wife; the other retweeted comments about himself that were insulting rather than complimentary. Even though this is merely a thirdpartybrag with a bit of humblebrag thrown in, I’m forgiving him as the insult — that his column was “ludicrous bilge” — was quite funny.许多同事也被我从关注列表中移除了,不过我给了两个人第二次机会。其中一个人,他转的夸奖来自他的妻子;另一个人转发了的是批评,而非赞美自己的话。尽管这“批评”不过是掺杂着些许“谦虚自夸”意味的“他夸”,但我还是原谅了他,因为这条——把他的专栏称为“荒唐的废话”——很有意思。The popularity of thirdpartybragging raises the question: why do people demean themselves in this way? Partly it is because such retweeting administers a stroke to the ego.“他夸”的普遍流行引发了一个问题:人们为什么要这样降低自己的格调?部分原因是这种转发满足了自尊心。However, stroking egos is not what the internet is there for: it is what mothers are for instead. When mine was alive I would ring her up every time anyone said anything nice about me and hold forth at some length. From the other end of the phone would invariably come pleased noises.然而,要满足自尊心,我们不应找互联网,而应该找妈妈。我妈妈在世的时候,每次有人夸我时,我都会给她打电话详细转述。而电话那头的妈妈,必定会开心得大喊大叫。To follow someone on Twitter is not at all like being their mother. When the historian Simon Sebag Montefiore retweets “@SimonMontefiore J’lem one of the best books I’ve . Can’t wait for your next tome!” I don’t make pleased noises; I make vomit ones and hit unfollow.在Twitter上关注某人,决不是要表现地像他们的妈妈一样。当历史学家西蒙#8226;塞巴格#8226;蒙蒂菲奥里(Simon Sebag Montefiore)转发“西蒙#8226;蒙蒂菲奥里(@SimonMontefiore),《耶路撒冷》(Jerusalem)是我读过最棒的著作之一。等不及要看你下一部大作!”时,我没有开心得大喊大叫,而是大喊恶心,随后点击取关。A bigger reason for the thirdpartybrag is not to feed egos, but to flog books, talks and so on. But can something so blatant really work?“他夸”之所以流行,更主要的原因不在于满足自尊心,而是为了推销书籍、讲座等。但如此裸的推销真的能奏效吗?The depressing answer is that it seems to. Seth Godin, a marketing pundit, has just devoted an entire blog post to reproducing gush from a third party. I fear I am the only person who responded badly — 876 people liked the boast post so much they retweeted it.令人沮丧的是,是似乎真的可以。营销大师塞思#8226;戈丁(Seth Godin)不久前刚用一整篇文记录来自别人的恭维之词。恐怕我是唯一感到反感的人——有876人非常喜欢这篇自夸贴,以至于转发了它。Thirdpartybragging shows followers as brainless and perpetrators shameless. In the case of Mr Godin, who is both in marketing and from America — where there is a more robust attitude to boasting in general — it may make sense. But what about Mr Dawkins? Has thirdpartybragging damaged the scientist’s considerable brain?“他夸”显示出粉丝无脑,这种行为的实施者也没有节操。戈丁来自营销界和美国——总体来说对自吹自擂之风态度更为包容的地方,他搞这一套或许还说得通。但道金斯呢?“他夸”难道也损坏了这位科学家聪明的大脑吗?To find out last week I composed a tweet that went roughly: “Didn’t realise @richarddawkins invented the meme. He’s even more of a god than I thought he was.” I sat back and waited for him to retweet, but several days passed and nothing happened. I feel better about Mr Dawkins as a result. But now I am vaguely offended. Didn’t he like my message, or something?为了找出,不久前我发了一条推文,内容大致如下:“没想到是理查德#8226;道金斯(@richarddawkins)发明了“摹因”(meme)一词。他甚至比我之前认为的更牛。”接着我就往椅背上一靠,等待他转发,但很多天过去了,什么都没发生。因此,我对道金斯的看法有所好转。但现在我有了一种模糊的被冒犯的感觉。他是不喜欢我的还是怎么着? /201503/362170。

You introduce two of your good friends to each other in hopes that they, too, can become good friends. But when they start to bond in an unexpected way and hang out without you, might you regret introducing them to each other in the first place?你介绍自己的两个好友相互认识,希望他们也能成为好朋友。但有一天,你却发现他们的关系好到会忽略你单独,你会不会后悔当初介绍她们认识?Andrea Lavinthal, co-writer of the best-selling book Friend or Frenemy?: A Guide to the Friends You Need and the Ones You Don’t, told The New York Times in a recent interview: “Most girls won’t admit this, but they’d rather you hit on their significant other than their best friend.” Another writer of the book is Jessica Rozler.安德莉亚#8226;拉雯瑟和杰西卡#8226;罗丝勒合著的《朋友或友敌:如何找到你需要的朋友》一书极为畅销。近日,拉雯瑟在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示,“虽然很多女孩儿不愿承认这一点,但是她们宁可你认识她重要的朋友,也不愿把最好的朋友介绍给你认识。”Lavinthal said she once introduced two friends to each other over brunch. A few weeks later, she stumbled onto the two women having dinner together in a restaurant, and learned they’d been spending quite a bit of time together.拉雯瑟说,她曾在一次早午饭上介绍自己的两位好友认识,几周之后,她在一家餐馆撞见这两位闺蜜,才得知她们常常在一起(完全忽略了她)。“There they were in the restaurant, loving each other, probably talking about how I’m not funny enough or smart enough,” she said. “What do you say? Are you going to insist that whenever they hang out, you be there? That’s weird. Are you going to bring it up and be bereft? That’s an interaction so hard for girls.”拉雯瑟说,“她们一起在餐馆,相谈甚欢,也许还在一起说我如何无趣、不够聪明。如果是你,你会怎么做?坚持她们出来逛就要带上你?这要求也太奇葩了吧!或是任其发展,直到自己失去友谊?这些对于女孩儿来说实在太虐心了。”Feeling froggy跳背游戏:谁偷了我的朋友What Americans call “friend stealing” is “leapfrogging” in Britain. But perhaps there’s no need for us to make a fuss about being leapfrogged. Ronald Sharp is a professor of English at Vassar College, US, who co-edited The Norton Book of Friendship with Eudora Welty. Sharp said: “The anxiety about social poaching stems from an inappropriate or distorted view of what friendship is. It views friendship as a zero-sum game, or as an attempt to maximize your resources. It converts the natural generosity of friendship into a kind of investment.”对于“越过共同的朋友单独联系”这种情况,美国人称之为“偷朋友”,而英国人则叫它“跳背游戏”。不过,也许我们并不用对此太过小题大做。美国瓦萨学院的英语教授罗纳德#8226;沙普曾与尤多拉#8226;韦尔蒂合著了《友谊的诺顿之书》,沙普教授认为,“这种对于社交领域‘挖墙脚’的担忧其实是由于不恰当或扭曲的友谊观所致。它将友谊视为一种‘你死我活’的零和游戏,或企图通过友谊来最大程度丰富人脉。这些观念都让本身慷慨无私的友情变成了一种(自私的)投资。”Sharp added, “If you can’t trust your friend to have a relationship with another person you consider a friend, it’s a clear symptom of a problem in your friendships.”沙普教授还补充道,“如果你连介绍另一个人给自己的好友都不放心,显然你们的友谊存在问题。”So how do you deal with being leapfrogged? Sharp said: “Part of the burden is on the friendmaker to assure the insecure friend that everything is OK. But part of the burden should also be on the original friend not to be anxious about it.”那么,要如何应对“朋友跳过自己单独联系”的情况?沙普认为,“获得介绍、成为朋友的一方有责任安抚没有安全感的那个朋友。但另一方面,作为朋友们的介绍人,你也应该放宽心。”Take it easy and be patient. In Lavinthal’s case, patience paid off. She said of the two women whom she had introduced to each other: “They became better and better friends. It was weird for a while. But then somehow, organically, I got brought back into the fold. Their friendship cooled off a little bit, and we all found our way back.”别焦虑,要有耐心!从拉雯瑟的例子中就可以看出耐心的意义。她说:“看着那两个经自己介绍而认识的朋友关系日益亲密,自己确实有一段时间心里不舒,但是,渐渐地我又开始融入她们之中,随着她们友谊恢复平静,我们似乎又回到了从前的样子。”She added: “I feel like I’m the hot item again. They need me now. They need me to get back to the root of why they’re friends.”拉雯瑟还说,“我发现自己又成了‘香饽饽’,她们现在都需要我,因为我才是她们友谊的源头。” /201411/343909。

SOUTH PORTLAND, Me. — LIKE many parents, I have a particular book I like to give to friends when they announce they’re pregnant for the first time. It is the book I early in my wife’s pregnancy, blurting out passages about everything from birth, baby minding and child rearing to education, work and discipline. But you probably won’t find it in the baby section of your local bookstore. “The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings,” by David F. Lancy, is an academic title — but it’s possibly the only book that new parents will ever need.缅因州南波特兰——和很多父母一样,在有朋友宣布第一次怀的时候,我也有一本专门的书想送给他们。这本书是我在妻子怀初期看过的,将从出生、保育、抚养,到教育、工作和管教的一切议题,都和盘托出。但也许你在本地书店的育儿区找不到这本书。戴维·F·兰西(David F. Lancy)的《童年人类学:小天使、私产、调换儿》(The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings)是一本学术书——但它可能是初为父母的人唯一需要看的一本书。The book, which first appeared in 2008 and is about to be published in a second edition, is a far cry from “What to Expect When You’re Expecting.” Professor Lancy, who teaches at Utah State University, has pored over the anthropology literature to collect insights from a range of culture types, along with primate studies, history and his own fieldwork in seven countries. He’s not explicitly writing for parents. Yet through factoids and analysis, he demonstrates something that American parents desperately need to hear: Children are raised in all sorts of ways, and they all turn out just fine.这本2008年首版、即将再版的书,和《海蒂怀大百科》(What to Expect When You’re Expecting)是很不一样的东西。在犹他州立大学(Utah State University)任教的兰西教授查阅了大量的人类学文献,从各文化类型中寻找灼见,此外还参考了灵长目动物的研究、历史,以及他自己对七个国家的实地考察。他写这本书,并不是明确地面向父母,而是通过一些逸闻趣事和分析,验了一些美国父母迫切想听到的话:抚养孩子的方法多种多样,结果都挺好的。Children in Fiji, for example, are not allowed to address adults, or even make eye contact with them. In Gapun, an isolated village in Papua New Guinea, children are encouraged to hit dogs and chickens, and to raise knives at siblings. At 8 or 9 years old, boys among the Touareg, a nomadic people in North Africa, get a baby camel to care for. Try sitting on the couch with your partner and keeping these to yourself as you .比如斐济的孩子不能称呼大人,甚至不能跟他们对视。在巴布亚新几内亚的偏远村庄加庞(Gapun),孩子们被怂恿着去打和鸡,对着兄弟挥舞刀子。北非游牧民族图瓦雷克(Touareg)人会让8、9岁的男孩去照料一只幼年骆驼。当你坐在沙发上看这本书,看看你如何忍得住不把这些说给身边的另一半听。This is not “Ripley’s Believe It or Not,” anthropological trivia into the weird and wonderful ways of mankind. I took a larger point from all this — namely that humans have a tremendous capacity for living inside their culture and accepting those arrangements as natural, and finding other arrangements weird, unnatural, even abhorrent.它并非“信不信由你”(Ripley’s Believe It or Not)式的人类学趣事,专门收集人类一些古怪而奇妙的做法。它有着更宏大的视角——即人类在自己的文化中生活时,有着极强的适应力,可以自然地接受这些约定,而觉得其他的约定很奇怪、不自然,甚至可恶。When you’re a first-time parent, something perverse happens that makes you seem like a visitor to your own culture. In the first year of my son’s life, I found myself pondering things like baby rattles. Where do they come from? Why do we give rattles to babies? Are there cultures where babies don’t get rattles? (Indeed, there are.)初为父母的人会遇到一些不合常理的事,让你觉得对自己身处的文化很陌生。在儿子降生后的第一年里,婴儿摇铃之类的东西会引发我的深思。这些东西从哪冒出来的?为什么我们要给孩子铃铛?是不是有些文化是不给孩子铃铛的?(的确有。)At precisely the moment that I was worrying about my cultural performance of parenthood, I stumbled across mention of “The Anthropology of Childhood” on a blog and got a copy. I was immediately taken. The book does not render judgments, like other parenting books we know. “My goal is to offer a correction to the ethnocentric lens that sees children only as precious, innocent and preternaturally cute cherubs,” Professor Lancy writes. “I hope to uncover something close to the norm for children’s lives and those of their caretakers.”正当我忧心于我作为父母的文化表现如何时,我在一篇文上偶然看到《童年人类学》这本书,于是就买了一本。我立刻被吸引住了。这本书不像我们知道的其他育儿书,它没有发表论断。“我们把孩子视为宝贵、无邪、非比寻常的可爱小天使,我的目标就是对这种以自身文化为中心的看法做出纠正,”兰西教授写道。“我希望能为儿童的生活以及他们的监护者,找到一种接近常态的东西。”That norm is that children are expected to earn their keep, starting at a very early age (or they are tolerated as semi-supernatural forces, the “changelings” of the book’s title). Worldwide, there is little formal schooling; most knowledge is learned through play and imitation. Kids may spend more time overseen by older siblings than adults. Fathers have very little to do with their children. And adults in most cultures rarely, if ever, play with their children as extensively as we do with ours.这种常态就是,儿童应该在非常小的时候开始自食其力(否则他们就会被当成一种有些超自然力量来纵容,也就是书名中所说的“调换儿”)。放眼世界,正规的学校教育所占比重微不足道,多数知识都是通过玩耍和模仿习得的。孩子更多时候是他们的兄姊在照看,而不是大人。父亲几乎不管孩子。绝大多数文化中,成年人不像我们这样花大量时间跟孩子玩,甚至根本不玩。The first-time parent faces a bewildering array of commercial products and schools of parenting philosophies: attachment parenting, “Resources for Infant Educarers,” “Baby Wise,” the list rolls on. But “The Anthropology of Childhood” shows that neither the supermarket baby aisle nor our parenting ideologies are truly diverse. The real divide isn’t between people who co-sleep and those who don’t, or between those who use cloth diapers and those who use disposables. It is between what Professor Lancy, in lectures, has deemed “pick when ripe” cultures versus “pick when green” cultures.初为父母的人要面临扑面而来的各种商业产品和育儿哲学流派:亲密育儿法、婴幼儿资源中心(Resources for Infant Educarers)、《从零岁开始》(Baby Wise)等等。然而《童年人类学》让我们看到,无论是超市里琳琅满目的婴儿用品,还是我们的育儿思想,都谈不上真的有什么不同。真正的差别是有的人和孩子一起睡,有的人不是;有的用尿布,有的用纸尿裤。兰西教授在讲座中说,两者就是“成熟后再采摘”和“未成熟就采摘”的文化区别。In the “pick when ripe” culture, babies and toddlers are largely ignored by adults, and may not be named until they’re weaned. They undergo what he calls a “village curriculum”: running errands, delivering messages and doing small-scale versions of adult tasks. Only later are they “picked,” or fully recognized as individuals. In contrast, in “pick when green” cultures, including our own, it’s never too early to socialize babies or recognize their personhood.在“成熟后再采摘”的文化里,大人基本上对婴幼儿不理不睬,断奶前可能连个名字都没有。他们要经历一种他称为“乡村课程”的过程:跑跑腿、带个信,做一些小规模的成人事务。而后才会被“采摘”,也就是被完全被当作一个独立的个人。“未成熟就采摘”的文化则完全不同,包括我们也是这样,我们总是迫切地尽早让婴儿社会化,或承认他们作为人的身份。Professor Lancy calls the American way of doing pick when green a “neontocracy,” in which adults provide services to relatively few children who are considered priceless, even though they’re useless. One senses him rolling his eyes at modern American parents, impelled to get down on the floor to play Legos with their kids. But he admits that each culture evolves the child-rearing strategies it needs to reproduce itself, and he posits that pick when green is necessary in a complex society like ours. Whether it should be exported is another question.兰西教授将美国的未成熟采摘方式称为“幼者至上”(neontocracy)的文化,成年人为相对较少的儿童提供务,他们被视为无价之宝,尽管他们什么用也没有。有人感觉兰西是在藐视当代的美国家长,他们被迫坐在地上,跟孩子们玩乐高积木(Lego)。但他承认,每种文化都逐步形成了保持自我发展所需的育儿策略,他认为,“未成熟就采摘”在像我们这么复杂的社会中是必要的。而是否应该输出这种文化则是另一个问题。We take our cultural practices as a timeless given, but I was fascinated to the historical origin of our modern neontocracy: 17th-century Netherlands. Wealthy and urbanized, the Dutch middle class began treating their children as inherently valuable, not as future labor. Birthrates dropped because more children survived infancy; the pampered offspring could be trained at an early age. We can blame the political philosopher John Locke for our current child-rearing preoccupations. He carried Dutch ideas back to England in the 1680s, where Protestant radicals like the Puritans and Quakers picked them up. We, and our “godlike cherubs,” as Professor Lancy calls them, are their heirs.我们将我们的文化习惯当作一种与生俱来的东西,但我看到了当代“幼者至上”文化的历史渊源:17世纪的荷兰,这让我着迷。富裕、城市化的荷兰中产阶级开始把他们的孩子当作天生的瑰宝,而不是未来的劳工。由于越来越多的婴儿成功存活,出生率有所降低;娇生惯养的孩子可以在早期获得培养。我们可以说,导致我们现在如此专注于育儿的,是政治哲学家约翰·洛克(John Locke)。他认为荷兰人的想法源于17世纪80年代的英国,英国的清教徒和贵格会(Quaker)信徒等新教激进分子提出了这些想法。我们,以及兰西教授所说的“神一般的小天使”是他们的继承人。And I was glad for an ethnographic antidote to the ubiquity of developmental psychologists, whose advice often lacks a vital cultural perspective. Case in point: When my wife and I were sleeplessly losing our wits, we through advice books on infant sleep, none of which mentioned that sleeping for eight uninterrupted hours in a bed in separate rooms is a distinct cultural anomaly. For most cultures, sleep is social. Around the world, people sleep in groups; with animals; in briefer chunks of time; without coverings.有人从民族学的角度对无处不在的发育心理学家——他们的建议往往缺乏重要的文化视角——进行了修正,我对此感到高兴。案例分析:当极度缺觉的妻子和我已经无计可施时,我们通读了关于婴儿睡眠的各种建议书籍,其中没有哪一本曾提到,在单独的房间的床上连续不断地睡8小时是一种明显的文化特例。在大多数文化当中,睡眠都带有社会性。从世界范围来看,有人成群结队地睡觉,有人和动物一起睡,有人睡得时间比较短,还有的人睡觉不盖东西。Once we learned that ours is not the norm, we relaxed. The fact that our year-old son wasn’t sleeping the way we wanted him to didn’t mean he lacked something; it meant that he wasn’t developmentally y to be acculturated to our cultural model of sleep, not all at once.一旦我们认识到自己的做法并非常态,我们就放松了。我们一岁的儿子不像我们期望的那样一直熟睡,并不意味着他存在缺陷;这意味着他还没有发育到能适应我们文化中的睡眠模式的程度,而这并不能一蹴而就。Perhaps the most surprising thing about “The Anthropology of Childhood” was how it taught me to value things that, in a cross-cultural perspective, might suddenly seem arbitrary: how we approach hygiene, for example, or teach etiquette. As a parent, I realized, my job is to transmit my culture. It helps to think of your child as a stranger in a strange land, like a study-abroad student you are hosting long term and to whom you must, patiently and constantly, explain the land they’re visiting.对于《童年人类学》,最令人惊讶的事就是它教会我要从跨文化的视角出发,重视那些乍看可能有些随意的事情,例如我们如何对待卫生习惯或传授礼仪。我意识到,作为家长,我的工作就是传输我的文化。把孩子想象成来自异乡的陌生人,比如长期住在你家的留学生,而且你必须不断地耐心针对他们到来的这个地方,向这个学生做出解释,这样做能带来一定帮助。“In our culture, we don’t put our feet on the table,” I have heard myself say. “I suppose there are cultures where you can, but this isn’t one of them.”“在我们的文化中,我们不把脚搁在桌子上,”我听见自己说。“我想在有些文化当中,你可以这样做,但我们的文化不行。”Then we get on the floor and play Legos, which is what we do in our culture.然后,我们开始到地板上玩乐高(Lego)积木,我们的文化就是这么做的。 /201502/358188。

This Memorial Day Remember Our Fallen Heroes悼念日——缅怀我们的英雄Memorial Day, a Federal US holiday that is observed annually on the last Monday of May signifies differentthings to different people. For some it#39;s a reminder to firm up summer vacation plans, for others it#39;s an excuse to lounge around the pool with friends. What often gets forgotten is the real purpose of the holiday - to honor and remember the brave men and women of the ed States Armed Forces that sacrificed their lives to defend our right to freedom.悼念日是美国的国立节日,它于每年5月最后一个星期一开始,针对不同人群,有不同的意义。在民间,有些人把它看做是做夏季游玩计划的提醒,另一些人把它看做是泳池与朋友聚会的借口。但是该节日的真实纪念意义却常常被人们遗忘——缅怀美国军队中为了人民自由权利牺牲的男女将士。The holiday was first observed on May 30th, 1868 by General Logan. The National Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic believed it would be a good way to unite the country that was still reeling from the American Civil War waged between the Northern and Southern States from 1861-1865. He called it Decoration Day and celebrated it by visiting the Arlington National Cemetery and placing flowers on the graves of both Union and Confederate soldiers.该节日最初是在1868年的5月30日由Logen将军带领纪念的。这位共和大军司令认为,这是民众遭受美国内战(1861-1865)的重创之后,团结举国上下很好的形式。他起先称这一天为“装饰日”,在这天带领士兵们到阿灵顿公墓,在南北军的烈士墓前都献上了鲜花。It took a few years, but by 1890 all the Northern States began to observe Decoration Day. While the Southern States did not join in to celebrate this particular day, they did pick other days to honor their Civil War heroes. Following World War 1, the holiday was extended to honor all American soldiers that had sacrificed their lives for the country#39;s freedom. This change finally convinced the Southern States to join in. While the name ;Memorial Day; began to surface as early as 1882, it did not become popular until after World War II and was not declared official by Federal law, until 1967.1890年该节日才得到北方各州的认可。南方并不认同这一天,他们另择他日来纪念烈士们。直到一战后,阵亡将士纪念日逐渐演变为普遍纪念那些在战中死去的美国士兵而不仅是南北战中死去的士兵。这时,南方各州才肯承认这个节日。“纪念日”的名称首现于1882年,但到二战后才被普遍传开,1967年才被美国联邦法律官方定为次名称。Memorial Day was declared an official national holiday in 1971. To allow Americans to enjoy a three-day weekend, the date was moved from May 30th to the last Monday of May. This gave retailers a new opportunity to attract customers, leading to the tradition of Memorial Day Sales. 阵亡将士纪念日在1971年被定为国家节日,为了让国人都能享受三天的假期,该节日由原来的5月30日改到了5月最后一个星期一。这给零售商提供了吸引顾客的机会,由此也产生了“纪念日打折季”的传统。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201506/380445。